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Genetics-study of heredity Heredity- transmission of traits from parents to offspring
I. You are a unique individual 2 things determine this: A. Heredity examples: hair color, eye color, body build and features, diseases, blood type, etc.
B. Environment- your surroundings examples: family, friends, school, community, country, environmental (sun, climate), and internal factors (hormones)
C. Heredity and Environment work together to determine who you are.
!!! Heredity sets limits but environment determines if you reach those limits
Examples: sun (tan??) height (54 or 58)
II. Characteristics inherited A. Species-things that make you like others arms with fingers, hair, eyes
B. Individual things that make you different length, curly or straight, color
III. Gregor Mendel The Father of Genetics
A.His work with garden peas
B. Observed 7 different traits
C. Experimented by breeding plants
D. Plant anatomy: 1. male anther produces pollen with sperm cells
2. Female ovary produces the egg (ovules)
3. Pollination-movement of pollen from stamen to pistil a. Self-pollination -same flower b. Cross-pollination - different plants
E. Mendels Experiment Mendel controlled the crosses by removing the stamen
F. Mendels results: Tall + tall = tall Short + short = short Short + tall = ?????
IV. Why??? Mendels hypothesis: 1. Concept of Unit Characters - Hereditary characteristics are controlled by factors that occur in pairs
We call these factors genes, that are found in the homologous pairs of chromosomes in our cells
Alleles are different forms of a gene, often represented by capital or lowercase letters Ex: Gene = plant height - Alleles: tall or short -Allele for tall = T - Allele for short = t
Examples: tall or short dark hair or red hair Type A blood or Type B blood
2. Principle of Dominance and Recessiveness - one factor may prevent the expression of the other
Dominant - gene that prevents the expression of another characteristic that always appears in a cross between parents
Recessive- characteristic that does not appear if a dominant is present
V. Terms A. Pure - both genes are the same 2 dominant, or 2 recessive - Purebred - TT, tt
B. Hybrid - genes are different; one dominant one recessive - hybrid plants and animals - Tt
C. Homozygous- the same same as pure (TT, tt) D. Heterozygous- different same as hybrid (Tt)
F. Genotype - the genes of an organism; its genetic makeup - Use of symbols to represent genes Ex: TT tt Tt
G. Phenotype - the physical characteristic or trait of the organism - written in words, descriptive Ex: short or tall type A blood type
VI. Law of segregation - a pair of genes separate during the formation of sex cells
A. Punnett square- a method used to determine possible combinations of genes in offspring
C. Test-cross - crossing an individual with an unknown genotype but a known dominant phenotype with a recessive to determine its genotype
VII. Law of Independent Assortment- chromosomes with their genes separate independently of each other - Genetics cannot be predicted to an absolute, but we can determine the probability
Dihybrid cross-crossing organisms differing in 2 characters
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