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You are the provider continued (2 of 3) You and your partner opt to perform a rapid physical exam. Partner maintains c-spine precautions. You determine.

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Presentation on theme: "You are the provider continued (2 of 3) You and your partner opt to perform a rapid physical exam. Partner maintains c-spine precautions. You determine."— Presentation transcript:

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2 You are the provider continued (2 of 3) You and your partner opt to perform a rapid physical exam. Partner maintains c-spine precautions. You determine no life-threatening injuries. You expose his burns. One thigh is completely reddened with a fist- sized blister. Patient denies taking medications. States he is allergic to penicillin and has no past medical history

3 You are the provider continued (3 of 3) At what point would you take vital signs? When should you start oxygen? How much would you administer? What type of device would you use? What degree of burn does the patient have? Given the location and area, is this burn life threatening? How do you treat this burn?

4 Initial Assessment General impression – Look for clues about how serious the injury is. – If patient has a hoarse voice or was in an enclosed space with fire or heat source, this is significant MOI. – Singed facial hair can indicate a potential airway/breathing problem. – Be suspicious for child or elder abuse.

5 You are the provider continued This is a 27-year-old male who was entrapped under a car that he was working on. Sustained burn due to hot antifreeze Has soft-tissue and musculoskeletal injuries due to the car that fell on his leg There are no other hazards on the scene.

6 Airway and Breathing Ensure patent airway. Patient may have a respiratory burn if he has singed facial hair, copious secretions, or frequent coughing. Quickly assess for adequate breathing. Palpate chest wall for DCAP-BTLS. Check breath sounds and provide high-flow oxygen. Burn patients are trauma patients; evaluate and treat for spinal injuries.

7 You are the provider continued Ensure that airway is open. There were no noted airway abnormalities. Breathing is rapid, indicating need for oxygen therapy and respiratory support. Quickly inspect and palpate chest. Observe for use of accessory chest muscles. Patient’s lips are pursed and breathing is rapid. You start oxygen using a nonrebreathing mask at 10 to 15 L/min.

8 Circulation Quickly assess pulse. Control significant bleeding. Shock is common in burn patients. Support by elevating arms and legs or placing in Trendelenburg position. Damaged skin has limited ability to regulate skin temperature.

9 You are the provider continued (3 of 3) At what point would you take vital signs? When should you start oxygen? How much would you administer? What type of device would you use? What degree of burn does the patient have? Given the location and area, is this burn life threatening? How do you treat this burn?

10 Initial Assessment General impression – Look for clues about how serious the injury is. – If patient has a hoarse voice or was in an enclosed space with fire or heat source, this is significant MOI. – Singed facial hair can indicate a potential airway/breathing problem. – Be suspicious for child or elder abuse.

11 You are the provider continued This is a 27-year-old male who was entrapped under a car that he was working on. Sustained burn due to hot antifreeze Has soft-tissue and musculoskeletal injuries due to the car that fell on his leg There are no other hazards on the scene.

12 Airway and Breathing Ensure patent airway. Patient may have a respiratory burn if he has singed facial hair, copious secretions, or frequent coughing. Quickly assess for adequate breathing. Palpate chest wall for DCAP-BTLS. Check breath sounds and provide high-flow oxygen. Burn patients are trauma patients; evaluate and treat for spinal injuries.

13 You are the provider continued Ensure that airway is open. There were no noted airway abnormalities. Breathing is rapid, indicating need for oxygen therapy and respiratory support. Quickly inspect and palpate chest. Observe for use of accessory chest muscles. Patient’s lips are pursed and breathing is rapid. You start oxygen using a nonrebreathing mask at 10 to 15 L/min.

14 Circulation Quickly assess pulse. Control significant bleeding. Shock is common in burn patients. Support by elevating arms and legs or placing in Trendelenburg position. Damaged skin has limited ability to regulate skin temperature.

15 You are the provider continued Patient’s pulse is rapid. Patient’s skin is clammy. Signs suggest patient might be in compensated shock. You see no external bleeding.

16 Transport Decision Quickly transport patients who have airway/breathing problems, significant burn injuries, significant bleeding. Consider ALS rendezvous.

17 You are the provider continued You determine that patient is high-priority transport due to respiratory status.

18 Focused History and Physical Exam Patient has significant MOI; perform rapid physical exam. Dress burn with appropriate bandage. Note location and estimate size of injury. Use DCAP-BTLS to identify and correct life threats. Use Rule of Nines to roughly estimate extent of burned area. Obtain baseline vital signs and SAMPLE history.

