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An Assessment of The Diversification- Growth Implications in Botswana and Emerging Policy Dynamics Grace Tabengwa Johane Motsatsi Conference 27-28 th Aug.

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Presentation on theme: "An Assessment of The Diversification- Growth Implications in Botswana and Emerging Policy Dynamics Grace Tabengwa Johane Motsatsi Conference 27-28 th Aug."— Presentation transcript:

1 An Assessment of The Diversification- Growth Implications in Botswana and Emerging Policy Dynamics Grace Tabengwa Johane Motsatsi Conference 27-28 th Aug 2014, Gaborone

2 S TRUCTURE /O UTLINE  O VERVIEW -C ONTEXT, S COPE, OBJECTIVES  A NALYTICAL APPROACH  A SSESSMENT KEY FINDINGS  D IVERSIFICATION - GROWTH IMPLICATIONS (i)Performance and Progress on Trade Expansion and a Diversified Export Base (ii)Performance and Progress Towards a Diversified Growth Base (iii)Foreign Direct Investment Performance (iv)Employment Generation vs Unemployment  C HALLENGES AND E MERGING P OLICY I SSUES  S UCCESS COUNTRY CASES  C ONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 2

3 O VERVIEW -C ONTEXT, S COPE, OBJECTIVES Botswana's Growth Inter-Linkage with Mining Sector Performance make Diversification a Policy Priority Source: Generated from Statistics Botswana, MFDP and IMF/WB Statistic  Main Policy Framework in the last 2-3 Decades, albeit subtle changes  Encapsulated in National Development Planning Process (2-3 Decades)-NDP 9 major theme on diversification  Recognised Major Government Commitment through Budget Resource Allocations  Crystallized Botswana Excellence Strategy for Economic Diversification (2009)  Economic Diversification Drive, Sector Strategies, Policy Initiative and Programmes: (FAP, CEDA, LEA, ISPAAD, NAMPAAD, ARAP, ALDEP, Economic Empowerment, Trade Policy, Marketing and Branding Botswana, Export/FDI Incentives, Competitiveness Reforms,-Doing Business and Global Competiveness, HRDC)  National Vision 2016  Beneficiation, Diamond Trading Company Relocation  Supportive Micro-Macro Policy Initiatives across sectors Ministries, parastatals, privates sector agencies, SMME Support, Reforms for Business and Regulatory Frameworks

4 Assessment Focus… Evaluate diversification policy focus versus performance against the attainment of key national policy objectives as conceptualized in the context of Botswana.  Defining Diversification vs Overriding National Objectives for Diversification:  A diversified export base, promoting non-mineral export. expanding trade, expand revenue sources  A diversified growth base-boosting non-mining sector growth and sustenance.  Attract FDI to other sectors of the non-mining economy to support sustainable growth, enhance industry growth  Generate employment given its importance for inclusive growth

5 Setting Objectives Utilise possible indicators for assessment based on the concept of diversification as pursued in Botswana Quantitative and Qualitative Assessment (i)Performance and Progress on Trade Expansion and a Diversified Export Base (ii)Performance and Progress Towards a Diversified Growth Base (iii)Foreign Direct Investment Performance (iv)Employment Generation vs Unemployment Recognised developmental achievements: High growth, HDI, Re- investment of mining revenues to create growth catapulting Botswana to MIC status-sound and strong policies and institutions. Impetus-Catalysation of Diversification and its Delivery…Policy Dialogue Today ? But what is the progress towards Diversification…… How are we doing? What can we do even better in fast tracking the diversification process towards Sustainable growth …


7 Source: Generated from Bank of Botswana Annual Reports, Statistics Botswana

8 Copper NickelBeef Soda AshTextilesVehiclesGold 2004 757.5 284.0 250.8 560.8 556.1… 20052 301.0 309.9 332.11 117.0 569.7 182.9 20063 822.8 363.2 462.7 916.7 183.6 206.3 20075 521.7 592.3 473.52 787.5 218.7 239.4 20085 923.6 530.3 505.21 819.3 413.6 382.4 20093 620.0 480.1 526.01 417.6 490.9 269.6 20104 152.8 868.8 506.41 118.5 275.3 460.5 20113 398.2 462.4 522.31 777.6 830.5 524.7 20123 393.5 522.9 644.6614.3989.9 618.4 20134 615.7 996.0 723.4 361.8 658.6 451.1 Source: Bank of Botswana Annual Report

