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Title: An Empirical Study on Improving Trust among GSD Teams Using KMR First Author: Mamoona Humayunu Department of computer Science and Technology Harbin.

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Presentation on theme: "Title: An Empirical Study on Improving Trust among GSD Teams Using KMR First Author: Mamoona Humayunu Department of computer Science and Technology Harbin."— Presentation transcript:

1 Title: An Empirical Study on Improving Trust among GSD Teams Using KMR First Author: Mamoona Humayunu Department of computer Science and Technology Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, China mamoona@hit.edu.cn Second Author Cui Gang Department of computer Science and Technology Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, China cg@hit.edu.cn

2 Why GSD Why GSD GSD refers to “software development that is geographically, remotely or globally distributed with the aim of rationalizing the development process and products” [1]. Global resource pool Attractive cost structures The possibility of developing around the clock Availability of resources and methodologies Need to locate developer closer to the customer …..[1, 2, 3]

3 Challenges & Problems of GSD Cultural Diversity inadequate communication Temporal difference Knowledge management (KM) [1,2,3] The problems that are faced by GSD organization because of these challenges include Lack of Trust Lack of common understanding Conflicts Delay………..[4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11]

4 Scope of study To study the impact of knowledge Management (KM) on Trust in GSD setting Research question RQ: How KMR helps in building and maintaining trust among GSD team members?

5 Motivation Many studies have explored the role trust plays in knowledge seeking and acceptance, but very few have explored the role knowledge management play in building trust [4,5,6,9,10,12] We didn’t find any empirical study in the literature that study the impact of KMR on building trust. Literature argues that KMR helps in building and maintaining trust but it is not tested empirically.

6 Research Methodology Controlled Experiment Two groups of students each consisting of six members These students belongs to two different universities located in Pakistan and China Each group consists of three Pakistani and three Chinese students Both groups had to complete the similar project of evaluating and redesigning a website duration of the project was three months for each group All the students who participated in this experiment were the student of BS computer science, so the age and experience of the participants was almost same

7 Research Methodology(Continued..) √Existing wiki software was used as KMR after making few modifications into it √The information that students consider to be important with respect to their remote colleagues were added into this KMR so that they may know about their colleagues √This KM repository provides a space to collaborate and share projects, documents, messages, schedules, tasks and contacts within the group and many other features that helps in project management and coordination. √the access of this KMR was given to only one group of students and not the other so that the impact of KMR in building trust may be studied √Group A(who was using KMR) and Group B(Not Using KMR)

8 Research methodology(Continued..) Measuring Trust Propensity to trust Perceived trustworthiness Cooperative behaviors Monitoring behavior Based on four indicators of trust a 21-item questionnaire was prepared, from these 21 items 6 items were related to the Propensity to trust 6 items were related to the perceived trustworthiness, 6 items were related to the cooperative behavior 3 items were related to the monitoring behaviors Responses of each question item was given as a 5-point scaling ranging from 5= “strongly agree” to 1= “strongly disagree”.

9 Questionnaire Propensity to trust People usually tell the truth, even in difficult situations. Every one in this team is truly concerned about the problems of others. In this team most people stand behind their convictions. In this team most people speak out for what they believe in. Most people in this team do not hesitate to help a needy person. Most people will act as a good governor if given the opportunity. Perceived trustworthiness We are fully confident about the abilities of each others to perform tasks. In this team people will means what they say. There are no hidden policies in this team. People in this team always try to fulfil their commitments. In this team everyone look for other’s interests honestly. Every team member is fully reliable. Cooperative behaviour There exists a climate of cooperation among team. In this team issues and problems are discussed openly. In this team opinion of every one is considered while taking some important decision. Most people in this team are open to help and advice others. In this team people discuss themselves. Most people help others in their personal matters. Monitoring behaviour In this team people check whether everybody fulfils their responsibility. In this team people check whether others keep their promises. In this team most people tend to keep each other’s work under observations.