19 Interventions Stop the burning process. Assess and treat ABCs. Provide spinal stabilization. Provide oxygen. Treat aggressively for shock. Provide rapid transport. Cover burns according to local protocol.

20 You are the provider continued Rinse patient with water. Apply sterile dressing as per local protocols. Place patient on long backboard. Ankle should be splinted with a pillow splint.

21 Detailed Physical Exam Perform if patient is stable and time allows.

22 Ongoing Assessment Repeat initial assessment and vital signs. Communication and documentation – Describe how burn occurred. – Include extent of burn. – Indicate if any special areas were involved (genitalia, feet, hands, face, or circumferential).

23 Emergency Care for Burns (1 of 3) Follow proper BSI precautions. Move patient away from burning area. Immerse affected area in cool sterile water or saline solution and cover with cool, wet dressing.

24 Emergency Care for Burns (2 of 3) Provide high-flow oxygen. Prevent body heat loss. Rapidly estimate the burn’s severity. Check for traumatic injuries.

25 Emergency Care for Burns (3 of 3) Treat the patient for shock. Provide prompt transport.

26 Chemical Burns Occur whenever a toxic substance contacts the body Eyes are particularly vulnerable. Fumes can cause burns. To prevent exposure, wear appropriate gloves and eye protection.

27 Care for Chemical Burns (1 of 2) Remove the chemical from the patient. If it is a powder chemical, brush off first. Remove all contaminated clothing.

28 Care for Chemical Burns (2 of 2) Flush burned area with large amounts of water for about 15 to 20 minutes. Transport quickly.

29 Chemical Burn to the Eye Hold open eyelid while flooding eye with a gentle stream of water. Continue flushing en route to hospital.

30 Electrical Burns Make sure power is off before touching patient. There will be two wounds (an entrance and an exit wound) to bandage. Transport patient and be prepared to administer CPR.

31 Small Animal Bites All small animal bites should be considered potentially infected. Occasionally bites require surgical repair. Apply a dry, sterile dressing and transport.

32 Rabies Potentially fatal viral infection May be transmitted through biting or licking an infected wound Some commons carriers are bats, squirrels, skunks, foxes, raccoons, and stray dogs. Refer to local resources for identification and capture. All patients with bites need medical attention.

33 Human Bites Very serious injury Promptly immobilize with a splint or bandage. Apply a dry, sterile dressing. Provide transport.

34 Functions of Dressing and Bandaging Control bleeding. Protect wound. Prevent contamination.

35 Dressings and Bandages Sterile dressings – Used to cover wounds Bandaging – Used to keep dressing in place

36 Review 1.A young male was struck in the forearm with a baseball and complains of pain to the area. Slight swelling and ecchymosis are present, but no external bleeding. What type of injury does this describe? A. Abrasion B. Contusion C. Hematoma D. Avulsion

37 Review Answer: B Rationale: A contusion (bruise) is caused by direct blunt force trauma. The epidermis remains intact, but small blood vessels in the dermis are injured. The depth of the injury varies, depending on the amount of energy absorbed. Pain and swelling occur as fluid and blood leak into the damaged area. The buildup of blood produces a characteristic blue and black discoloration called ecchymosis.

38 Review 1.A young male was struck in the forearm with a baseball and complains of pain to the area. Slight swelling and ecchymosis are present, but no external bleeding. What type of injury does this describe? A.Abrasion Rationale: An abrasion is a wound of the superficial layer of skin, caused by friction. B. Contusion Rationale: Correct answer C. Hematoma Rationale: Hematoma is blood that has collected within damaged tissue or in a body cavity, associated with large blood vessel damage. D. Avulsion Rationale: An avulsion is an injury that separates various layers of tissue.

39 Review 2. The primary reason for applying a sterile dressing to an open injury is to: A. prevent contamination. B. control external bleeding. C. reduce the risk of infection. D. minimize any internal bleeding.

40 Review Answer: B Rationale: Although prevention of contamination is an important reason for applying a sterile dressing to an open injury, the primary reason is to control the external bleeding associated with it.

41 Review 2. The primary reason for applying a sterile dressing to an open injury is to: A.prevent contamination. Rationale: This is important, but not the primary reason. B. control external bleeding. Rationale: Correct answer C. reduce the risk of infection. Rationale: The prevention of contamination will result in the reduction of potential infection risks. D. minimize any internal bleeding. Rationale: Internal bleeding is minimized by the application of a pressure bandage to an open wound.

