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15.1 SELECTIVE BREEDING (Hybridization vs. Inbreeding; biotechnology) 15.1 SELECTIVE BREEDING (Hybridization vs. Inbreeding; biotechnology)

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Presentation on theme: "15.1 SELECTIVE BREEDING (Hybridization vs. Inbreeding; biotechnology) 15.1 SELECTIVE BREEDING (Hybridization vs. Inbreeding; biotechnology)"— Presentation transcript:

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2 15.1 SELECTIVE BREEDING (Hybridization vs. Inbreeding; biotechnology) 15.1 SELECTIVE BREEDING (Hybridization vs. Inbreeding; biotechnology)

3 Hunters in the 1800s needed a hunting dog that was big, strong, fast, and aggressive However, no dog like this existed at that time They knew of two species of dogs, each with some of the desired qualities Can they somehow combine the two into one?

4 Big and strong, but lacked speed and aggression Fast and aggressive, but lacked strength Big, strong, fast, and aggressive

5 Why use selective breeding? Humans use selective breeding, which takes advantage of naturally occurring genetic variation, to pass wanted traits on to the next generation of organisms What ways can humans selectively breed plants or animals?

6 2 Types of Selective Breeding Hybridization Crossing dissimilar individuals to bring together the best of both worlds American botanist Luther Burbank selectively bred 800 plants, called varieties Many varieties can be found in your supermarket! Bred for size, disease resistance, flowering, taste, color and a variety of other reasons based on preference Inbreeding Crossing breeds of individuals with similar characteristics Maintains traits of that breed (purebreds) Risky – increases chance for mutation since individuals are very genetically similar to each other

7 Hybridization Hybridization occurs in both plants and animals Creating hybrid plants is different than creating hybrid animals Animals can be sterile if their chromosome number is odd, or if there are too many mutations that occur when they breed naturally (rarely occurs in the wild) Plants can be bred easily by gardeners or botanists Many crops today are hybrids (can sometimes occur naturally in the wild)

8 Genetically-Engineered Hybrid Plants You have probably eaten many GE plants without realizing it. Examples include: Seedless grapes/ watermelons Bananas, which commonly have polyploidy (extra sets of chromosomes – stronger, bigger) Corn – modern corn was selectively bred from teosinte at least 6,000 years ago

9 Can you guess these hybrid fruits? Limequats –Lime x Kumquat Tangelo –Tangerine x Pomelo

10 Hybridization Hybridized animals are called hybrids Can you identify these hybrids?

11 WEBSITE: List of Hybrid Dogs (Designer Dogs) (Boutique Dogs) The word hybrid, when referring to genetics means, the offspring of genetically dissimilar parents or stock, especially the offspring produced by breeding plants or animals of different varieties, species, or races. In general, the word means, something of mixed origin or composition. Hybrid dogs, or designer dogs as some call them, are becoming quite popular. Below is a list of the most popular hybrid dogs. The best way to determine the traits of a mixed breed is to look up all breeds in the cross and know you can get any combination of any of the characteristics found in all breeds. The Dog Breed Info Center® does not attempt to interpret the temperaments of each individual hybrid mix because the differences in the dogs, even within the same litter, can vary greatly. If you do not feel the temperament of one of the purebreds in the mix is suited for your lifestyle, then that hybrid dog is not for you. Do not take a gamble that the puppy or dog will turn out like the other breed in the mix. Choosing a dog simply for its looks is a foolish way to choose a dog. Read the article on Designer Dogs for more info on these mixed breeds.Designer Dogs Please Note: A hybrid dog is not a BREED; it is a hybrid, which means it is a mix of more than one purebred dog. Scientifically speaking, the term "hybrid is incorrect as all dogs are a sub-species of wolf (Canis lupus familiaris) and as such, it is impossible to have a hybrid as they are two of the same species. Although technically incorrect, the term "hybrid" is the name which is predominantly used for these mixes and therefore it is the name we will also use when referring to them.

