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Oct. 3 Define Define Review for Curriculum Assessment Review for Curriculum Assessment Take Curriculum Assessment Take Curriculum Assessment Agree/Disagree.

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Presentation on theme: "Oct. 3 Define Define Review for Curriculum Assessment Review for Curriculum Assessment Take Curriculum Assessment Take Curriculum Assessment Agree/Disagree."— Presentation transcript:

1 Oct. 3 Define Define Review for Curriculum Assessment Review for Curriculum Assessment Take Curriculum Assessment Take Curriculum Assessment Agree/Disagree Agree/Disagree Notes on Rise of Islam Notes on Rise of Islam Activity on Rise of Islam Activity on Rise of Islam Islam Islam Quran Quran Shariah Shariah hajj hajj

2 Agree/Disagree Islam is a monotheistic religion and the leaders are called Muslims. Islam is a monotheistic religion and the leaders are called Muslims. Muhammad is the son of Allah, the God of Islam. Muhammad is the son of Allah, the God of Islam. The Sunni-Shiite split is over the successor to Muhammad. The Sunni-Shiite split is over the successor to Muhammad. Islamic women earned certain rights before women in Europe. Islamic women earned certain rights before women in Europe.

3 The Rise of Islam

4 Islams beginnings 610 C.E., Muhammad has visions revealing Gods teachings Written in Quran Draws from Judeo-Christian origins Monotheistic Believers called Muslims

5 Five Pillars of Islam Belief in one God (Allah), Muhammad is prophet Prayer 5 times daily Giving of alms (charity) Fasting during Ramadan Pilgrimage to Mecca What do the Jewish people that is similar? 10 Commandments

6 Important Documents Quran (like bible) Hadith (sayings and conduct of the prophet Muhammad) fatwas (the rulings of Islamic scholars)

7 Sharia Islamic law Based upon sources like Quran, Hadith and fatwas Law regulates daily life – –Dietary restrictions (no pork, alcohol) – –Impacts formal and informal legal institutions & policymaking

8 Spread of Islam Arab tribes unified under Islam Led to expansion east to Spain, west to Indus River – –Missionaries spread Islam to Sub-Saharan Africa, India, and Indonesia – –Emphasized simple living, charitable works, and meditation for closer relationship with Allah

9 Sunni-Shiite split Over successor to Muhammad Led to division within Islam Still exists within religion today – –Sunnis believe anyone can assume leadership – –Shiites believe leadership must be descendent of Prophet

10 Role and Status of Women Varies in countries and regions Men and women treated as equals But socially and legally, womens status is lower than mens

11 Women given certain rights in law before Europe – –Property rights (dowry remained property of bride, women could earn wages and manage their money) – –Inheritance rights – –Marriage as contract based upon consent / divorce was a possibility

12 Islamic Empire structured in paternalistic fashion Veiling and head covering (a pre-Islamic Persian practice) became more widespread over time Polygamy (harem)

13 Agree/Disagree Islam is a monotheistic religion and the leaders are called Muslims. Islam is a monotheistic religion and the leaders are called Muslims. Muhammad is the son of Allah, the God of Islam. Muhammad is the son of Allah, the God of Islam. The Sunni-Shiite split is over the successor to Muhammad. The Sunni-Shiite split is over the successor to Muhammad. Islamic women earned certain rights before women in Europe. Islamic women earned certain rights before women in Europe.

14 Oct. 5 Define Define Agree/Disagree Agree/Disagree Quiz over Rise of Islam Quiz over Rise of Islam Notes on Islamic Empire Notes on Islamic Empire Activity on Islamic Empire Activity on Islamic Empire caliph caliph jihad jihad sultan sultan mosque mosque

15 Agree/Disagree Islam believes in separation of church and state. Islam believes in separation of church and state. Europeans were frightened of Islamic Empire. Europeans were frightened of Islamic Empire. Jews and Christians were treated harshly by Muslims. Jews and Christians were treated harshly by Muslims. Muslims accepted those that followed Hinduism. Muslims accepted those that followed Hinduism.

