Presentation on theme: "OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH & SAFETY IN THE MUSIC INDUSTRY."— Presentation transcript:
OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH & SAFETY IN THE MUSIC INDUSTRY
Occupational Health & Safety (OH&S) Occupational Health and Safety (OH&S) issues are present in every workplace including workplaces that are related to the music industry. It is important that both employers and employees take all health and safety issues into consideration. Although, there are fewer threats to your health in the music industry than in something like the mining industry there are still many hazards that must be avoided. People who work in the music industry are prone to loud and prolonged noise, lifting heavy objects, inadequate lighting, electrical hazards and overuse or repetitive use injuries.
1. OH&S LEGISLATION There are three parts to the OH&S legislation: Occupational Health, Safety and Welfare Act This Act clarifies the duties of all workplace employers and employees in relation to the health, safety and welfare. It provides a framework that must be followed when making OH&S decisions. The main objectives of the Act are: –Protect the health, safety and welfare of people at work. –Eliminate risks to health and safety at their source. –Protect the public against risks that may be caused by people at work.
1. OH&S LEGISLATION Occupational Health, Safety and Welfare Regulations. The regulations set out the legal requirements for the management of health and safety risks and hazards in the workplace. Therefore, if there is a regulation it must be adhered to in the workplace. Regulations focus on: –Identifying the hazard in the workplace. –Assessing the risk of injury. –Implementing measures to control the risk.
1. OHS LEGISLATION Approved Codes of Practice, industry guidelines and Australian Standards. Codes of practice provide a guide for employers to assist them in complying with the Act and it's regulations. In Australia, the National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (NOHSC), defines the national standards for occupational health and safety in the workplace in a document titled National OHS Strategy
National priorities Work-related death, injury and disease are not inevitable but can be prevented. Five national priorities have been identified to bring about short and long-term OHS improvements, as well as longer- term cultural change. They are to: –reduce high incidence/severity risks; –develop the capacity of business operators and workers to manage OHS effectively; –prevent occupational disease more effectively; –eliminate hazards at the design stage; and –strengthen the capacity of government to influence OHS outcomes.
Employer responsibilities The employer has a duty of care to ensure that all employees, while at work, are safe from injury and/or risk to their health. An employer must: –Maintain a safe work environment. –Encourage safe working practices. –Provide and maintain safe work equipment. –Provide OH&S information and training to employees.
Employee responsibilities It is also the responsibility of the employee to ensure a safe working environment. An employee must: –Protect their own health and safety. –Not endanger others through their actions or lack of action. –Use any safety equipment that is provided. –Follow OH&S instructions given by the employer (or supervisor). –Not come to work under the influence of drugs and/or alcohol. –Report any work place health and safety hazards as they arise.
OH&S at KWRSC Does the school have an OH&S committee? If so, who are the representatives on the committee? Are the OH&S policies and procedures made available to students and staff? If a student or staff member has an OH&S issue that they wish to have addressed, who do they need to inform? Does the school have emergency evacuation procedures? If so, are emergency evacuation drills conducted regularly?
2. ASSESSING RISKS Occupational Health and Safety regulations require employers to identify hazards, assess the risk and then control that risk. Hazard identification involves recognising the things that may cause injury or harm to the health of a person and there are a number of ways that you can identify potential sources of injury or disease. Methods of identifying workplace hazards include: –Developing a workplace hazard checklist. –Conducting a walk-through survey of the workplace. –Analysing unsafe incidents and accidents data. –Consulting with employees. –Seeking advice from workplace OH&S specialists.
Identifying hazards Scenario: You are going to do a gig in a Hall. You are going to use a workplace hazard checklist and conduct a walk-through survey of the hall. During the inspection you will complete the checklist that will identify any potential hazards and anything else that has to be rectified to bring the hall up to standard that complies with OH&S regulations.
Workplace inspection Inspect the Hall and complete the General Workplace Safety Inspection Checklist.Inspect the Hall
Rectifying the issues From your inspection you identified that there were no fire extinguishers in the building. The fire extinguisher signs were there (a triangular sign on the ceiling), indicating where the fire extinguishers should be placed but no actual fire extinguishers. Describe the risk associated with this potential hazard? How will you control the risk?
Rectifying the issues The other issue that was identified in the walk- through was the lack of a First Aid kit. –What is the risk associated with the lack of First Aid kits? How will you control the risk? –How many First Aid kits do you think are required at the hall? Where do you think the First Aid kit(s) should be located? Briefly explain why? –What type of items should be stored in a First Aid kit for this type of venue? List at least 10 items.
Task Describe a potential hazard in a school venue such as the music building or hall. Comment on why the hazard poses a risk and how you think it should be controlled.
3. FIRE There are different types of extinguishers for different types of fires. Each extinguisher will be identified by a triangular marker, usually attached to the wall or roof showing where it is. Immediately above the extinguisher will be a second sign indicating the type of fire it is designed to extinguish. Take a look at the examples below. You should use a CO2 fire extinguisher to put out electrical fires. Wet chemical fire extinguishers are used to put out animal fat and vegetable oil fires. Water fire extinguishers should never be used to put out electrical fires. Foam fire extinguishers are used to put out oil and liquid fires. You can use a dry chemical fire extinguisher to put out an electrical fire.
Fire hoses and blankets Fire hoses are another common piece of fire fighting equipment. Fire hoses are only connected to water mains so they should not be used on electrical, oil or flammable liquid fires. Hoses should be replaced after use and any damage to hoses must be reported and dealt with promptly. Fire blankets may also be used at a venue. They can be used to smother (remove the oxygen element), and thus extinguish, small fires such as those in an office waste paper basket or burning clothing.
