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Chapter 14 – Working with Maps in an Inquiry Context Learning Topics The Role of Map and Globe Skills Problem Based Learning Using Maps Teaching Map and Globe Skills Electronic Mapping Systems Mapping Symbols for Classroom Display Copyright © 2011 by Pearson Education Canada
The Role of Map and Globe Skills Many teachers in elementary classrooms may have had very little exposure and training in the use of maps and globes in their own background. Some jurisdictions in Canada do not require Geography qualifications beyond early secondary grades for graduation so recent exposure may be limited to use of maps for historical purposes. This makes having some broad conceptions about the role of maps and globes in elementary Social Studies instruction critical for teachers so that they can make appropriate and informed choices about map and globe work to support their Social Studies courses in the primary and junior grades. Social Studies: Innovative Approaches for Teachers Copyright © 2011 by Pearson Education Canada
Using Maps Maps can be used in both the historical and geographical aspects of Social Studies programs to promote inquiry when they are subjected to the same scrutiny and critical stance as other resources. They can help learners understand differing perspectives, make connections between people and places and past and present, consider the future possibilities, think critically, situate themselves geographically and socially, and consider our societal identity in relationship to where we are geographically and in relation to other places that influence our location. Social Studies: Innovative Approaches for Teachers Copyright © 2011 by Pearson Education Canada
Carto-controversy The concept of carto-controversy guides teachers to include examination of the use of maps in historical contexts to ensure that parts of our Social Studies courses consider the purposes of historical and contemporary maps. Many early maps of Canada were made for economic purposes to name and claim territory related to the fur trade. These purposes made the perspective on maps slanted to the potential of the land to yield furs. Naming territories with little European settlement in them also provided a way for explorers to attempt to legitimize their claims to spaces. This approach has had far reaching consequences that still influence Canada’s development today as native land claims are established where early map makers created claims across traditional lands. Social Studies: Innovative Approaches for Teachers Copyright © 2011 by Pearson Education Canada
What do maps add to Social Studies? Maps represent the elements of space and time in relation to human development. These elements change and shift as society evolves. Hurren (2004) says, “… neither space nor identity is seen as a static entity. Each is always in process: space changes over time (who uses the space, how it is used) and identity changes over time (often as a result of the particular spaces we inhabit or frequent).” These are elements that students should have opportunities to examine and consider as they work with maps. Social Studies: Innovative Approaches for Teachers Copyright © 2011 by Pearson Education Canada
To Teach Map Making and Map Interpretation to Young Children, They Need Opportunities and Practice with the Following Skills: Understanding a model Following a map’s directions Developing their conception of point of view and perspective Determining alternatives and rotations to points of view Interpreting map symbols Understanding scaling Understanding rotations of a whole map Social Studies: Innovative Approaches for Teachers Copyright © 2011 by Pearson Education Canada
Children’s Developing Awareness of Maps As children’s conceptions related to mapping develop, they can begin to be exposed to various types of maps and the differing purposes of maps. Graphic organizers to relate types and purposes of maps will help to build their understanding of the diversity of maps. Interrogating the purposes, perspectives, biases, inclusions and exclusions of map samples is another strategy that teachers can use to teach critical questioning skills to students. As students develop increasing skills with maps, they are building their repertoire of geoscience concepts which in turn will enable them to understand increasingly complex maps. Social Studies: Innovative Approaches for Teachers Copyright © 2011 by Pearson Education Canada
Seeing Maps as Models The concept of one to one correspondence between a spot on earth and a corresponding spot on a globe or on a flat map is very abstract and will require considerable exposure for students to make the connection that a map is another type of model. The wide variety of maps, including those that are surface, subsurface, satellite, solar, and stellar, create an even more complex variety of possibilities for initial instruction. Technology has enabled, and made readily available, increasingly sophisticated maps that can be used for a wide range of purposes. Social Studies: Innovative Approaches for Teachers Copyright © 2011 by Pearson Education Canada
Map types that may be useful in elementary contexts include: Landforms/ topographic - Information about the surface features of the earth and the elevations of features (e.g., mountains, rivers, lakes, etc.) Physical regions - Characteristics of the surface features of the earth Climatic - Features of earth caused by the winds, ocean currents, and latitude, as they interrelate to create climate patterns Vegetation - Information about natural growth in various regions Political - Information about country and inner-country boundaries Socio-demographic - Information about social issues and impacts by country or region Environmental impact - Information about natural disaster areas and their progress or about pollution trajectories Stellar - Information about star and satellite locations and paths; star locations were significant in early navigation Oceanic - Information about the ocean floor contours and related resources Social Studies: Innovative Approaches for Teachers Copyright © 2011 by Pearson Education Canada
