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ICHEP conference, Paris, 22/07/10

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Emergence

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Current Paradigm FUNDAMENTAL FORCES: carried by elementary particles

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Emergence of Particles and Forces

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Gravity as an Emergent Force At a microscopic scale Nature is described by many degrees of freedom, most of which are invisible and at first sight irrelevant for the observed macroscopic physics. Gravity arises due to the fact that the amount of phase space volume (“information”) occupied by these microscopic degrees of freedom is influenced by the observable macroscopic variables, like the positions of material objects.

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Black hole thought experiments. Consider a particle gradually lowered in to a black hole. Classically, the energy associated with the particle gets redshifted, and vanishes when the particle is at the horizon. Penrose Christodoulou Bekenstein Hawking

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Black Hole Entropy => Holographic Principle Maximal information associated with a part of space can be encoded in a # of bits equal to the area in Planck units

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ADS/CFT CORRESPONDENCE EQUIVALENCE BETWEEN FIELD THEORY ON THE “BOUNDARY” AND GRAVITY IN THE “BULK” ONE SPACE DIMENSION EMERGES CORRESPONDING TO THE “SCALE” OF THE BOUNDARY THEORY. RADIAL EVOLUTION IS LIKE RENORMALIZATION GROUP FLOW.

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Entropic force (wikipedia) An entropic force is a macroscopic force whose properties are determined not by the character of an underlying microscopic force, but by the whole system's statistical tendency to increase its entropy.

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Thought experiment “stretched horizon” black hole

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Consistency with black hole thermodynamics implies

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information is stored on holographic screens moving a particle over one Compton wavelength leads to one more bit of information A HEURISTIC DERIVATION OF GRAVITY

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To get a force one needs a temperature. By taking that temperature to be the Unruh temperature one finds Newton’s law of inertia

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In order to get an entropic force I need a temperature

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Holographic screens at equipotential (= equal redshift) surfaces

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What about General Relativity? Surface of constant redshift Komar mass => Einstein equation

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Rindler Horizon Suggestive link with QM: What is this velocity v ?

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Cosmological Horizon De Sitter Space

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Cosmological Horizon

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Cosmological Horizon

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Equipotential surface v = escape velocity

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Schroedinger eqn with H depending on infinitely slow variable Instantaneous eigenstates Adiabatic Reaction Force Semiclassically

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What lives on the screens? According to string theory: open strings. Integrating out the UV open strings produces closed strings in the emerged space.

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Open closed string duality x Open string one loop diagram Massless pole in dual channel

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UV/IR correspondence Open string with UV cut off Closed string / gravity with UV cut off

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Matrix description of gravity.

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Gravity as an Emergent Force At a microscopic scale Nature is described by many degrees of freedom, most of which are invisible and at first sight irrelevant for the observed macroscopic physics. Gravity arises due to the fact that the amount of phase space volume (“information”) occupied by these microscopic degrees of freedom is influenced by the observable macroscopic variables, like the positions of material objects.

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Dirac monopool At the locus of coinciding eigenvalues one can construct Non-abelian Berry

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