10 Data Collection and Results Both groups filled the questionnaire three times during the duration of projects, each after the gap of one month. After each questionnaire filling exercise 12 questionnaires were received, six from each group A and B respectively. An aggregated questionnaire was prepared in which against each question the total was calculated (where total= number of participants who are strongly agree or agree with the statement of the questionnaire). Scores were again aggregated on the basis of four measures of trust(shown in Table 1)

11 Data collection and Results Measurement Factors Agreement percentage (strongly agree+ agree) Group AGroup B PKCNPKCN Propensity to trust 13141112 Perceived trustworthiness 131512 Cooperative behavior 14151012 Monitoring behavior 5576 TABLE 1:AGGREGATE LEVEL OF TRUST FOR BOTH GROUP A AND GROUP B AT FIRST STAGE ( WHERE PK :PAKISTANI STUDENTS AND CN: CHINESE STUDENTS)

12 Data Collection and Results Measurement Factors Propensity to trustPerceived trustworthiness Cooperative behavior Monitoring behavior Agreement %age of Trust (SA+A) Stage 1 GRP A PK 13 145 CN 1415 5 GRP B PK 1112107 CN 12 6 Agreement %age of Trust (SA+A) Stage 2 GRP A PK 1415165 CN 1516154 GRP B PK 1213126 CN 1214136 Agreement %age of Trust (SA+A) Stage 3 GRP A PK 16 174 CN 1716 3 GRP B PK 1314 6 CN 1412135 TABLE 2: OVERALL RESULTS OBTAINED FROM BOTH GROUP A AND GROUP B (WHERE SA: STRONGLY AGREE, A: AGREE, PK: PAKISTANI STUDENTS, CN: CHINESE STUDENT & GRP: GROUP)

13 Results Figure 1: Results of Propensity to trust for Group A and Group B during three stages of the projects Figure 2: Results of Perceived trustworthiness for Group A and Group B during three stages of the project Figure 3: Results of Cooperative behavior for Group A and Group B during three stages of the project Figure 4: Results of Monitoring Behavior for Group A and Group B during three stages of the project

14 Findings Results displayed in Fig.1-4 reflect the positive impact of KMR in building trust among GSD team members We further validated our results by conducting an open ended discussion with both Groups after the end of the projects Team members from Group A were asked that how much this KMR was helpful for them. Reply of almost 67% students was positive

15 Findings A student from Group A said that “KMR provide us a platform through which we can discuss everything and even when we use this KMR it doesn’t seem to us that a huge geographical distance is involved between our team mates” One of the students from Group B told us that although there exist many communication software but we cannot monitor and control our projects through them, there must be some common software which provide us a platform for every kind of formal and informal communication.

16 Conclusion Trust is one of the important factors in the success of GSD projects. Proper implementation and usage of Knowledge management system helps in promoting trust among GSD team members.KMS provide a platform for communication and collaboration and building and using KMR is a simple and easy way of KM.

17 Limitation and Future work It was a controlled experiment performed with two Groups of students. In the future, there is a need to implement this KMR in real GSD organization and study the impact of this KMR on trust by using the same 21-items measures of trust.

18 References 1. Damian, D., & Moitra, D. (2006). Global Software Development: How Far Have We Come? IEEE software, 23(5), 17-19. 2. Eoin. Conchuir, Helena. Holmstrom, Par. Agerfalk and Brian. Fitzgerland. Exploring the Assumed Benefits of Global Software Development. ICGSE’06. 2006, pp. 159-168. 3. Damian. D, and Moitra. D. Global Software Development: How Far Have We Come? IEEE software.2006, 23(5), pp. 17-19. 4. Ani, Al. Ban, Wilensky. H, Redmiles. D,Simmons. E. An Understanding of the Role of Trust in Knowledge Seeking and Acceptance Practices in Distributed Development Teams.. ICGSE’11. 2011, pp. 25-34. 5. Sami. Haq. Mushtaq. Raza, Asraf. Zia and Ahmed. Khan. Issues in Global Software Development: A Critical Review, J. Software Engineering & Applications, 2011, 4, pp. 590-595. 6. Paivi. Parviainen, Maarit. Tihinen. Knowledge-related challenges and solutions in GSD. Expert Systems a Journal of Knowledge Engineering. 2011. 7. Emam, hossain, Paul. Bannerman and D. Jaffery. Scrum Practices in Global Software Development: A Research Framework, D. Caivano et al. (Eds.): PROFES 2011, LNCS 6759, pp. 88–102.