16 Islamic Empire Arabs benefit from decline Byzantine and Persian empires Start conquests led by Muhammad and successors (Caliphs) from Conquered Persia, Mesopotamia, North Africa, Spain, and part of India

17 Empire called Islamic Empire, Arab Empire, or Islamic Caliphate – –Position of Caliph created to continue political leadership position within Islamic community – –Caliphs were head of both religion and politics (theocracy)

18 Umayyad Caliphate Second major Caliphate Arab Dominated Military aggressive Empire covered more than 5 million miles

19 Abbasid Caliphate Third Arab Caliphate – –Developed a strong bureaucracy to run the huge empire Built capitol in Baghdad More inclusive than Umayyad Declined with rise of Turkish army

20 Fragmentation of Empire Splinter states broke off or emerged – –Egypt (Fatimid and later Mamluk) – –Anatolia (Seljuk Turks) – –India (Delhi Sultanate) – –Spain (Caliphate of Cordoba)

21 Economic Impact Center of east-west world trade (ex. Silk Roads and Indian Ocean) Banks throughout empire to facilitate trade

22 Impact on Africa and Asia Muslim traders move to East Africa and Indonesia to trade goods (ex. salt) – –African kings saw Islam as valuable. Reinforced authority and increased trade in gold, salt, ivory, and slaves. – –Islams emphasis on Quran increased literacy. – –Traditional tribal law replaced by Sharia law

23 Impact on Europe European and Byzantine empires frightened by Muslim expansion Launched holy wars (Crusades) against Muslims Wanted to regain holy land (Jerusalem)

24 Muslims, Christians, Jewish interactions Non-Muslims conquered encouraged to convert to Islam If do, treated as equals

25 Religious Tolerance Regarded Christian and Jewish subjects as believers in same God Usually allowed to worship freely Often had to pay special tax (Jinnah) Unable to hold political positions.

26 Pagan believers Were Hindus, Buddhists, polytheists, and other non-Abrahamic religions Often treated more harshly Possible enslavement Belief systems were suppressed.

27 Agree/Disagree Islam believes in separation of church and state. Islam believes in separation of church and state. Europeans were frightened of Islamic Empire. Europeans were frightened of Islamic Empire. Jews and Christians were treated harshly by Muslims. Jews and Christians were treated harshly by Muslims. Muslims accepted those that followed Hinduism. Muslims accepted those that followed Hinduism.

28 Muslim Population World Wide AreaMuslim Pop.Total Pop. AreaMuslim Pop.Total Pop. South Asia178,0001,001,700,000 South Asia178,0001,001,700,000 Central Asia212,100,000243,900,000 Central Asia212,100,000243,900,000 SE Asia185,200,000453,500,000 SE Asia185,200,000453,500,000 East Asia22,400,0001,326,600,000 East Asia22,400,0001,326,600,000 Middle East124,300,000134,400,000 Middle East124,300,000134,400,000 N. Africa150,600,000167,600,000 N. Africa150,600,000167,600,000 West Africa91,300,000240,700,000 West Africa91,300,000240,700,000 S&E Africa41,100,000250,300,000 S&E Africa41,100,000250,300,000 N. America5,600,000250,300,000 N. America5,600,000250,300,000 S. America1,300,000450,000,000 S. America1,300,000450,000,000 Europe12,500,000725,000,000 Europe12,500,000725,000,000 Oceania100,00026,000,000 Oceania100,00026,000,000

29 Oct. 7 Define: Define: Quiz over Islamic Empire Quiz over Islamic Empire Agree/Disagree Agree/Disagree Notes over contributions from Islamic Empire Notes over contributions from Islamic Empire Activity on contributions from Islamic Empire Activity on contributions from Islamic Empire dowry dowry bazaar bazaar astrolabe astrolabe minaret minaret

30 Agree/Disagree Islamic Empire made great advances in Algebra and Geometry. Islamic Empire made great advances in Algebra and Geometry. Muslims developed the first hospitals. Muslims developed the first hospitals. Muslims destroyed ancient Greek philosophical works. Muslims destroyed ancient Greek philosophical works. Muslims developed the astrolabe. Muslims developed the astrolabe.

31 Islamic Contributions Golden Age of Muslim Culture: period in which Arab/Islamic Empire was center of cultural significance and scientific advances

32 Learning Centers Cities like Baghdad, Cairo, and Cordoba Hosted great libraries (Great Library of Baghdad) Preserved ancient classical texts as well as new Islamic knowledge.

33 Advances in Math Adoption Arabic numerals (Indian numerals) Led to advances in Algebra (created by 9 th century Iranian) and Geometry.

34 Scientific Advances Astronomical observations – –Knowledge of round Earth Ibn Sina wrote major medical book text – –Basis for medicine in Islamic world and Europe First hospitals developed.

