Presentation on theme: "Michael L. Rowland, Ph.D. Associate Dean, Diversity Initiatives & Community Engagement Assistant Professor, School of Medicine - College of Education."— Presentation transcript:
Michael L. Rowland, Ph.D. Associate Dean, Diversity Initiatives & Community Engagement Assistant Professor, School of Medicine - College of Education & Human Development 2014 Celebration of Teaching and Learning February 7, 2014 FROM “THE BIEBER GENERATION” TO BOOMERS AND BEYOND: AN INTRODUCTION TO MOTIVATION THEORY AS IT RELATES TO ADULT LEARNERS
AFTER THE SESSION, YOU WILL BE ABLE TO: Identify characteristics of adult learners Define who is considered an “adult” Identify assumptions about adult learners Differentiate Pedagogy vs. Andragogy Analyze motivational theory as it relates to adult learners Share strategies to enhance adult motivation for learning
BAIN STATES, “ Part of being a good teacher (not all) is knowing that you always have something new to learn-not so much about teaching techniques but about these particular students at this particular time and their particular sets of aspirations, confusions, misconceptions, and ignorance. ” (p. 174). Bain, K. (2004). What the best college teachers do. Cambridge, MA. Harvard University Press.
WHAT ARE SOME STRATEGIES YOU USE TO GET TO KNOW YOUR STUDENTS? In face to face classroom? In an on-line environment?
AN*DRA*GOGY Malcolm Knowles introduced the term of Andragogy and theory of Adult Learning in U.S. He is considered the “father” of the Adult Education movement in the U.S. Andragogy is “ the art and science of teaching adults.” Andr=man agogus=leading/teaching Ped (paid)=child agogus=leading/teaching Pedagogy is “ the art and science of teaching children.”
Learner: Self-directed, responsible for own learning Experience: bring a wealth of experience to learning Readiness to learn: Life change may trigger readiness to learn. Need to know to perform better in one’s life. Orientation to learning: Learning to solve real problems. Motivation for learning: Internal, self-esteem, better quality of life, self-actualization. Learner: Dependent upon instructor Experience: very little experience to be used as resource for learning Readiness to learn: told what they have to learn and when to move to next level. Orientation to learning: learn according to subject matter Motivation for learning: primary motivation comes from external pressures, grades, fear of failure. PEDAGOGY VS. ANDRAGOGY Pedagogy Andragogy
RELATIONSHIP OF INSTRUCTOR & LEARNER IN PEDAGOGICAL MODEL AND ANDRAGOGICAL MODEL Instructor Learner Instructor
6 CORE PRINCIPLES OF ANDRAGOGY 1.Adults need to know reasons for learning; how it will affect them 2.Adults are self-directed and autonomous (self-concept) 3.Adults have a wealth of experience & knowledge 4.Adults prefer problem solving approach to learning 5.Adults want to apply new knowledge and skills immediately (orientation to learning) 6.Adults have unique motivations for learning
IN YOUR TEACHING/FACILITATION OF LEARNING HOW WOULD YOU DESCRIBE YOUR APPROACH? Are you more of a… Pedagogue Andragogue
MOTIVATION = “ MOTIVUS ” Motivation is “ a moving cause.” Motivation is “ the natural capacity to direct energy in pursuit of a goal. ” (Wlodkowski, 1997) Motivation “ helps the learners persists when they encounter obstacles.” (Corro, 2000) Motivation is an “ influence or a stimulus. It drives people toward achievement of a goal.” (Gom, 2009)
EXTRINSIC MOTIVATORS FOR ADULTS Career advancement or promotion Earn more money Gain prestige from higher degree Job required changes or compliance Rewards Incentives, bonuses Expectations of others
INTRINSIC MOTIVATORS FOR ADULTS Self-esteem Self-fulfillment Personal growth Self-actualization Goals Expectations Self-efficacy
MOVING LEARNERS FROM EXTRINSIC TO INTRINSIC MOTIVATORS (Bain) Teachers should avoid extrinsic motivators by: Giving students control over their own education Display a strong interest in their learning and a faith in their abilities. Offer non-judgmental feedback on student’s work Stress opportunities to improve Offer students many opportunities to demonstrate their learning/comprehension Source: Bain, K. (2004). What the Best College Teachers Do. Cambridge, MA. Harvard University Press.
WLODKOWSKI’S 5 PILLARS OF MOTIVATING INSTRUCTION (2008) 1.Expertise 2.Empathy 3.Enthusiasm 4.Clarity 5.Cultural Responsiveness Wlodkowski, R. (2008). Enhancing adult motivation to learn: A comprehensive guide for teaching all adults. (3 rd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
STRATEGIES We must understand learners Accept differences among students and faculty Engage students in setting goals and expectations Be flexible in schedule, assignments, etc. We must show adult learners how to be successful in our classes Plan activities with motivation in mind
REFERENCES Bain, K. (2004). What the best college teachers do. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Brophy, J. (2004). Motivating students to learn. (2 nd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Gorges, J. & Kandler, C. (2011). Adults’ learning motivation: Expectancy of success, value, and the role of affective memories. Learning and Individual Differences, 22, 610-617. Hidi, S. & Harackiewicz, J. M. (2000). Motivating the academically unmotivated: A critical issue for the 21 st century. Review of Educational Research, 70(2): 151-179. Knowles, M.S., Holton III, E. F., & Swanson, R.A. (2005). The adult learner: The definitive classic in adult education and human resource development.(6 th ed.). Burlington, MA: Elsevier. Merriam, S. B., Caffarella, R. S., & Baumgartner, L. (2007). Learning in adulthood: A comprehensive guide (3 rd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
REFERENCES Nilson, L. B. (2010). Teaching at its best: A research-based resource fo college instructors. (3 rd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Pintrich, P. R. (2003). A motivational science perspective on the role of student motivation in learning and teaching contexts. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, (4), 667-686. doi:10.103/0022-0622.214.171.1247. Ryan, R. M. & Deci, E. L. (2000). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Class definitions and new directions. Contemporary Education Psychology, 25 (1): 54- 67. Svinicki, M. D. & McKeachie, W. J. (2014). McKeachie’s teaching tips: Strategies, research, and theory for college and university teachers. (14 th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadworth Cengage Learning. Wlodkowski, R. (2008). Enhancing adult motivation to learn: A comprehensive guide for teaching all adults. (3 rd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.