19 References 8. Ángel. García-Crespo, Ricardo. Colomo-Palacios, Pedro. Soto-Acosta and Marcos. Ruano Mayoral. Development Teams, Information Systems Management.2010, 27:3, pp. 247-252. 9. Gabriela. Aranda, Aurora. Vizcaíno, José. Luís-Hernández,Ramón. Palacio and Alberto. Morán. Trusty: A Tool to Improve Communication and Collaboration in DSD. A.S.Vivacqua, C. Gutwin, and M.R.S. Borges (Eds.): CRIWG 2011, LNCS 6969, pp. 224–231. 10. Casey. Valentine. Developing Trust in Virtual Software Development Teams. Journal of Theoretical and applied commerce Research.2010, 5(2), pp.41-58. 11. John. Noll, Saarah. Beecham and Ita. Richardson. Global Software Development and Collaboration: Barriers and Solutions. 2010. ACM Inroads, pp.66-78. 12. Samireh. Jalali, Cigdem. Gencel and Darja. Smite. Trust Dynamics in Global Software Engineering. ESEM’10, September 2010, pp. 16-17 Bolzano-Bozen, Italy 13. Muneera. Bano & Naveed. Ikram. KM-SORE: Knowledge Management for Service Oriented Requirements Engineering. Copyright (c) IARIA, 2011. 14. V.Clerc. Towards Architectural Knowledge Management Practices for Global Software Development. Third ICSE Workshop on Sharing and Reusing architectural Knowledge (SHARK’08), Leipzig, Germany.2008, pp. 23-28.

20 References 15. Daniela. Damian and Didar. Zowghi. Requirements Engineering challenges in multi- site software development organizations. Requirements Engineering Journal, 8.2003, pp. 149-160. 16. Christof. Ebert and Philip. DeNeve. Surviving Global Software Development. IEEE Software, 18(2).2001, pp. 62-69. 17. Clerc. Viktor, Lago. Patricia and Vliet. Hans. The Usefulness of Architectural Knowledge Management Practices in GSD. Fourth IEEE International Conference on Global Software Engineering.2009, pp. 73-82. 18. Nguyen. Tracey, Smyth. Robert & Gable. Guy. Knowledge Management Issues and Practices: A Case Study of a Professional services Firm. Fifteenth Australian conference on information system. 2004. 19. Nour. Ali, Sarah. Beechman and Mistrik. Ivan. Architectural Knowledge Management in Global Software Development: A Review. International Conference on Global Software Engineering.2010, pp.347-352. 20. 24. Sarah. Beechman, John. Noll, Ita. Richardson and Nour. Ali. Crafting a Global Teaming Model for Architectural Knowledge. International Conference on Global Software Engineering.2010, pp.55-63. 21. Ana Cristina. Costa and Neil. Anderson. Measuring trust in teams: Development and validation of a multifaceted measure of formative and reflective indicators of team trust. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology. 20(1). 2001, pp. 119-154. 22. Roger C. Mayer and James H. Davis and David. Schoorman. An integrative model of organizational trust. Academy of Management Review, 20(3). 1995, pp. 709–734.

21 Q & A Emil ID: mamoona@hit.edu.cnmamoona@hit.edu.cn Cell no: 0086-18345173593 Face Book: mbinteislam@yahoo.commbinteislam@yahoo.com Skype: kind_heart82 QQ: 1457575238

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