35 Philosophical Preserved and translated ancient Greek works like Aristotle Reintroduced them to Europeans through trade and conflict Helped spark Renaissance and oceanic explorations of 15 th and 16 th centuries

36 Technological Astrolabe – –used stars for ocean navigation – –Eventually allowed European explorers to cross Atlantic – –Found new routes to Asian markets beginning around 1500.

37 Art & Architecture Emphasized geometric patterns like stars Calligraphy in writing Religious structures (mosques) showcased advances (domes, minarets) in large-scale architecture.

38 Diffusion from East to West Ideas that spread from Far East (China) across Muslim world to Western Europe through trade: – –Gunpowder – –Astrolabe – –Compass – –sailing techs – –papermaking

39 Impact of Islam in India Muslim invaders establish Delhi Sultanate Later destroyed by Timur Lenk (Tamerlane) Many in northwest India (modern day Pakistan) converted to Islam – –Lower caste Hindus convert to raise social status

40 Muslim-Hindu tensions Tension continues today in India and Pakistan – –Monotheism vs. Polytheism – –Equality of Believers vs. Caste System

41 Impact on Southeast Asia Most Indonesians converted to Islam due to influence of Muslim traders and regional rulers Islamic merchants set up Malacca Sultanate – –controlled major trade route through Strait of Malacca. – –Java is major center of spice trade

42 Agree/Disagree Islamic Empire made great advances in Algebra and Geometry. Islamic Empire made great advances in Algebra and Geometry. Muslims developed the first hospitals. Muslims developed the first hospitals. Muslims destroyed ancient Greek philosophical works. Muslims destroyed ancient Greek philosophical works. Muslims developed the astrolabe. Muslims developed the astrolabe.

43

44 Most early Arabs were polytheistic, but Allah (Arabic for God) was the supreme God. They traced their ancestry to Abraham and his son Ishmael, who were believed to have built a shrine called the Kaaba at Makkah (Mecca).

45 Muhammad born into merchant family in Makkah. He was orphaned early. He became a caravan manager and married his boss, a rich widow named Khadija. Muhammad troubled by gap in area between rich merchants and most Makkans, who he thought were simple and honest.

46 He went to the hills to meditate. While meditating, Muslims believe Muhammad received revelations from God and messages were given by angel Gabriel, who told Muhammad to recite what he heard.

47 Muhammad came to believe that Allah had revealed himself partially through Moses (Judaism) and Jesus (Christianity), and Allahs final revelations were to him. Quran, the holy scriptures of Islam, came out of these revelations.

48 (The word Islam means submission to the will of Allah.) The Quran contains ethical guidelines for Muslims, those who practice Islam. Islam has only one God, Allah, and Muhammad is his prophet.

49 From , Muhammad and successors led armies out of Arabia. Used nomadic fighting skill, desire for land and loot, and faith in new religion to conquer Persia, Mesopotamia, North Africa, Spain, and part of India. Empire is called Islamic Empire or Arab Empire. From , Muhammad and successors led armies out of Arabia. Used nomadic fighting skill, desire for land and loot, and faith in new religion to conquer Persia, Mesopotamia, North Africa, Spain, and part of India. Empire is called Islamic Empire or Arab Empire.

50 Economic Impact Islamic lands are center of East-West world trade (ex. Silk Roads and Indian Ocean) Islamic lands are center of East-West world trade (ex. Silk Roads and Indian Ocean)

51 European Reaction Europeans and Byzantine Empire frightened of Muslim expansion into Spain and Mediterranean. Launched aggressive series of wars (Crusades) against Muslims in the Holy Land (Levant). Europeans and Byzantine Empire frightened of Muslim expansion into Spain and Mediterranean. Launched aggressive series of wars (Crusades) against Muslims in the Holy Land (Levant).

52 Religious Tolerance Muslims generally regarded Christian and Jewish subjects as believers in same tradition as Islam, so they were usually allowed to worship freely, although they often had to pay a special tax (Jinnah). Muslims generally regarded Christian and Jewish subjects as believers in same tradition as Islam, so they were usually allowed to worship freely, although they often had to pay a special tax (Jinnah).

53 Pagan believers (Hindus, Buddhists, polytheists, and other non-Abrahamic religions) were often treated more harshly and suppressed. Pagan believers (Hindus, Buddhists, polytheists, and other non-Abrahamic religions) were often treated more harshly and suppressed.

