Presentation on theme: "Oct. 3 Define Review for Curriculum Assessment"— Presentation transcript:
1Oct. 3 Define Review for Curriculum Assessment Take Curriculum AssessmentAgree/DisagreeNotes on Rise of IslamActivity on Rise of IslamIslamQuranShari’ahhajj
2Agree/DisagreeIslam is a monotheistic religion and the leaders are called Muslims.Muhammad is the son of Allah, the God of Islam.The Sunni-Shiite split is over the successor to Muhammad.Islamic women earned certain rights before women in Europe.
4Islam’s beginnings610 C.E., Muhammad has visions revealing God’s teachingsWritten in Qur’anDraws from Judeo-Christian originsMonotheisticBelievers called Muslims
5Five Pillars of Islam Belief in one God (Allah), Muhammad is prophet Prayer 5 times dailyGiving of alms (charity)Fasting during RamadanPilgrimage to MeccaWhat do the Jewish people that is similar?10 Commandments
6Important Documents Qur’an (like bible) Hadith (sayings and conduct of the prophet Muhammad)fatwas (the rulings of Islamic scholars)
7Sharia Islamic law Based upon sources like Qur’an, Hadith and fatwas Law regulates daily lifeDietary restrictions (no pork, alcohol)Impacts formal and informal legal institutions & policymaking
8Spread of Islam Arab tribes unified under Islam Led to expansion east to Spain, west to Indus RiverMissionaries spread Islam to Sub-Saharan Africa, India, and IndonesiaEmphasized simple living, charitable works, and meditation for closer relationship with Allah
9Sunni-Shiite split Over successor to Muhammad Led to division within IslamStill exists within religion todaySunnis believe anyone can assume leadershipShiites believe leadership must be descendent of Prophet
10Role and Status of Women Varies in countries and regionsMen and women treated as equalsBut socially and legally, women’s status is lower than men’s
11Women given certain rights in law before Europe Property rights (dowry remained property of bride, women could earn wages and manage their money)Inheritance rightsMarriage as contract based upon consent / divorce was a possibility
12Islamic Empire structured in paternalistic fashion Veiling and head covering (a pre-Islamic Persian practice) became more widespread over timePolygamy (harem)
13Agree/DisagreeIslam is a monotheistic religion and the leaders are called Muslims.Muhammad is the son of Allah, the God of Islam.The Sunni-Shiite split is over the successor to Muhammad.Islamic women earned certain rights before women in Europe.
14Oct. 5 Define Agree/Disagree Quiz over Rise of Islam Notes on Islamic EmpireActivity on Islamic Empirecaliphjihadsultanmosque
15Agree/Disagree Islam believes in separation of church and state. Europeans were frightened of Islamic Empire.Jews and Christians were treated harshly by Muslims.Muslims accepted those that followed Hinduism.
16Islamic EmpireArabs benefit from decline Byzantine and Persian empiresStart conquests led by Muhammad and successors (Caliphs) fromConquered Persia, Mesopotamia, North Africa, Spain, and part of India
17Empire called Islamic Empire, Arab Empire, or Islamic Caliphate Position of Caliph created to continue political leadership position within Islamic communityCaliphs were head of both religion and politics (theocracy)
18Umayyad Caliphate Second major Caliphate Arab Dominated Military aggressiveEmpire covered more than 5 million miles
19Abbasid Caliphate Third Arab Caliphate Developed a strong bureaucracy to run the huge empireBuilt capitol in BaghdadMore inclusive than UmayyadDeclined with rise of Turkish army
20Fragmentation of Empire Splinter states broke off or emergedEgypt (Fatimid and later Mamluk)Anatolia (Seljuk Turks)India (Delhi Sultanate)Spain (Caliphate of Cordoba)
21Economic ImpactCenter of east-west world trade (ex. Silk Roads and Indian Ocean)Banks throughout empire to facilitate trade
22Impact on Africa and Asia Muslim traders move to East Africa and Indonesia to trade goods (ex. salt)African kings saw Islam as valuable. Reinforced authority and increased trade in gold, salt, ivory, and slaves.Islam’s emphasis on Qur’an increased literacy.Traditional tribal law replaced by Sharia law
23Impact on EuropeEuropean and Byzantine empires frightened by Muslim expansionLaunched holy wars (Crusades) against MuslimsWanted to regain holy land (Jerusalem)
24Muslims, Christians, Jewish interactions Non-Muslims conquered encouraged to convert to IslamIf do, treated as equals
25Religious ToleranceRegarded Christian and Jewish subjects as believers in same GodUsually allowed to worship freelyOften had to pay special tax (Jinnah)Unable to hold political positions.