42 Review 3. Which of the following is considered a critical burn? A. Any full-thickness burn B. 20% partial-thickness burn C. 10% full-thickness burn with abrasions D. 5% full-thickness burn with a fracture

43 Review Answer: D Rationale: Critical burns include the following: partial- and full-thickness burns involving the hands, feet, face, airway, or genitalia; full-thickness burns covering more than 10% of the body surface area; burns involving the respiratory tract (ie, smoke inhalation); burns complicated by fractures; and burns on patients younger than 5 years or older than 55 years that would otherwise be classified as “moderate” burns on younger adults.

44 Review 3. Which of the following is considered a critical burn? A.Any full-thickness burn Rationale: A full-thickness burn is greater than 10% or involving the hands, face, feet, and genitalia, or a circumferential burn. B. 20% partial-thickness burn Rationale: This burn must be greater than 30% BSA. C. 10% full-thickness burn with abrasions Rationale: This burn must be greater than 10% BSA. D. 5% full-thickness burn with a fracture Rationale: Correct answer

45 Review 4. A 22-year-old male was attacked by a rival gang and has a large knife impaled in the center of his chest. Your assessment reveals that he is apneic and pulseless. You should: A. carefully remove the knife, control any bleeding, begin CPR, and transport. B. stabilize the knife in place, provide rescue breathing, and transport at once. C. remove the knife and control any bleeding, apply the AED, and analyze his rhythm. D. begin CPR, control any external bleeding, and transport rapidly to a trauma center.

46 Review Answer: A Rationale: As a rule, impaled objects should be stabilized in place. However, if they interfere with the patient’s breathing or your ability to perform CPR, they should be removed. You cannot perform CPR on a patient if a knife is impaled in the center of the chest. Carefully remove the knife, control any bleeding, begin CPR, and transport at once. The AED is not indicated for patients with traumatic cardiac arrest; their arrest is usually caused by massive blood loss, not a primary cardiac dysrhythmia.

47 Review (1 of 2) 4. A 22-year-old male was attacked by a rival gang and has a large knife impaled in the center of his chest. Your assessment reveals that he is apneic and pulseless. You should: A.carefully remove the knife, control any bleeding, begin CPR, and transport. Rationale: Correct answer B. stabilize the knife in place, provide rescue breathing, and transport at once. Rationale: The knife must be removed in order to provide effective CPR.

48 Review (2 of 2) 4. A 22-year-old male was attacked by a rival gang and has a large knife impaled in the center of his chest. Your assessment reveals that he is apneic and pulseless. You should: C. remove the knife and control any bleeding, apply the AED, and analyze his rhythm. Rationale: An AED is not recommended in traumatic arrest, but CPR must be initiated. D. begin CPR, control any external bleeding, and transport rapidly to a trauma center. Rationale: The impaled object must be removed prior to the initiation of chest compressions.

49 Review 5. The MOST appropriate way to dress and bandage an open abdominal wound with a loop of bowel protruding from it is to: A. cover the wound with a dry, sterile dressing and apply firm pressure. B. apply a moist, sterile dressing to the wound and apply firm pressure. C. apply a moist, sterile dressing to the wound followed by a dry, sterile dressing. D. carefully replace the protruding bowel into the abdomen and cover the wound.

50 Review Answer: C Rationale: Treatment for an abdominal evisceration includes applying a moist, sterile dressing to the wound and covering the moist dressing with a dry one. Do not replace a protruding bowel back into the wound or apply firm pressure, which may force the bowel back into the wound; these actions increase the risk of infection.

51 Review 5. The MOST appropriate way to dress and bandage an open abdominal wound with a loop of bowel protruding from it is to: A.cover the wound with a dry, sterile dressing and apply firm pressure. Rationale: You must use a moist dressing. B. apply a moist, sterile dressing to the wound and apply firm pressure. Rationale: You should not apply pressure. C. apply a moist, sterile dressing to the wound followed by a dry, sterile dressing. Rationale: Correct answer D. carefully replace the protruding bowel into the abdomen and cover the wound. Rationale: Never force a bowel back into the abdominal cavity.

52 Review 6. A 5-year-old boy was burned when he pulled a barbecue pit over on himself. He has partial and full-thickness burns to his anterior chest and circumferentially on both arms. What percentage of his body surface area has been burned? A. 18% B. 27% C. 36% D. 45%

53 Review Answer: B Rationale: Using the pediatric rules of nines, the anterior chest accounts for 9% of the body surface area (the entire anterior trunk, which includes the chest and abdomen, account for 18% of the body surface area [BSA]), and each arm accounts for 9% of the BSA. Therefore, this child has experienced 27% BSA burns.