9 Customs & ExciseMineral Non- Mineral Income Tax Export Duties Property Taxes Vehicle Taxes License FeesVAT Airpor t Tax 2005/06 17.6549.6013.490.000.060.550.098.890.08 2006/0724.1347.8711. 2007/0827.3738.4613.600.000.110.550.099.960.08 2008/0925.4533.4315. 2009/1026.4230.2718.520.000.090.630.1113.130.00 2010/1119.4537.7920. 2011/1221.8941.1114.960.000.170.540.1012.900.00 2012/1334.1328.9916.! 2013/1431.0830.1120.37 2014/1531.830.431.2 Source: Statistics Botswana, MFDP

10 (ii)Performance and Progress Towards a Diversified Growth Base Source: Compiled from Statistics Botswana, MFDP.

11 Source: Statistics Botswana

12 (iii)Foreign Direct Investment Performance Table 6: FDI inflows, by Region and economy, 1990-2012 Millions of dollars Source: UNTAD database

13 Sector Level FDI – Some positives noted albeit still minimal among “”Potential Growth Driver sectors-finance, retail,services..however, dominance of mining noticeable Table: Share in Total FDI Levels by Sector

14 (iv)Employment Generation vs Unemployment Gov’t major employer, mining without employment generation capacity despite being major sector. Limited pvt sector job market profile, Deceleration in absorptive capacity and employment creation, High unemployment…Implications for poverty, inequality, sustainable inclusivee growth..ultimately impacts overall growth and development achievements Table 6: Estimated Number of Paid Employees by Sector and Economic Activity,( Percentage Share in yearly averages)

15 Formal sector employment increased from 315 791 in 2008 to 323 803 in 2009 and to 335 156 in 2011 yielding an average annual growth rate of 2.2 percent (Statistics Botswana). Unemployment rate decreased from 19.5 percent in 2008 to 17 percent in 2009 and then marginally increased to 17.8 percent i2009/10 -Absorptive capacity shrinking, average annual employment growth declining and employment elasticities Source: Siphambe (2007)

16 Summary Findings, Challenges and Policy Issues Key Summary Findings  (i) Positives Emerging…Though still Limited Trade and Export Diversity: Positive turnaround for diversification though export and growth diversity still remains limited  (ii)Positives Emerging….Though Still Limited Growth Diversity for Sustainability Assurance: Overall rate of growth decelerating, non-mining growth though picking up remains below that required for sustainable growth  (iii)Emerging Positives…FDI Still Biased Towards Mining raising concerns for Non-Mining Industry Expansion Prospects: Largely biased towards miming and extractive industry  (iv) Decelerating Employment Generation and Absorptive Capacity Raising Concerns for Inclusive Growth and attaining “Prosperity for All”: Capacity to generate employment by private sector remains low while government capacity for labour absorption is decelerating  (v)Unemployment Dynamics-Rising Youth Unemployment: Unemployment rates quite high and is a major concern among the youth-future inter-generational success  In general..Assessments limited by adequacy of data to track diversification broadly at a more disaggregated level…at Sector /Industry level, More Importantly the Performance of Programmes, Strategies, Initiatives versus realisation of objectives. Policy framework is to a large extent in place and the major challenge is turning diversification strategies into realisable results…time for turnaround to implementation (SEZs, NHRDC, Entrepreneurship/SMME, Pvt Sector Dev, Regulatory/Business Reforms  Recognised State of Transition….Outlook positive for diversification in the medium –long term horizon…Process takes effect since a lot is being done to set up and fill gaps/address challenges/ Some Strategies Unfolding, Reforms just commenced in some areas  Challenges that still prevail: impacting diversification process and its pace:  Competitiveness….Sector Strategies, Doing Business Reforms, Global Competitiveness Reforms  Requisite Infrastructure  Requisite Human Capital …Sector Strategies, NHRDP  Capacity for Institutions  Monitoring and Evaluation-Sector, Industry…Coordinated  Diversification indicators, Alignment of Policies to M and E  Market opportunities, export and investment opportunities-their identification and exploitation