54

55 Five Pillars of Islam 1. Believe in Allah and Muhammad as prophet 2. Pray to Allah five times a day with public prayer on Fridays 3. Give alms to poor and unfortunate 4. Observe holy month of Ramadan, especially by fasting 5. Make pilgrimage to Makkah once, if possible. Pilgrimage is called the hajj.

56 Shariah Law code based on Quranic interpretations that regulate daily life, such as dietary restrictions (pork, alcohol). Law code based on Quranic interpretations that regulate daily life, such as dietary restrictions (pork, alcohol).

57 Sunni-Shiite Split Political and religious differences over succession to Muhammad led to a division within the faith and the Islamic empire. Two divisions, Sunnis and Shiites. Political and religious differences over succession to Muhammad led to a division within the faith and the Islamic empire. Two divisions, Sunnis and Shiites.

58 Role of Women Women enjoy more equality in Islams early period, before conquest and contact with more settled civilizations led to treatment of women as objects in some households, especially elite households (harem). Islamic practice allows 4 wives. Polygamy was widespread with those who could afford it. Women enjoy more equality in Islams early period, before conquest and contact with more settled civilizations led to treatment of women as objects in some households, especially elite households (harem). Islamic practice allows 4 wives. Polygamy was widespread with those who could afford it.

59 Islamic Contribution: Learning centers Islamic cities such as Baghdad, Cairo, and Cordoba host great libraries and became centers of learning (Great Library of Baghdad), preserving ancient classical texts and knowledge and new Islamic knowledge. Islamic cities such as Baghdad, Cairo, and Cordoba host great libraries and became centers of learning (Great Library of Baghdad), preserving ancient classical texts and knowledge and new Islamic knowledge.

60 Mathematical: Algebra, Arabic Numerals (from Indian trade). Mathematical: Algebra, Arabic Numerals (from Indian trade). Scientific: Astronomical observations, knowledge of round earth. Ibn Sina compiled major medical text that was basis for medicine in both the Islamic lands and Europe (idea of contagious disease). Scientific: Astronomical observations, knowledge of round earth. Ibn Sina compiled major medical text that was basis for medicine in both the Islamic lands and Europe (idea of contagious disease).

61 Philosophical: Islamic scholars preserve and translate ancient Greek works such as Aristotle; reintroduce them to Europe from trade and crusade contact. Helps spark Renaissance and oceanic explorations of the 15 th and 16 th centuries. Philosophical: Islamic scholars preserve and translate ancient Greek works such as Aristotle; reintroduce them to Europe from trade and crusade contact. Helps spark Renaissance and oceanic explorations of the 15 th and 16 th centuries.

62 Technological: Astrolabe invented to use stars for navigation; allows European explorers to cross Atlantic and try to find new routes to Asian markets beginning around Technological: Astrolabe invented to use stars for navigation; allows European explorers to cross Atlantic and try to find new routes to Asian markets beginning around 1500.

63 Diffusion of ideas from East to West: Gunpowder, astrolabe, compass, sailing techniques, papermaking, and other technologies spread from far east (China) across Muslim world to Western Europe through trade with Mediterranean (Crusades and Mongol roads helped open this trade). Diffusion of ideas from East to West: Gunpowder, astrolabe, compass, sailing techniques, papermaking, and other technologies spread from far east (China) across Muslim world to Western Europe through trade with Mediterranean (Crusades and Mongol roads helped open this trade).

64

65 Muhammad did not separate political and religious authority. Submission to the will of Allah meant submitting to his prophet, and Muhammad became a religious, political, and military leader.

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68 In 630 Muhammad returned to Makkah with ten thousand soldiers. The city surrendered and many residents converted to Islam. Muhammad declared the Kaaba a sacred shrine. Two years later, Muhammad died, as Islam was first spreading throughout the Arabian Peninsula.

69 Islam is monotheistic. Allah is the all- powerful Creator of everything. Islam offers salvation and the hope of an afterlife for those who subject themselves to Allahs will.

70 Muhammad is not considered divine, as Jesus is. He is a prophet who conveys Allahs final revelation. To do Allahs will, one must follow an ethical code comprised of the Five Pillars of Islam.

71 The Five Pillars 1. Believe in Allah and Muhammad as his prophet 2. Pray to Allah five times a day with public prayer on Fridays 3. Give alms to the poor and unfortunate 4. Observe the holy month of Ramadan, especially by fasting 5. Make a pilgrimage to Makkah once, if possible. This pilgrimage is called the hajj.

72 Islam is more a way of life than a set of beliefs.


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