Problem-Based Learning Using Maps Problem-based learning is a type of inquiry. In Social Studies, problem-based learning can be used to integrate concepts from Social Studies with those ideas studied in other program areas. Integrated conceptions are applied to real life problems without overly stressing the artificial boundaries of any one subject area. The problem, rather than the discipline, becomes the focus of study and students employ strategies and analytical techniques from all disciplines to address the problem. Maps are one resource that can be used to identify aspects of the problem and seek resolutions. Social Studies: Innovative Approaches for Teachers Copyright © 2011 by Pearson Education Canada
Approaching Problem-Based Learning In problem-based learning approaches, the students wrestle with elements of the problem and their need to know creates the theatre for teaching the skills that will support their problem based inquiry. The teacher takes on the roles of both catalyst and strategic supporter. Social Studies: Innovative Approaches for Teachers Copyright © 2011 by Pearson Education Canada
In a Problem-Based Learning Environment, Evaluation of the Result, and Learning Process Should Meet Four Criteria (Engel, 1991). Learning is cumulative with the basic problem being revisited frequently over time so that skills can develop along with analysis of the problem. Learning is integrated rather than discipline centered and all perspectives are brought to bear on the problem, as are all resources. Progress is made in the learning as students grapple with various aspects of the problem. As learning progress is made, elements of the problem and criteria that surface in relation to possible solutions become more evident. The ways of knowing that are discipline bound (e.g., mapping) become tangled with ways of knowing from other disciplines. There is a direct link between how the learning is happening and how the assessment takes place. Students participate in the assessment of their own learning in relation to solutions to the problem. Assessment modes suit the problem. Social Studies: Innovative Approaches for Teachers Copyright © 2011 by Pearson Education Canada
Teaching Map and Globe Skills Map and globe skills can be taught in fascinating and sometimes awe inspiring ways because of the power of software available to schools. The use and availability of Smartboards make projection and manipulation of map elements easy and understandable. Teachers would benefit from an overview of the options for use of electronic teaching aids (GIS) to understand their power and potential as program development resources. Social Studies: Innovative Approaches for Teachers Copyright © 2011 by Pearson Education Canada
Drennon (2005) Proposes Five P erspectives on Software That Can be Used to Manipulate Geographic Data, Including Maps. GIS tools are used in combination with other approaches to automate common geography tasks such as mapping. GIS tools are taught separately from the need for their use (similarly to how initial computer introductions in schools were achieved in the 1980s). GIS tools are taught in isolation, then course content is applied. GIS skills are taught as a separate science focusing on the capture, storage, analysis, and visual representation of data. GIS is integrated into the geography field as a tool for understanding data as needs arise. Social Studies: Innovative Approaches for Teachers Copyright © 2011 by Pearson Education Canada
Strategy Discovery Approach to Teaching Mapping Skills Chen has highlighted the need to ensure that instruction attends to students’ need to develop mapping strategies both through instruction and through discovery. The use of symbolic representations for mapping require direct instruction and exposure to shift students’ strategies from less developed initial ones to more sophisticated approaches. Chen defines strategy discovery as “acquiring a new rule or novel problem-solving approach with experience” (p.386). Social Studies: Innovative Approaches for Teachers Copyright © 2011 by Pearson Education Canada
How Strategy Discovery Works The strategy discovery approach to learning requires that young children: Recognize an unproductive strategy (encoding) Choose to abandon it (analogizing) Construct new ways to map spaces mentally (corresponding). Social Studies: Innovative Approaches for Teachers Copyright © 2011 by Pearson Education Canada
Map and Globe Skills Typically Identified for Young Students Read maps of familiar areas in their local community Use non-standard units to measure distance on a map Demonstrate an understanding of scale Use their own symbols on a map Recognize that different colours represent different things on a map Use appropriate words to describe relative locations Map and use maps of urban and rural communities containing the necessary map elements of title, scale, symbols, legend, and cardinal directions Social Studies: Innovative Approaches for Teachers Copyright © 2011 by Pearson Education Canada
And… Consult map legends when looking for selected features Locate boundaries Label maps Use a variety of maps to locate and label Canada’s physical regions Use cardinal and intermediate directions, pictorial and non- pictorial symbols, scale,and colour to locate and display information on maps Social Studies: Innovative Approaches for Teachers Copyright © 2011 by Pearson Education Canada