26“Pagan” believersWere Hindus, Buddhists, polytheists, and other non-Abrahamic religionsOften treated more harshlyPossible enslavementBelief systems were suppressed.
27Agree/Disagree Islam believes in separation of church and state. Europeans were frightened of Islamic Empire.Jews and Christians were treated harshly by Muslims.Muslims accepted those that followed Hinduism.
28Muslim Population World Wide Area Muslim Pop. Total Pop.South Asia 178,000 1,001,700,000Central Asia 212,100, ,900,000SE Asia 185,200, ,500,000East Asia 22,400,000 1,326,600,000Middle East 124,300, ,400,000N. Africa 150,600, ,600,000West Africa 91,300, ,700,000S&E Africa 41,100, ,300,000N. America 5,600, ,300,000S. America 1,300, ,000,000Europe 12,500, ,000,000Oceania 100, ,000,000
29Oct. 7 Define: Quiz over Islamic Empire Agree/Disagree Notes over contributions from Islamic EmpireActivity on contributions from Islamic Empiredowrybazaarastrolabeminaret
30Agree/DisagreeIslamic Empire made great advances in Algebra and Geometry.Muslims developed the first hospitals.Muslims destroyed ancient Greek philosophical works.Muslims developed the astrolabe.
31Islamic Contributions Golden Age of Muslim Culture: period in which Arab/Islamic Empire was center of cultural significance and scientific advances
32Learning Centers Cities like Baghdad, Cairo, and Cordoba Hosted great libraries (Great Library of Baghdad)Preserved ancient classical texts as well as new Islamic knowledge.
33Advances in Math Adoption Arabic numerals (Indian numerals) Led to advances in Algebra (created by 9th century Iranian) and Geometry.
34Scientific Advances Astronomical observations Knowledge of round Earth Ibn Sina wrote major medical book textBasis for medicine in Islamic world and EuropeFirst hospitals developed.
35PhilosophicalPreserved and translated ancient Greek works like AristotleReintroduced them to Europeans through trade and conflictHelped spark Renaissance and oceanic explorations of 15th and 16th centuries
36Technological Astrolabe used stars for ocean navigation Eventually allowed European explorers to cross AtlanticFound new routes to Asian markets beginning around 1500.
37Art & Architecture Emphasized geometric patterns like stars Calligraphy in writingReligious structures (mosques) showcased advances (domes, minarets) in large-scale architecture.
38Diffusion from East to West Ideas that spread from Far East (China) across Muslim world to Western Europe through trade:GunpowderAstrolabeCompasssailing techspapermaking
39Impact of Islam in India Muslim invaders establish Delhi SultanateLater destroyed by Timur Lenk (Tamerlane)Many in northwest India (modern day Pakistan) converted to IslamLower caste Hindus convert to raise social status
40Muslim-Hindu tensions Tension continues today in India and PakistanMonotheism vs. PolytheismEquality of Believers vs. Caste System
41Impact on Southeast Asia Most Indonesians converted to Islam due to influence of Muslim traders and regional rulersIslamic merchants set up Malacca Sultanatecontrolled major trade route through Strait of Malacca.Java is major center of spice trade
42Agree/DisagreeIslamic Empire made great advances in Algebra and Geometry.Muslims developed the first hospitals.Muslims destroyed ancient Greek philosophical works.Muslims developed the astrolabe.
44Most early Arabs were polytheistic, but Allah (Arabic for “God”) was the supreme God. They traced their ancestry to Abraham and his son Ishmael, who were believed to have built a shrine called the Kaaba at Makkah (Mecca).
45Muhammad born into merchant family in Makkah. He was orphaned early Muhammad born into merchant family in Makkah. He was orphaned early. He became a caravan manager and married his boss, a rich widow named Khadija.Muhammad troubled by gap in area between rich merchants and most Makkans, who he thought were simple and honest.
46He went to the hills to meditate He went to the hills to meditate. While meditating, Muslims believe Muhammad received revelations from God and messages were given by angel Gabriel, who told Muhammad to recite what he heard.
47Muhammad came to believe that Allah had revealed himself partially through Moses (Judaism) and Jesus (Christianity), and Allah’s final revelations were to him. Quran, the holy scriptures of Islam, came out of these revelations.