4. MANUAL HANDLING In the music industry you are frequently using very heavy equipment. Safe manual handling techniques are important to avoid injuring yourself when moving this equipment. Check out the following list of manual handling injuries. injuries What are three activities in the music industry that involve manual handling?
Safe manual handling Warm up Just as you'd warm up before taking part in sports or exercise, you need to warm up before you handle a heavy load. Check the load Have a good look at the load. Check for: areas where you can get a firm grip on the load the overall size and shape of the load the weight of the load - you should only try and manually handle loads that are less than 20 kilograms. Loads more than 20 kilograms should not be manually lifted. You should use equipment such as a fork lift to move these loads. Move yourself into position Get close to the load and put yourself in the best position to handle the load. Your feet should be slightly apart so that you have a balanced and stable base for lifting.
Safe manual handling Relax your knees Lower your body and bend your knee Lower your head Get a firm grip Raise your head and look ahead Straighten your legs Lift, then turn your feet before walking
Carrying Carrying heavy objects, such as speakers, can put a strain on your back, arms, shoulders and knees, because your body is struggling to support the size and weight of the object. If the equipment (eg a speaker) comes with a handle make sure that you use the handle to get a firm grip. Stand beside the speaker and bend your knees to lower your body. Firmly grip the handle and then lift. Carry the equipment close to your body. Carrying the load away from your body puts a lot of strain on your back and shoulders.
5. USING ELECTRICITY SAFELY Every year, many people are killed or injured by electrical hazards at work. Fires that are caused by electrical faults also destroy many workplaces and cause thousands (or even millions) of dollars damage. By being able to identify and control electrical hazards, you can help prevent injury and loss through electrocution or electrical faults.
Simple rules with electricity Water + Electricity = Danger! Replace worn leads and faulty equipment Don't tamper with fuses Never overload power points Turn power off when working with wiring Keep electrical cords taped down
Water + Electricity Water is an excellent conductor of electricity; even a thin layer of water can conduct electricity very well. To avoid getting zapped, you should: Never place drinks or water on or near your electrical equipment. Wet equipment can electrocute you. Never use electrical equipment with wet hands. Never let power cords or extension leads get into or near water! Someone stepping into the puddle could get electrocuted.
Replace worn leads and faulty equipment Old electrical appliances and pieces of equipment can get worn and faulty. They then become electrical hazards. You should always check your equipment for electrical faults or worn leads before using them. If wiring is exposed, if the equipment casing is cracked or broken, or if the insulating material around the wire has worn away, then you need to: remove the piece of equipment off stage label it as 'faulty' and 'do not operate' report the faulty item to the right people get the item or worn cords fixed by professionals. You should never try and fix cords that are worn down or frayed by wrapping them up with sticky tape or masking tape.
Don't tamper with fuses Fuses protect against electrical overload that can cause people using electrical equipment to get electrocuted. When an electrical overload occurs, the fuses melt and break the flow of electricity to the tool or piece of equipment. Because of this, you should: never tamper with fuses always replace melted or blown fuses immediately.
Never overload power points Always check out the number of power points that a venue has, as some do not have enough power points for the number of pieces of equipment that require electrical power. In these cases, you can use double adaptors to overcome this problem. A double adaptor lets you plug two devices into the same power point. Sometimes, people will 'piggyback' a double adaptor on another to let them plug three pieces of equipment into the one power point. This is overloading the power point and can lead to electrical faults, electrocution and even fire. Never piggyback adaptors.
Never overload power points If you need extra power points, use a power board instead. Most power boards come with a surge protector that can prevent electrical surges from damaging appliances or injuring workers using these appliances. Never interfere with plugs to try and make them fit into sockets for which they are not designed.
Turn power off and tape leads down When wiring up your sound gear (eg a PA system) make sure that the power is turned of to all pieces of equipment, before you start connecting each component. Power cords and extension leads that are in the way can cause workplace accidents. People might run into them or trip over them as they're walking through. If you need to use extension leads, make sure you run them along walls or corners, or, better yet, behind objects so that there is no risk of anyone accidentally tripping over them.
6. NOISE People working in the music industry are often exposed to loud music and noise. Hearing protection is an important OH&S issue.
6. NOISE Sound and noise levels are measured in decibels (dB). Just like distance is measured in kilometres, sound is measured in decibels. Sound and noise create sound pressure levels (SPL). When we talk about decibels in a live environment we're usually referring to the measurement of these sound pressure levels. This means the measurement of volume within a specific area. The chart on the following slide shows a range of common sounds and what they rate on the decibel scale.
Noise Research has shown that if a sound level exceeds 85 dB (for a prolonged period of time), hearing loss may occur. Have you ever gone to a concert or hotel to listen to your favourite band and, when you arrived home you noticed a high-pitched ringing in your ears? What you were hearing was a condition called 'Tinnitus'. This condition is the result of being exposed to loud music for an extended period of time. It usually disappears after two hours.
Hearing damage In severe cases, if you are constantly exposed to high decibel levels, this condition can become permanent. The graph below indicates the time that you can listen to different decibel levels before hearing damage will occur.
Hearing protection If you are exposed to sound (which measures more than 85 dB), for long periods of time, you should always wear some form of hearing protection. There are a number of different things you can do to protect your hearing. 1. Always wear hearing protection. 2. Don't stand too close to speakers or the noise source. 3. Don't listen to loud music/sound for a prolonged period of time (without hearing protection or without taking a break). 4. Try to reduce sound levels by lowering the volume or soundproofing the area.