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The Sport Team As an Effective Group Mark A. Eys, Shauna M. Burke, Paul Dennis, and Blair Evans Chapter 7 “I can tell you one thing, and this is the great.

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Presentation on theme: "The Sport Team As an Effective Group Mark A. Eys, Shauna M. Burke, Paul Dennis, and Blair Evans Chapter 7 “I can tell you one thing, and this is the great."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Sport Team As an Effective Group Mark A. Eys, Shauna M. Burke, Paul Dennis, and Blair Evans Chapter 7 “I can tell you one thing, and this is the great thing about this team: no matter how many good players we’ve got, the team spirit is unbelievable. We are like a family and every time we come here, we are not even thinking about who is going to play the game. It’s all about whoever is on the pitch just giving everything.” Belgian fullback Vincent Kompany Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

2 Introduction Membership and involvement in a group is a fundamental characteristic of our society Each of us interacts daily with numerous other people in group settings Family, work, social situations, sport teams We exert influence on other people in groups and, in turn, those groups and their members have an influence on us Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

3 Nature of Sport Groups “Every group is like all other groups, like some other groups, and like no other group.” - Carron & Hausenblas Groups are simultaneously common and unique Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

4 Definition of Sport Groups (Teams) “A collection of two or more individuals who possess a common identity, have common goals and objectives, share a common fate, exhibit structured patterns of interaction and modes of communication, hold common perceptions about group structure, are personally and instrumentally interdependent, reciprocate interpersonal attraction, and consider themselves to be a group.” - Carron & Eys (1998 ) Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

5 Definitional Categories for Groups 1.Common identity 2.Common goals or objectives 3.Common fate 4.Structured pattern of interaction 5.Group structure 6.Personal and task interdependence 7.Interpersonal attraction Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

6 Group Cohesion Cohesion is the most important small group variable Need a sense of “we” It is multidimensional Why a group sticks together and remains “united in the pursuit of its instrumental objectives and/or for the satisfaction of member affective needs” – Carron, Brawley, and Widmeyer Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

7 Cohesion Depends on Perception Perception can come from a group’s members or other groups Unity within a group manifests in two principal ways: in relation to the group’s task and in terms of the social aspects of the unit Additionally, cohesion for individuals depends on: Group integration – Each individual’s perceptions of the group as a total unit, set, or collection Individual attractions to the group – Each individual's personal attractions to the group Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

8 Group Cohesion TaskSocial Group Integration Group Integration Individual Attractions to the Group Individual Attractions to the Group Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

9 Correlates of Cohesiveness Personal Factors Team Factors Environmental Factors Leadership Factors Cohesion in Sport Teams Cohesion in Sport Teams Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

10 Environmental Factors Proximity Individuals physically closer tend to bond together (locker room, dorm, travel, classes, etc.) Size Moderate sized groups show greatest cohesion, and larger and smaller groups exhibited the least (Inverted-U relationship) Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

11 Personal Factors Characteristics, beliefs, or behaviors of group members Satisfaction Comes from feeling valued and competent, social relations, recognition from others, relationship with coach, etc. Competitive state anxiety Athletes who perceive their teams to be higher in task cohesion experience less cognitive anxiety Social loafing Individuals tend to decrease the amount of effort they expend when completing a group task compared to the amount of effort expended when alone Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

12 Leadership factors Interrelationships among the coach, the athlete, cohesiveness, and performance are complex Some coaching factors can influence the level of cohesion: Decision style Stronger cohesion when team members are allowed to participate in decision making Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

13 Team Factors Cohesion is influenced by: Structural characteristics Roles and norms Processes that take place between group members Group goals, communication Group performance outcomes Copyright © 2015 Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Education.

14 Team Factors: Roles A set of behaviors that are expected from the occupants of specific positions within the group Formal roles Explicitly set up by the group, individuals are trained for these roles Coach, team captain, and manager Informal roles The result of the interactions that take place among group members, not assigned Leader, task booster, enforcer, mentor, team clown, etc. Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

15 Role Clarity vs. Ambiguity Role ambiguity Lack of clear consistent information regarding one’s role To prevent ambiguity, athletes must understand the major aspects of their role: 1.Scope of responsibilities 2.Behaviors necessary to successfully fulfill role responsibilities 3.How role performance will be evaluated 4.Consequences of unfulfilled role responsibilities Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

16 Role Acceptance The whole team needs to be on the same page with respect to their collective goal The individual athlete will better understand their role responsibilities Everyone on the team needs to fulfill their role so they team can succeed To encourage role acceptance, coaches should minimize the status differences among roles Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

17 Other Role Elements Elements of role involvement that are important to group environment and contributors to cohesiveness Role efficacy Athlete’s beliefs about capabilities to carry out role responsibilities Role conflict Athlete’s perceptions of incongruent expectations Role overload Athlete has too many role expectations Role satisfaction How happy the athlete is with their given role(s) Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

18 Team Factors: Norms Standard for behavior that is expected of members of the group May be task irrelevant or task relevant Reflects the group's consensus about behaviors that are considered acceptable Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

19 Norms (cont.) Four contexts in which norms exist Competition Practice Off-season Socially Important norms within those contexts: Put maximum effort toward task Support each other Continue training and maintain contact Attend social events Respect for each other Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

20 Relationship Between Group Norms and Group Cohesiveness Development of norms Development of cohesiveness STABILITY Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

21 Team Factors: Group Processes Group processes Establish group goals and rewards Communication Circular relationship to cohesiveness Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

22 Team Factor: Performance Outcome Cohesiveness contributes to performance success, and performance success increases cohesiveness Task cohesion AND social cohesion Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

23 Team Building Strategies to help members work together more effectively Provides meaningful experiences that lead to a greater sense of unity Use team building for both task and social purposes Might be direct or indirect Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

24 Team Building Approach The Spink and Carron approach An indirect intervention process 1.Introductory stage 2.Conceptual stage 3.Practical stage 4.Intervention stage Steps 1-3 occur during coach-sport psychology specialist interactions Coach learns about group dynamics and preps strategies to develop cohesion within his or her team Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

25 Stages of Team Building Introduction stage Sport psychologist provides a brief overview of the general benefits of group cohesion Conceptual stage Sport psychologist teaches coach about the various components of the team building protocol Helps coach identify key areas to focus efforts Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

26 Stages of Team Building (cont.) Practical stage Coaches engage in an interactive brainstorming session Generate specific team building strategies Coach must be involved because: a)Personality and preference b)What is effective with one group may be ineffective with another group c)Controls protocol, which increases investment Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

27 Additional Team Building Approaches Personal-Disclosure Mutual-Sharing intervention (PDMS) Sport psychology specialists ask team members to write a passage that answers a personal question about their sport involvement The specialist leads a team meeting where members read their passage aloud Demands a high level of responsibility to ensure that the statements remain confidential Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

28 Additional Team Building Approaches Mastery Approach to Coaching (MAC) Ideal for youth sport settings MAC protocol for team building is based on the expectation that positive and task-oriented coaching behaviors enable positive group environments Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

29 Additional Team Building Approaches Sport psychology specialists might include athletes as active contributors to team building strategies Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


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