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LE CYCLE CELLULAIRE ET LA MITOSE POUR ÊTRE TRADUITS EN FRANÇAIS PHA Biology 9 Moretti/ Dickson.

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Presentation on theme: "LE CYCLE CELLULAIRE ET LA MITOSE POUR ÊTRE TRADUITS EN FRANÇAIS PHA Biology 9 Moretti/ Dickson."— Presentation transcript:

1 LE CYCLE CELLULAIRE ET LA MITOSE POUR ÊTRE TRADUITS EN FRANÇAIS PHA Biology 9 Moretti/ Dickson

2 DNA Chromosomes: DNA tightly coiled around little protein balls (histones) to make it very compact Gene: Instructions for making a protein that determines a trait Another Gene: instructions for making a different protein that determines a different trait Chromosome Review Nucleotide Base Pairs Chromosomes unraveling into DNA

3 DNA Chromosomes: ADN étroitement enroulé autour de balles peu de protéines (histones) pour le rendre très compact Gene: Instructions for making a protein that determines a trait Another Gene: instructions for making a different protein that determines a different trait Chromosome examen Nucleotide Base Pairs Chromosomes unraveling into DNA

4 Chromosome Review  Contain DNA  Number varies with organism:  Humans: 46  Cats: 32  Dogs: 72 Note: Page 341 in Textbook has a good picture of karyotype Objectives for Class: Describe the structure of a chromosome. Describe the purpose and the 4 major steps of the cell cycle.

5 The Cell Cycle: Overview  One cell grows and divides into two new cells  Purpose:  Growth  Replace dead cells  Repair tissues after injury  Asexual reproduction (in single-celled organisms) Amoeba reproducing

6 Major Steps of the Cell Cycle  Interphase: growth; copying of chromosomes & organelles  G1 phase: Cell grows  S phase: DNA replicates  G2 phase: More growth; cell prepares to divide  M-Phase:  Mitosis Chromosomes separate to form two new nuclei  Cytokinesis: Cell splits to form two new identical cells Objectives for Class: Describe the structure of a chromosome. Describe the purpose and the 4 major steps of the cell cycle.

7 Principales étapes du cycle cellulaire  Interphase: la croissance, la copie des chromosomes et les organites  La phase G1: cellule croît  Phase S: réplication de l'ADN  Phase G2: Plus de croissance; cellule se prépare à se diviser  M-Phase:  Mitose chromosomes distincts pour former deux nouveaux noyaux  Cytocinèse: cellule se divise pour former deux nouvelles cellules identiques Objectives for Class: Describe the structure of a chromosome. Describe the purpose and the 4 major steps of the cell cycle.

8 What do you notice about the chromosomes in G1 versus G2? Objectives for Class: Describe the structure of a chromosome. Describe the purpose and the 4 major steps of the cell cycle.

9 Chromosome Replication During the Cell Cycle G1 Phase:  Chromosomes are un-replicated - each contains one copy of its DNA Un-Replicated Chromosome G2 Phase:  Chromosomes are replicated - each contains two exact copies of its DNA Centromere – a small spot in the center of a chromosome Replicated Chromosome Sister Chromatids – two halves of a replicated chromosome – exact copies of each other Centromere S Phase: DNA Replication creates replicated chromosomes Objectives for Class: Describe the structure of a chromosome. Describe the purpose and the 4 major steps of the cell cycle.

10 More Images of Chromosome Replication Objectives for Class: Describe the structure of a chromosome. Describe the purpose and the 4 major steps of the cell cycle.

11 Why do Chromosomes Replicate? So they can split during mitosis and separate into two new cells  Each cell gets an exact copy of each chromosome ! Objectives for Class: Describe the structure of a chromosome. Describe the purpose and the 4 major steps of the cell cycle.

12 Short Activity: Plant Cells in Mitosis Can you identify the different stages? Objectives for Class: Explain how mitosis separates the cell’s DNA into two different nuclei to create two new cells.

13  Mitosis: Chromosomes separate to form two new nuclei  Cytokinesis:  Cell splits to form two new identical cells M-Phase: Mitotic Division Objectives for Class: Describe the purpose and steps of mitosis and cytokinesis. Draw diagrams showing how mitosis/cytokinesis separate chromosomes into two new cells..

14 Stages of Mitosis

15 Animal CellPlant Cells Interphase Objectives for Class: Explain how mitosis separates the cell’s DNA into two different nuclei to create two new cells.

16 MMitosis begins (cell begins to divide) SSpindle fibers form between the ends (poles) of cell. Mitosis Stages: Prophase Objectives for Class: Explain how mitosis separates the cell’s DNA into two different nuclei to create two new cells.

17 Mitosis Stages: Metaphase  Chromosomes line up at the center of the cell  Spindle fibers attach to sister chromatids, as they prepare to pull them apart Objectives for Class: Explain how mitosis separates the cell’s DNA into two different nuclei to create two new cells.

18  Chromatids (or pairs of chromosomes) separate and begin to move to opposite ends of the cell Mitosis Stages: Anaphase Objectives for Class: Explain how mitosis separates the cell’s DNA into two different nuclei to create two new cells.

19  Two new nuclei form  Chromosomes appear as chromatin (threads rather than rods)  Mitosis ENDS Mitosis Stages: Telophase Objectives for Class: Explain how mitosis separates the cell’s DNA into two different nuclei to create two new cells.

20  Cell membrane moves inward to create two daughter cells – each with its own nucleus with identical chromosomes Cytokinesis Objectives for Class: Explain how mitosis separates the cell’s DNA into two different nuclei to create two new cells.

21 Objectives for Class: Explain how mitosis separates the cell’s DNA into two different nuclei to create two new cells. Stages of Mitosis

22 Quiz Review: DNA Structure & Replication and the Cell Cycle  Schéma et décrire la structure de l'ADN et...  Label les parties suivantes:  le sucre désoxyribose  Phosphate  bases azotées  des liaisons hydrogène.  Afficher bon appariement entre les bases azotées.  Définir chacun des termes suivants et expliquer  comment ils se rapportent tous à l'autre:  ADN  Les gènes  Chromosomes  Nucléotides  Décrire les étapes de la réplication de l'ADN.  Schéma et décrire la structure d'un chromosome.  Dessiner un chromosome et l'étiquette de la chromatides centromère et la sœur.  Distinguer entre les chromosomes non répliqués et reproduites.  Expliquer le résultat objectif et globale du cycle cellulaire.  Décrire ce qui se passe à chaque étape du cycle cellulaire:  Interphase Phase G1 Phase S Phase G2  Mitose Prophase Métaphase Anaphase Télophase Cytocinèse


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