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Theories and Practices of Development an historical overview.

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1 Theories and Practices of Development an historical overview

2 1950’s  WWII: Bretton Woods Instititutions Marshall Plan for Europe GATT World Bank IMF  Massive decolonization after WWII  Rostow: “Developmentalism”: “Progress” and Modernization  Cold war ramps up Development becomes a pawn in geopolitics Non aligned movement coins term: “Third World”

3 1950’s: Development replaces colonialism  Rostow:  Modern- ization Theory

4 1960’s: critiques of development emerge as de-colonization finishes: HISTORICAL CONTEXT?  Dependency Theory: Andre Gunder Frank: “the development of underdevelopment” POWER  World System Theory (1970’s): Wallerstein and Amin Amin: economic surplus flows to core/reinforced by political power W. added semi-periphery

5 1970’s: Lots of movement in the development sphere  “Women in Development” WID  Economic boom-  World financial crisis  Petrodollars, inflation  Debt Crisis in Third World  Late 1970’s “Basic Needs” (Anti Poverty) approach from non-aligned movement

6 1980’s  1980’s: “Structural Adjustment” & the lost decade IMF response to Debt Crisis Re-emergence of neoliberalism/Free Trade Reagan/Thatcher Green Revolution Rural-Urban Migration IMF riots Berlin Wall falls  End of Cold War

7 1980’s: Post structural/ postmodern critiques of dev  “Politics of representation” /Discourses of dev. Econocentrism, “trickle down,”  Thinking about “alternatives to development” Heritage: Gandhi and colonialism  Postcolonial voices in south: “subaltern studies” Third world women: “Alternatives to Development”  Grassroots movements/practices Environmental movements (Chipko in India) v. “scientific forestry” Urban networks/self provisioning

8 Sustainable Development  Brundtland Commission (1987)“Our Common Future”  Definition:  1992: “Earth Summit”or “Rio Conference” UN Conference on Environment and Development West meets South Agenda 21  Critiques of SD cooptation of the term “sustainable” “Ecological imperialism”

9 1990’s: End of the Cold War/ Emergence of Globalization  Globalization: Interconnectedness David Harvey (1989): “Condition of Postmodernity” Geographies of Distance  Friction of Distance  Action at a Distance  Time Space Compression and Convergence: “neoliberal”/“liberalization”/market dominance State/Market/Civil Society: “hollowing out of the state?” Institutions:Role of the State and NGOs in Development

10 Recent development events/ discourses/ideas  Events Population and Migration (Cairo Conference 1994) 4 th World Conference on Women (Beijing 1995) Anti globalization (Anti World Bank) movements

11 World Bank: Sea change in 2001  Inequality and Pro-Poor development  Joseph Stiglitz Chief Economist at World Bank Nobel Prize in Economic 2001 Quote  Jeffrey Sachs Former Harvard Economist Chief architect of “shock therapy” in former Eastern European countries Now Earth Institute

12 Joseph Stiglitz: (2001)  "I believe very strongly that economics can make a very large difference...for the better in the world," His recent focus, he pointed out, has been on "the disparity between the haves and the have-nots," particularly on the plight of the world's poorest people. He made clear his intention to pursue those concerns vigorously. "Much of our global economic system is characterized by a lot of inequities," he said. "The global trading regime is one which has been devised mostly by the [industrialized] North for the benefit of the North. It seems to me that one of the very important elements in the agenda going forward has to be to try to redress those inequities." Interview conducted after receiving Nobel prize in economics. ( Reported in Senser, R. A. 2001. “Nobel sentiment : Joseph Stiglitz and the Washington Consensus.” Commonweal. Dec. 7, 2001).

13 Recent development events/ discourses/ideas  New discourses and ideas about development Economic justice Debt Relief, Inequality: HIPC Initiative “Livelihoods Strategies” “Capabilities” Amartya Sen “Social Capital”: the development darling Social support networks Transnational networks ICT4D/Knowledge societies

14 Recent development issues  HIV/AIDS  Terrorism, conflict and development  Governance Participation Global Instititutions of governance  Human rights  Definitions of Poverty

15 Poverty  Definitions of poverty “Voices of the Poor” “Voices of the Poor” websiteVoices of the Poor” 23 countries, 200 communities, 20,000 poor people

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