u Writer’s Purpose –Explain a problem that requires change –Demonstrate a need for funding –Show that your project will solve the problem u Reader’s Purpose –Determine if your project matches the goals of the funding agency –Decide if your project is worthwhile and unique –Conclude that you are competent
Consider the Rhetorical Situation u Text (Proposal) –Will be read quickly –Look professional and free of errors –Meet specific requirements –Follow a standard format –Answer reader’s questions –Persuade the reader that you’re competent
Proposal Writing Process 1. Plan your projects, determine your funding needs, and locate a funding source that matches 2. Implement a focused grant proposal 3. Evaluate your grant proposal and respond to evaluation by others
Plan Your Projects u Establish your agency’s identity u Outline your projects and funding requirements u Identify funding sources u Analyze the goals of the granting agency u Analyze the RFP for the grant u Locate successful models of funding
Establish Your Agency’s Identity u Begin with your central identity or core values u List 2 or 3 key services that you provide u Outline your clientele u Determine what is unique about your organization
Outline Your Projects and Funding Requirements u What is unique about these projects? u Who will benefit? u Where and when will the projects take place? u How much will the projects cost? u Why is there a need to fund these projects?
Identify Funding Sources u Government sources u Private foundations u Corporations u Special interest groups u Internet sources
Analyze The Goals Of The Granting Agency u What are the goals of the granting agency? u What is their strategic plan? u Why was the fund set up? u What do they want to fund? u How is the funding calculated? u What other obligations are involved? u What are the requirements of the RFP?
Analyze The Goals Of The Granting Agency u What does the agency want to fund –Any special target group? –Any special functions? –Any special way of operating? –Any particular priorities at a given time?
Analyze the RFP (Request for Proposals) u How it the funding calculated? u Maximum/minimum grant per project? u What is and isn’t funded? u Does the applicant pay a percentage of the costs? u When is the grant paid?
Analyze the RFP (Request for Proposals) u What other obligations are involved? u What is the timeline for completion? u What kinds of reports are required? u Are there any deliverables required?
Analyze the RFP (Request for Proposals) u What parts of the proposal are required? u What will be the evaluation criteria? u Are there successful models you can follow? u Who will read the proposal?
Locate Successful Models Of Funding u What is unique about the projects? u How do the goals in the proposal and the goals of the funding agency match? u What did you like about the proposal? u At what point were you convinced that this was a proposal worth funding? Why?
Implement A Successful Proposal u Identify the current situation requiring change u Specify your plan to improve the situation u Outline your qualifications to do the work u Itemize costs and benefits of your plan
Select Components Of The Proposal u Outline components required by the RFP u Describe details of your project u Create a budget u Obtain approvals and permissions u Submit your proposal on time
Strategies For Writing Your Proposal u Content u Organization u Style u Design
Content u Be focused and specific u Show how your project is related to the grant giver’s goals u Provide details, including the budget u Include everything required by the RFP
Organization u Provide an executive summary u Follow the guidelines of the RFP u Use headings, overviews, and summaries
Style u Define terms u Be succinct u Allow time for revision u Get feedback from other people
Design u Use page numbers, headers, and footers u Include photos and diagrams u Make sure the proposal looks professional u Assume a skim/scan reading
Respond to Evaluations u Revise your proposal for content u Analyze the organization of your pro u Edit
Pitfalls To Avoid In Writing The Proposal u Being too ambitious in your projects u Using generalities u Assuming a linear reading u Assuming readers know your capabilities u Hiding costs u Sending the proposal in at the last minute u Failing to revise and resubmit the proposal
Act on the Evaluations u Complete the project and seek renewal Or u Request reviews, revise, and resubmit