17 Success Country Lessons  Botswana’s diversification policy approach lately integrates lessons from success countries  Mauritius  EPZ and trade policy approach to develop export sector  Botswana recent policy focus towards SEZ-  Human capital development-Working on National Human Resource Development Plan-Sector Strategies to be developed  To great extent Botswana is setting its policy framework to diversify economic with lessons from success  South Africa-PPPs  PPP policy for infrastructure development, Private Sector Role, thriving business environment….can Botswana dra lessons  South Africa IDZs, Botswana SEZ., lessons for policy approach for partnerships.  some lessons for technological advancement  Chile Experience-  Success on transformation, employment creation, diversification, addressing inequality,  Rwanda  Made notable strides in competitiveness lately-issues for regulatory and business environment  More emphasis should be directed at capacities to turn strategies into results.  Strategies and Policies are there… do we shift to the next stage is often the constaining factor  Market challenges, export opportunities, FDI opportunities, Infrastructure, Competitiveness  Capacities to Turn Strategies into realisable results, pace of Implementation  Capacities to Identify Opportunities and Effectively harness their Potential  Sector Specific Challenges- Supportive Research and Dynamism to Strategies

18 Conclusions and Recommendations  Despite efforts to promote and develop export development programme and export promotion there is limited progress towards a diversified export base and thriving export sector, the paper recommends  More focus on unlocking the realisation of the diversification process through capacities to identify export opportunities  Sector Specific Strategies…more rigour in sector strategies and their delivery,  More work on Micro Policy to leverage Macro Policy to support sectors  Strengthening Capacity of Institutions Need for institutional support and the requisite capacity to ensure strategies for export development across sectors are turned into realisable diversification to deliver export industries. Enhance capacity for identification and promotion of exports and building their diversity with requite supportive national policies and regional opportunities in Southern Africa which remains a major weakness To expand exports, Botswana should take advantage of partnerships that can establish export processing zones and public/private sector partnerships export sector strategies for growth. This requires strong institutional frameworks supporting partnership dialogue on critical issues and impediments to trade/export development (e.g., customs valuation procedures, bureaucratic processing procedures, transport corridor inefficiencies, and lack of knowledge pertaining to export markets).

19 Capacity for identification of export and investment opportunities and to shift strategies to realization of results of diversification initiatives. Trade Expansion and broadening export base: export processing zones to expand-potential export sectors such as manufacturing, services, tourism, textile, agriculture to broaden the export and industrial sector. –SEZs…. Trade Facilitation and Capacity Development Regional Integration: Exploitation of trade agreements to broaden the export base even more urgently. An example is the case of AGOA to develop a sustainable textile sector. An extended and revised AGOA Taking advantage of regional integration to boost export and extra and intra-regional trade and developing requisite infrastructure such as for the water, energy and power generation

20 Continued Strategic Interventions to address Competitiveness, Productivity and Efficiency, Doing Business, Regulatory Reforms and Supporting Private Sector Development  High factor productivity remains important to achieve a conducive environment for the Private sector, enhancing efficiency and productivity  The textile industry: AGOA has been the dominant driving force behind recent growth of the apparel sub-sector in a number of SSA countries, including Botswana. With prospects for AGOA renewal, the export sector should have capacity to exploit the trade preferences which is an area that requires focus since many developing countries lack capacity to fully exploit and take advantage of trade preferences. Critical to Hasten NHRDP and its effective Implementation: Human capital development and hastening the implementation of the NHRDP to address skills requisite to support the diversification and competitiveness reform process. Strategic investment Partnerships: where major investments are required the strategic partnerships should focus on infrastructure development, water, sustainable energy generation and power supply, health, education, agricultural sector, manufacturing beyond extractive sector, ICT to create an environment conducive for export and investment development.. Strategic Inclusive Partnerships and Initiatives: to address existing social, economic and institutional development and capacity gaps. Capacity building of private sector, entrepreneurship, SMME development and key policy making and implementing institutions to enhance delivery on diversification.

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