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An Emerging Visible Minority: Muslim American Women Post 9/11 Dalal Katsiaficas New York University Dalal Katsiaficas New York University.

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Presentation on theme: "An Emerging Visible Minority: Muslim American Women Post 9/11 Dalal Katsiaficas New York University Dalal Katsiaficas New York University."— Presentation transcript:

1 An Emerging Visible Minority: Muslim American Women Post 9/11 Dalal Katsiaficas New York University Dalal Katsiaficas New York University

2 Acknowledgements  Dr. Selçuk R. Şirin  Mixed-Methods Research Team  The 2006 Dean’s Grant for Undergraduate Research  Dr. Gigliana Melzi and Prof. Adina Schick  Dr. Selçuk R. Şirin  Mixed-Methods Research Team  The 2006 Dean’s Grant for Undergraduate Research  Dr. Gigliana Melzi and Prof. Adina Schick

3 Emerging Visible Minority  Hate crimes targeting Muslim Americans increased 17- fold in the year following the 9/11 attacks (FBI, 2002).  Outward symbols of religiosity of the Muslim faith may include women covering their head and hair (“hijab”), and wearing traditional dress (USDOJ, 2006).  Such symbols of religiosity may be used to identify Muslim Americans as targets for discrimination (USDOJ, 2006).  Hate crimes targeting Muslim Americans increased 17- fold in the year following the 9/11 attacks (FBI, 2002).  Outward symbols of religiosity of the Muslim faith may include women covering their head and hair (“hijab”), and wearing traditional dress (USDOJ, 2006).  Such symbols of religiosity may be used to identify Muslim Americans as targets for discrimination (USDOJ, 2006).

4 Discrimination and Self-Esteem  Adhering to the norms of a religious Muslim identity is key to negotiating the challenges of living with “conflicting cultural norms” and in an overall “diasporic setting” (Zine, 2001).  In other minority groups, perceived discrimination correlates negatively with self-esteem (Branscombe & Ellemers, 1998; Green, Way & Pahl, 2006; Moradi & Hassan, 2004).  A sense of control fully mediates the link between perceived discrimination and self-esteem (Branscombe & Ellemers, 1998; Moradi & Hassan, 2004).  Adhering to the norms of a religious Muslim identity is key to negotiating the challenges of living with “conflicting cultural norms” and in an overall “diasporic setting” (Zine, 2001).  In other minority groups, perceived discrimination correlates negatively with self-esteem (Branscombe & Ellemers, 1998; Green, Way & Pahl, 2006; Moradi & Hassan, 2004).  A sense of control fully mediates the link between perceived discrimination and self-esteem (Branscombe & Ellemers, 1998; Moradi & Hassan, 2004).

5 Rationale  Extant research has shown negative effects of discrimination on self-esteem (Branscombe & Ellemers, 1998; Green, Way & Pahl, 2006; Moradi & Hassan, 2004).  Like other visible minorities, Muslim Americans, as well as other individuals who visually resembled them (e.g., Sikhs), were targeted for a backlash of discriminatory attacks because of their appearance (USDOJ, 2001; SALDEF, 2006).  No studies addressing the effects of discrimination for Muslim Americans.  Extant research has shown negative effects of discrimination on self-esteem (Branscombe & Ellemers, 1998; Green, Way & Pahl, 2006; Moradi & Hassan, 2004).  Like other visible minorities, Muslim Americans, as well as other individuals who visually resembled them (e.g., Sikhs), were targeted for a backlash of discriminatory attacks because of their appearance (USDOJ, 2001; SALDEF, 2006).  No studies addressing the effects of discrimination for Muslim Americans.

6 Research Questions  1. What are the effects of outward displays of religiosity on perceived discrimination?  2. What are the effects of perceived discrimination on self-esteem?  3. What are the effects of outward displays of religiosity on self-esteem?  1. What are the effects of outward displays of religiosity on perceived discrimination?  2. What are the effects of perceived discrimination on self-esteem?  3. What are the effects of outward displays of religiosity on self-esteem?

7 Conceptual Model Outward Displays of Religiosity Perceived Discrimination Self-Esteem

8 Data Sources  Data were taken from a larger study (N = 120) looking at Muslim American college students (PI: Sirin).  Surveys were administered individually and participants were compensated with gift certificates.  Data were taken from a larger study (N = 120) looking at Muslim American college students (PI: Sirin).  Surveys were administered individually and participants were compensated with gift certificates.