And… Use number and letter grids to locate places on base maps, road maps, and atlases Create and use a variety of thematic maps Construct maps of transportation routes, cities, railways, and capitals Prepare various forms of maps Use familiar units of scale to measure distance on maps Construct and read a variety of maps, graphs, diagrams, and models to display and interpret information Social Studies: Innovative Approaches for Teachers Copyright © 2011 by Pearson Education Canada
And… Use base maps and other information sources to sketch relative positions of places Use information about time zones Use special purpose maps to find specific geographic information Use latitude and longitude to locate Compare various map projections and analyze their differences to determine the bias of each Social Studies: Innovative Approaches for Teachers Copyright © 2011 by Pearson Education Canada
Active Learning with Maps Map projections that are different than what students commonly experience can cause some unique opportunities to question perspectives. There are many active learning strategies that can be used to expose students in early grades to various types, characteristics and uses of maps. Social Studies: Innovative Approaches for Teachers Copyright © 2011 by Pearson Education Canada
Active Approaches to the use of Maps and Globes Include: Solving practical problems with maps (e.g., How long will this trip be?) Using stories that relate to places and trips Field trips using maps to navigate to exhibits Field work (e.g., students work in an open space with several geographical features and navigate the space by using maps) Creating map models (e.g., using salt and flour, plasticine, beach balls, or software) Mapping from memory; students sketch and compare to see other peoples’ perceptions of places Internet global studies (e.g., webquests, virtual tours, using google maps to compare most direct approaches to locations, etc.) Social Studies: Innovative Approaches for Teachers Copyright © 2011 by Pearson Education Canada
Map Projections Ways of displaying lines of latitude and longitude are prolific, with over 95 possible map projections being developed between the time of Leonardo daVinci and modern day projections. Typically in elementary Social Studies, students are introduced to some of the most common map projections, including: Mercator Peters Mollweide Atlantic-centered Pacific-centered Social Studies: Innovative Approaches for Teachers Copyright © 2011 by Pearson Education Canada
Mapping and Web Quest Ideas for the Classroom Students will require some prerequisite mapping skills to be able to engage more complex maps productively. Recent brain research highlights the essential need to engage students holistically through mind-body connections to ensure that they connect abstract concepts. A holistic approach to mapping skills would have students making connections to maps using all of their senses and through as many learning styles or modalities as possible. Social Studies: Innovative Approaches for Teachers Copyright © 2011 by Pearson Education Canada
Learning Styles and Instructional Approaches with Abstract Concepts When we plan learning of abstract concepts such as mapping with young students in mind, we must consider their learning styles. Since a class of students will be characterized by many varied learning styles (Gardner, 1983), we have many approaches that could be designed to teach the same idea. All it takes is a little of the teacher’s creativity! See your textbook for some mapping approaches designed to respond to various learning styles. Social Studies: Innovative Approaches for Teachers Copyright © 2011 by Pearson Education Canada
The Web Quest Should: Be wrapped around a doable and interesting task that is ideally a scaled down version of things that adults do as citizens or workers. Require higher level thinking, not simply summarizing. This includes synthesis, analysis, problem-solving, creativity, and judgment. Make good use of the web. A Web Quest that is not based on real resources from the web is probably just a traditional lesson in disguise. Books and other media can be used within a Web Quest, but if the web is not at the heart of the lesson, it is not a Web Quest. Not be a research report or a step-by-step science or math procedure. Not be just a series of web-based experiences. Be designed to promote higher level thinking. Social Studies: Innovative Approaches for Teachers Copyright © 2011 by Pearson Education Canada
Using Web Quests Web quests should be designed by teachers to ensure access through many ways of knowing and learning styles. To do this, teachers must design web quests with care and detail, responding to the learning characteristics of the group of students and of individuals within the group. While it may be tempting to use web quests that are available commercially or through internet sources, these may fail to address the needs of the class and should be modified for those needs. Social Studies: Innovative Approaches for Teachers Copyright © 2011 by Pearson Education Canada
Well Designed Web Quests Should Have the Following Characteristics: Learning expectations for the web quest are clearly articulated by the teacher and understood by the students. The reading level of quest directions is targeted to the specific group of students. Directions are provided in easy to follow steps. Screen captures guide students’ searches. Expected products from the quest are explained in detail and supported by examples. Social Studies: Innovative Approaches for Teachers Copyright © 2011 by Pearson Education Canada