54 Review 6. A 5-year-old boy was burned when he pulled a barbecue pit over on himself. He has partial and full-thickness burns to his anterior chest and circumferentially on both arms. What percentage of his body surface area has been burned? A.18% Rationale: 18% would indicate the patient’s arms only. B. 27% Rationale: Correct answer C. 36% Rationale: The patient’s chest is 9% and both arms are 18%. D. 45% Rationale: The patient’s chest is 9% and both arms are 18%.

55 Review 7. What effects will the application of an ice pack have on a hematoma? A. Vasodilation and reduction of pain B. Vasodilation and decreased bleeding C. Vasodilation and reduction of swelling D. Vasoconstriction and decreased bleeding

56 Review Answer: D Rationale: Applying an ice pack to a closed wound, such as a hematoma, will decrease bleeding, pain, and swelling by causing constriction of the blood vessels.

57 Review 7. What effects will the application of an ice pack have on a hematoma? A.Vasodilation and reduction of pain Rationale: An ice pack causes vasoconstriction and will reduce pain. B. Vasodilation and decreased bleeding Rationale: An ice pack causes vasoconstriction and will reduce bleeding. C. Vasodilation and reduction of swelling Rationale: An ice pack causes vasoconstriction and will reduce swelling. D. Vasoconstriction and decreased bleeding Rationale: Correct answer

58 Review 8. A 45-year-old convenience store clerk was shot in the right anterior chest during a robbery. Your assessment reveals that the wound has blood bubbling from it every time the patient breathes. Your MOST immediate action should be to: A. prevent air from entering the wound. B. cover the wound with a bulky dressing. C. assess the patient’s back for an exit wound. D. transport promptly to the closest trauma center.

59 Review Answer: A Rationale: Immediate treatment for a sucking chest wound (open pneumothorax) involves covering the wound with an occlusive (non-porous) dressing. This will prevent air from being drawn into the chest cavity. After covering the wound, assess for an exit wound, apply high-flow oxygen (if not already done), and transport promptly.

60 Review 8. A 45-year-old convenience store clerk was shot in the right anterior chest during a robbery. Your assessment reveals that the wound has blood bubbling from it every time the patient breathes. Your MOST immediate action should be to: A.prevent air from entering the wound. Rationale: Correct answer B. cover the wound with a bulky dressing. Rationale: You must use an occlusive (non-porous) dressing. C. assess the patient’s back for an exit wound. Rationale: Do this after the anterior chest wound is covered. D. transport promptly to the closest trauma center. Rationale: Do this after the initial treatment of an open chest wound.

61 Review 9. Which of the following statements regarding chemical burns is FALSE? A. Most chemical burns are caused by strong acids or alkalis B. Fumes of strong chemicals can cause burns to the respiratory tract C. Prior to removing a dry chemical, flush the area with sterile water D. Do not attempt to neutralize an acid burn with an alkaline chemical

62 Review Answer: C Rationale: Dry chemicals (ie, dry lime) should be brushed off of the patient before irrigating the wound with sterile water or saline. Failure to do so may increase the burning process and cause further tissue damage.

63 Review 9. Which of the following statements regarding chemical burns is FALSE? A.Most chemical burns are caused by strong acids or alkalis Rationale: Chemical burns are caused by acids and alkalis. B. Fumes of strong chemicals can cause burns to the respiratory tract Rationale: Chemicals are in the fumes and will cause respiratory tract burns. C. Prior to removing a dry chemical, flush the area with sterile water Rationale: Correct answer D. Do not attempt to neutralize an acid burn with an alkaline chemical Rationale: It would take a chemist — not an EMT-Basic — to perform this procedure. Too much alkaline would cause burning to the patient’s skin.

64 Review 10. A compression injury that is severe enough to cut off blood flow below the injury is called: A. a contusion. B. a hematoma. C. a local thrombus. D. compartment syndrome.

65 Review Answer: D Rationale: Compartment syndrome can occur when a part of the body has been compressed for a prolonged period of time—usually greater than 4 hours. The injured tissue begins to swell, which can impede arterial blood flow and venous return. As a result, the part of the body distal to the compression site becomes hypoxic and metabolic waste products (ie, lactic acid) begin to accumulate.

66 Review 10. A compression injury that is severe enough to cut off blood flow below the injury is called: A.a contusion. Rationale: This is a bruise. B. a hematoma. Rationale: This is blood that has collected within damaged tissue. A hematoma occurs when a large blood vessel is injured. C. a local thrombus. Rationale: This is a blood clot. D. compartment syndrome. Rationale: Correct answer


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