9 Measures  Outward Displays of Religiosity  Demographic Questionnaire  Self-Esteem  Developmental Assets Profile (Search Institute, 2004)  Perceived Discrimination  Assessed experiences in the past 12 months in 5 different settings  Modified version of Krieger and Sidney’s (1996) checklist  Outward Displays of Religiosity  Demographic Questionnaire  Self-Esteem  Developmental Assets Profile (Search Institute, 2004)  Perceived Discrimination  Assessed experiences in the past 12 months in 5 different settings  Modified version of Krieger and Sidney’s (1996) checklist

10 Participant Demographics  66 Muslim American women  Age  Ethnic Breakdown  27% Arabs  35% Pakistani  38% Other  Traditional Dress  45.5% Do not wear  54.5% Wear  66 Muslim American women  Age  Ethnic Breakdown  27% Arabs  35% Pakistani  38% Other  Traditional Dress  45.5% Do not wear  54.5% Wear

11 Descriptive Statistics  76% of sample experienced discrimination at least once during the previous year in one of five settings (M = 1.11, SD = 1.01).  Traditional Dress (M = 1.49, SD = 1.12)  Not Traditional Dress (M = 0.65, SD = 0.58)  Women who wear traditional dress experienced significantly higher amounts of discrimination.  While shopping (X (4) = 10.12, p <.05)  On the street (X (4) = 19.44, p <.001)  In public places (X (4) = 13.31, p <.01)  76% of sample experienced discrimination at least once during the previous year in one of five settings (M = 1.11, SD = 1.01).  Traditional Dress (M = 1.49, SD = 1.12)  Not Traditional Dress (M = 0.65, SD = 0.58)  Women who wear traditional dress experienced significantly higher amounts of discrimination.  While shopping (X (4) = 10.12, p <.05)  On the street (X (4) = 19.44, p <.001)  In public places (X (4) = 13.31, p <.01)

12 Mediation Model  Mediation is established when (Baron & Kenny, 1986):  1) the independent variable significantly predicts the dependent variable;  2) the independent variable significantly predicts the mediator variable;  3) the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable is diminished when the mediator variable is controlled for (entered simultaneously in the regression equation).  Mediation is established when (Baron & Kenny, 1986):  1) the independent variable significantly predicts the dependent variable;  2) the independent variable significantly predicts the mediator variable;  3) the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable is diminished when the mediator variable is controlled for (entered simultaneously in the regression equation).

13 Results  Religious dress significantly predicted perceived discrimination (Standardized Beta =.42).  Perceived discrimination significantly predicted higher self- esteem (Standardized Beta =.34).  Religious dress significantly predicted higher self-esteem (Standardized Beta =.27).  When religious dress and perceived discrimination are combined they predicted higher self-esteem (Standardized Beta =.15).  Perceived discrimination partially mediates the relationship between outward displays of religiosity and self-esteem.  Religious dress significantly predicted perceived discrimination (Standardized Beta =.42).  Perceived discrimination significantly predicted higher self- esteem (Standardized Beta =.34).  Religious dress significantly predicted higher self-esteem (Standardized Beta =.27).  When religious dress and perceived discrimination are combined they predicted higher self-esteem (Standardized Beta =.15).  Perceived discrimination partially mediates the relationship between outward displays of religiosity and self-esteem.

14 Perceived Discrimination as a Mediator Outward Displays of Religiosity Perceived Discrimination Self-Esteem

15 Summary of Results  Traditionally dressed Muslim American women perceived more discrimination and were targeted as a visible minority.  Religious dress increased self-esteem, but it was because of the discrimination they experienced.  For Muslim American women, the faith for which they are discriminated against leads to a higher sense of self- esteem.  Traditionally dressed Muslim American women perceived more discrimination and were targeted as a visible minority.  Religious dress increased self-esteem, but it was because of the discrimination they experienced.  For Muslim American women, the faith for which they are discriminated against leads to a higher sense of self- esteem.

16 Conclusions  The combination of religious dress and perceived discrimination counter intuitively predicted higher self- esteem.  Being discriminated against because of their faith as opposed to their race may be a significant difference from other minority populations.  A sense of control over their outward appearance might mediate the relationship between discrimination and self- esteem.  Arab and South Asian populations have a cultural tradition of insulating in times of adversity.  Most importantly, these results show the uniqueness of this population in their ability to transform discrimination into a positive mental health outcome.  The combination of religious dress and perceived discrimination counter intuitively predicted higher self- esteem.  Being discriminated against because of their faith as opposed to their race may be a significant difference from other minority populations.  A sense of control over their outward appearance might mediate the relationship between discrimination and self- esteem.  Arab and South Asian populations have a cultural tradition of insulating in times of adversity.  Most importantly, these results show the uniqueness of this population in their ability to transform discrimination into a positive mental health outcome.

17 Thank you. Questions?


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