12 Designer Doggies Aussiedoodle Australian shepherd x Poodle Cavapoo Cavalier King Charles x Poodle Cheagle Chihuahua x Beagle

13 WEBSITE: List of Hybrid Dogs (Designer Dogs) (Boutique Dogs) The word hybrid, when referring to genetics means, the offspring of genetically dissimilar parents or stock, especially the offspring produced by breeding plants or animals of different varieties, species, or races. In general, the word means, something of mixed origin or composition. Hybrid dogs, or designer dogs as some call them, are becoming quite popular. Below is a list of the most popular hybrid dogs. The best way to determine the traits of a mixed breed is to look up all breeds in the cross and know you can get any combination of any of the characteristics found in all breeds. The Dog Breed Info Center® does not attempt to interpret the temperaments of each individual hybrid mix because the differences in the dogs, even within the same litter, can vary greatly. If you do not feel the temperament of one of the purebreds in the mix is suited for your lifestyle, then that hybrid dog is not for you. Do not take a gamble that the puppy or dog will turn out like the other breed in the mix. Choosing a dog simply for its looks is a foolish way to choose a dog. Read the article on Designer Dogs for more info on these mixed breeds.Designer Dogs Please Note: A hybrid dog is not a BREED; it is a hybrid, which means it is a mix of more than one purebred dog. Scientifically speaking, the term "hybrid is incorrect as all dogs are a sub-species of wolf (Canis lupus familiaris) and as such, it is impossible to have a hybrid as they are two of the same species. Although technically incorrect, the term "hybrid" is the name which is predominantly used for these mixes and therefore it is the name we will also use when referring to them.

14 Inbreeding Inbreeding uses two genetically similar organisms, each being the best of the best Dog breeds are maintained by inbreeding Characteristics that are unique to each breed are preserved Very prevalent in cattle farming – gives farmers the best possible livestock Also can be very dangerous if two individuals have an underlying mutation

15 Biotechnology Biotechnology - when scientists purposely change the genetic makeup of an organism (Ex: introduce a mutation) Used in agriculture and medicine Bacterial mutations A strain of bacteria has been developed that can digest oil to help clean oil spills Scientists are trying to produce bacteria to clean up radioactive waste

16 Combining DNA Fragments Since DNA is a universal code, it can be combined from 2 or more sources Changes the genetic composition of the living organism This is called recombinant DNA Can also be used to make proteins like human insulin, hepatitis B vaccine, and a clotting factor for hemophilia patients

17 Transgenic Organisms Scientists find specific genes and can add them to any organism Organisms with genes from other species are called transgenic organisms Ex: Red Fluorescent Protein (RFP) in cats Cat with the GFP is red under UV light, while a normal cat glows green How did they do that…? YVdLJ78RBWk

18 Cloning A clone is a member of a population of genetically identical cells produced from a single cell

19 Genetic Modification If youve eaten corn, potatoes, or soy products this week, chances are youve eaten genetically modified (GM) food – it doesnt have to be recorded on food labels! Many plants are genetically modified Resistance to insects, herbicides (weed killer), and viral infections Resistance to rot or spoilage

20 Genetically Modified Animals 30% of milk in US comes from cows injected with hormones to increase milk production Pigs – produce more lean meat or high levels of healthy omega-3 acids Salmon – faster growth to produce more fish Scientists in Canada combined spider genes into lactating goats – produced silk along with their milk. Silk was extracted and used to make military uniforms, medical sutures, and tennis racket strings

21 Genetic Modification Good or Bad? Ideally, GM plants and animals could lead to better, less expensive, and more nutritious food as well as less-harmful manufacturing processes Farmers and ranchers hope cloning will allow them to duplicate prize animals, providing better quality and more food to a rising population

22 Recombinant DNA & Human Health Scientists can develop recombinant DNA to produce human antibodies to fight disease Can also make proteins engineered in transgenic sheep and pigs milk to be used in disease prevention Can treat diseases caused by protein deficiency Do you know of a disease/disorder caused by protein deficiency?

23 Gene Therapy Gene therapy – process of changing a gene to treat a medical disease/disorder Bad gene is replaced with a good gene 1 st – need a virus to transport the gene into the organism 2 nd – patients cells are infected with the new gene, hopefully correcting the defect Challenging part – Will it last long term? Will the virus DNA harm the patient?

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