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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Quimica Organica Jabones/tensioactivos/detergen tes/soap.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Quimica Organica Jabones/tensioactivos/detergen tes/soap."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Quimica Organica Jabones/tensioactivos/detergen tes/soap

2 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Recordemos Acidos carboxilicos Estructura de Lewis del acido formico

3 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Propiedades fisicas de acidos carboxilicos  Acidos carboxilicos son polares:

4 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.  Carboxylic acids pueden formar puentes hidrogeno: Propiedades fisicas de acidos carboxilicos

5 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Propiedades físicas de los ácidos carboxilicos Carboxylic acids also interact with water molecules by hydrogen bonding through both the carboxyl oxygen and the hydroxyl group.

6 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Preparation of Carboxylic Acids  Oxidation of Primary Alcohols

7 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Reactions of Carboxylic Acids  Acidity Los acidos carboxilicos son levemente ionizados en soluciones acuosas y por tanto clasificados como acidos debiles (weak acids)

8 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Acidity of Carboxylic Acids  All carboxylic acids, whether soluble or insoluble in water, react quantitatively with NaOH, KOH, and other strong bases to form salts

9 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Acidity of Carboxylic Acids  Carboxylic acids also react with weaker bases such as sodium bicarbonate to form salts

10 Acidity of Carboxylic Acids  Carboxylic acids solo reaccionan con bases debiles como el bicarbonato de sodio para formar sales Baking powder: una mezcla de bicarbonato de sodio con tartrato acido de potasio. Cuando se añade agua, la parte acida de la sal del tartrato reacciona, y se libera dioxido de carbono.

11 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Acidity of Carboxylic Acids Otro ejemplo: cuando se mezcla bicarbonato de sodio con suero de leche, el cual contiene ácido lactico:

12 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Derivatives of Carboxylic Acids

13 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Nomenclature  Esters El grupo alquil o aril unido al oxigeno es el que se nombra segundo para los españoles (The alkyl or aryl group attached to the oxygen is named first).

14 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Nomenclature  Esters The alkyl or aryl group attached to the oxygen is named first. Etilo Acido acético Acetato de etilo

15 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Nomenclature Another ester

16 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Nomenclature Another ester

17 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Nomenclature Another ester isopropil Ácido benzoico Benzoato de isopropilo

18 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Practice Problems Name the following esters:

19 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Physical Properties of Esters  Esters are polar compounds.  Most esters are insoluble in water.  Esters are soluble in polar organic solvents such as diethyl ether and acetone. Methyl acetate

20 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Reacciones de esteres  Hidrolisis Los Esteres son normalmente no-reactivos con agua. Sin embargo, en presencia de acidos (aq. HCl or H 2 SO 4 ) o bases (NaOH or KOH), pueden hidrolizarse

21 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Hidrólisis Catalizada por ácidos  El reverso de la esterificación de Fischer:

22 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Base-Promoted Hidrolisis promovida por bases obtencion de jabones  Esta reacció es usada para la obtencion de jabones

23 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Mechanism of Saponification  Step One – Nucleophilic addition of hydroxide anion:

24 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Mechanism of Saponification  Step One – Nucleophilic addition of hydroxide anion:

25 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Mechanism of Saponification  Step Two – Elimination of alkoxide anion:

26 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Mechanism of Saponification  Step Two – Elimination of alkoxide anion:

27 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Mechanism of Saponification  Step Three – Proton reorganization (acid– base reaction):

28 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Mechanism of Saponification  Step Three – Proton reorganization (acid– base reaction):

29 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Ejemplo Problema  Complete the following reaction:

30 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.  Complete the following reaction: Ejemplo Problema

31 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Sample Problem  Complete the following reaction:

32 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Sample Problem  Complete the following reaction:

33 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Sample Problem  Complete the following reaction:

34 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Soaps/ Jabones Sodium stearate/ estereato de Na:

35 Soaps/ Jabones a partir de grasa

36 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

37 Soap A soap micelle: Hidrofilica Hidrofobica

38 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Soap A soap micelle: Mancha grasa

39 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

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42 LAS

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44 Algunas propiedades de los tensioactivos son:

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46 Clasificación de los detergentes (tensioactivos):

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48 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Ejemplo de formacion de un detergente anionico

49 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. hydrophilichydrophobic Sodium dodecyl sulfate Ejemplo de formacion de un detergente anionico

50 Detergentes anionicos Alkyl benzene sulfonate detergents (ABS) –Non-biodegradable hydrophilic hydrophobic

51 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

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