48(The word Islam means “submission to the will of Allah (The word Islam means “submission to the will of Allah.”) The Quran contains ethical guidelines for Muslims, those who practice Islam. Islam has only one God, Allah, and Muhammad is his prophet.
49From 650-1000, Muhammad and successors led armies out of Arabia From , Muhammad and successors led armies out of Arabia. Used nomadic fighting skill, desire for land and loot, and faith in new religion to conquer Persia, Mesopotamia, North Africa, Spain, and part of India. Empire is called Islamic Empire or Arab Empire.
50Economic ImpactIslamic lands are center of East-West world trade (ex. Silk Roads and Indian Ocean)
51European ReactionEuropeans and Byzantine Empire frightened of Muslim expansion into Spain and Mediterranean. Launched aggressive series of wars (Crusades) against Muslims in the Holy Land (Levant).
52Religious ToleranceMuslims generally regarded Christian and Jewish subjects as believers in same tradition as Islam, so they were usually allowed to worship freely, although they often had to pay a special tax (Jinnah).”
53Pagan believers (Hindus, Buddhists, polytheists, and other non-Abrahamic religions) were often treated more harshly and suppressed.
55Five Pillars of Islam 1. Believe in Allah and Muhammad as prophet 2. Pray to Allah five times a day with public prayer on Fridays3. Give alms to poor and unfortunate4. Observe holy month of Ramadan, especially by fasting5. Make pilgrimage to Makkah once, if possible. Pilgrimage is called the hajj.
56ShariahLaw code based on Quranic interpretations that regulate daily life, such as dietary restrictions (pork, alcohol).
57Sunni-Shiite SplitPolitical and religious differences over succession to Muhammad led to a division within the faith and the Islamic empire. Two divisions, Sunnis and Shiites.
58Role of WomenWomen enjoy more equality in Islam’s early period, before conquest and contact with more settled civilizations led to treatment of women as objects in some households, especially elite households (harem). Islamic practice allows 4 wives. Polygamy was widespread with those who could afford it.
59Islamic Contribution: Learning centers Islamic cities such as Baghdad, Cairo, and Cordoba host great libraries and became centers of learning (Great Library of Baghdad), preserving ancient classical texts and knowledge and new Islamic knowledge.
60Mathematical: Algebra, Arabic Numerals (from Indian trade). Scientific: Astronomical observations, knowledge of round earth. Ibn Sina compiled major medical text that was basis for medicine in both the Islamic lands and Europe (idea of contagious disease).
61Philosophical: Islamic scholars preserve and translate ancient Greek works such as Aristotle; reintroduce them to Europe from trade and crusade contact. Helps spark Renaissance and oceanic explorations of the 15th and 16th centuries.
62Technological: Astrolabe invented to use stars for navigation; allows European explorers to cross Atlantic and try to find new routes to Asian markets beginning around 1500.
63Diffusion of ideas from East to West: Gunpowder, astrolabe, compass, sailing techniques, papermaking, and other technologies spread from far east (China) across Muslim world to Western Europe through trade with Mediterranean (Crusades and Mongol roads helped open this trade).
65Muhammad did not separate political and religious authority Muhammad did not separate political and religious authority. Submission to the will of Allah meant submitting to his prophet, and Muhammad became a religious, political, and military leader.
68In 630 Muhammad returned to Makkah with ten thousand soldiers In 630 Muhammad returned to Makkah with ten thousand soldiers. The city surrendered and many residents converted to Islam. Muhammad declared the Kaaba a sacred shrine. Two years later, Muhammad died, as Islam was first spreading throughout the Arabian Peninsula.
69Islam is monotheistic. Allah is the all-powerful Creator of everything Islam is monotheistic. Allah is the all-powerful Creator of everything. Islam offers salvation and the hope of an afterlife for those who subject themselves to Allah’s will.
70Muhammad is not considered divine, as Jesus is Muhammad is not considered divine, as Jesus is. He is a prophet who conveys Allah’s final revelation. To do Allah’s will, one must follow an ethical code comprised of the Five Pillars of Islam.
71The Five Pillars 1. Believe in Allah and Muhammad as his prophet 2. Pray to Allah five times a day with public prayer on Fridays3. Give alms to the poor and unfortunate4. Observe the holy month of Ramadan, especially by fasting5. Make a pilgrimage to Makkah once, if possible. This pilgrimage is called the hajj.
72Islam is more a way of life than a set of beliefs.