Electronic Mapping Systems Online mapping systems have made mapping in the classroom context much more sophisticated than in the past. Students are able to make and manipulate representational and satellite maps with ease through commonly available classroom hardware. Students can also be taught to use land and marine global positioning systems (GPS) to identify features on the land’s surface and below water. Many school jurisdictions have GPS labs available for loan to students. Some students may even have these features available through cell phone technology. High technology maps will become increasingly common and available to students through their classrooms and through personal convenience devices such as phones. The challenge for teachers will be to help students interpret and contextualize the resources they have available. Social Studies: Innovative Approaches for Teachers Copyright © 2011 by Pearson Education Canada
Mapping Symbols for Classroom Display Map symbols allow us to represent map abstractions in symbolic form to present natural and human made features of the earth’s surface. Map symbols can be used to represent three types of surface features: points, lines, and areas. These symbols can be applied to many types of maps for the purposes of travel, tourism, orientation, navigation, and entertainment, or social activities. Social Studies: Innovative Approaches for Teachers Copyright © 2011 by Pearson Education Canada
Well Designed Map Symbols Will Have Two Main Features. 1.They will allow the map viewer to have an intuitive recognition of the feature represented by the symbol. 2.They will help map makers as well as map readers, by reducing the clutter or footprint on the surface of the map. Modern cartographers use the principles of minimal clutter and intuitive recognition to create symbols for modern maps for many applications. Social Studies: Innovative Approaches for Teachers Copyright © 2011 by Pearson Education Canada
Chapter Review Maps have inherent assumptions, perspectives, biases, and beliefs built into them. Maps must be exposed to critical use in both historical and geographical inquiry uses. Map study should include opportunities to examine historical misuses of maps for power or monetary gain (carto- controversy). Early maps of Canada still have societal impacts for our Canadian culture. Maps represent elements of space and time. Using maps in conjunction with other sources allows the use of maps in problem solving contexts to be optimal. Social Studies: Innovative Approaches for Teachers Copyright © 2011 by Pearson Education Canada
Students need many opportunities to practise map making and map interpretation skills. Critical map studies consider the map’s purposes, historical context, biases, and perspectives. Cultural maps consider the relationships between spaces and the identities of people. Increasing students’ repertoire of geosciences concepts helps to build their ability to understand increasingly complex maps. One to one correspondence is a critical skill needed by students to help them understand maps as a representation of reality. Social Studies: Innovative Approaches for Teachers Copyright © 2011 by Pearson Education Canada
There are many different types of maps that have different foci. Problem based learning is a type of inquiry where maps can be used as one source of information to conceptualize and resolve problems. In problem based learning, maps are a resource, not an end product, for learning. GIS technology can be used to help students grapple with the elements of a complex problem to help them identify its complexities. Social Studies: Innovative Approaches for Teachers Copyright © 2011 by Pearson Education Canada
Strategy discovery using maps can promote young students’ ability to encode, analogize, and correspond effectively when using maps. Guidelines from provincial and territorial sources should be examined by teachers to determine how mapping and other geographical skills are presented. Guidelines can identify all of the skills students are required to learn in relation to map and globe competencies. Active learning approaches can be applied to the study of maps and globes so that skills are not just learned in isolation. Students should be taught to understand maps as mathematical projections with inherent assumptions that result in a particular projection. Social Studies: Innovative Approaches for Teachers Copyright © 2011 by Pearson Education Canada
The most commonly used map projections include the Mercator, Peters, Mollweide, Atlantic -centered, and Pacific - centered. Using active and physical strategies to teach young students abstract concepts such as latitude and longitude can help them understand these ideas at a young age. Orienteering and safely village experiences can help young children develop understanding of abstract mapping concepts. Multiple intelligences and brain research based approaches to teaching can support students’ understanding of abstract mapping concepts. Social Studies: Innovative Approaches for Teachers Copyright © 2011 by Pearson Education Canada
By consciously considering multiple intelligences, teachers can generate many appealing strategies to help students learn abstract mapping concepts. Webquests are appealing to students because they draw on many forms of intelligence and engage students holistically. Well designed web quests have clear expectations, understandable directions, screen capture supports, and clearly explained product details. Electronic mapping systems, including GIS software, make sophisticated mapping products possible for very young students. Social Studies: Innovative Approaches for Teachers Copyright © 2011 by Pearson Education Canada
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