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Presentation on theme: "PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING"— Presentation transcript:


Specificity Overload Progression Reversibility

3 SPECIFICITY The training must be suitable to the particular sport or aspect of fitness.

4 OVERLOAD Making the body work harder to improve it (F.I.T.T.)

5 PROGRESSION As the body adapts training needs to be more progressive so that greater demands are made on it.

6 REVERSIBILITY Loss of improvement when training is decreased or stopped

7 REPETITIONS Number of times you repeat an exercise

8 SETS A group of repetitions is called a set

9 Having a high aerobic fitness level means

10 AEROBIC FITNESS You can exercise for longer without feeling tired

11 AEROBIC FITNESS You can use up more oxygen when you’re exercising

Your heart rate will be lower when resting and when exercising

Sprinting speed may be reduced due to reduced efficiency of fast twitch fibres

14 provides energy for short explosive activities
ANAEROBIC FITNESS Advantages provides energy for short explosive activities

15 Production of lactic acid causing pain
ANAEROBIC FITNESS Disadvantages Production of lactic acid causing pain

16 Weight training Improves muscle strength and tone
Advantages Creates muscle overload safely and gradually. Can use free weight or specialist machines to target specific muscles Individual training programmes can be designed Disadvantages Need to work with partner when using free standing weights Increased risk of injury from lifting a weight that is too heavy

17 CIRCUIT TRAINING Circuit Training is an adaptable form of training.
A variety of exercises and skills are done at different locations in a gym, hall or even outdoors. Each activity is known as a station.

18 CIRCUIT TRAINING Advantages Disadvantages
Can be designed to suit any activity Individual pace can be set Can be set up almost anywhere Less boring because all exercises are different Can accommodate a large number of people in a small area. Disadvantages Can take time to set up People can get in each others way if circuit is busy

19 Disadvantages Advantages
INTERVAL TRAINING Alternating short near maximum bursts of speed with times of rest /mild exercise Disadvantages Hard to keep going Can be boring Advantages Can mix aerobic and anaerobic exercise Easy to see when an athlete isn’t trying

20 FARTLEK TRAINING Changes in intensity and type of exercise without stopping
Advantages Good for sports that need different paces like football and basketball Easily changed to suit an individual or a particular sport Disadvantages Difficult to see how hard the person is training Too easy to skip the hard bits if you can’t be bothered

21 ALTITUDE TRAINING Working at high altitudes there is a drop in aerobic performance due to lack of oxygen. So if you train at high altitude the body systems compensate by manufacturing more red blood cells. At least 4 weeks acclimatisation is needed to stabilise performance at altitude

22 CONTINUOUS TRAINING Involves exercising at a constant rate doing activities like running or cycling/ no resting Advantages Needs only a small amount of easy to use equipment Good for aerobic fitness and using up body fat Disadvantages Can be really boring Doesn’t improve sprinting so not ideal for many games

23 MUSCULAR ENDURANCE Ability of a muscle or muscle group to keep working for long periods with out tiring Events – long distance running/ cycling Means of improving – lots of repetitions for whichever muscle group you want to improve. e.g.sit-ups, chin-ups, dips, press-ups

24 STRENGTH Static – maximum force a muscle group can apply to an immovable object / rugby scrum Explosive –to exert force in one very short but fast movement e.g. shot put/high jump Dynamic – to apply force repeatedly over a long time / useful for doing loads of press-ups or cycling

25 FLEXIBILITY To improve it you need to move the joint past where it would normally go. Active Stretching – you do the work, slowly and gently stretch a little further than normal Passive Stretching – a partner or coach does the work , tell them straight away if you feel any pain TO INCREASE RANGE OF MOVEMENT HOLD STRETCH FOR 30 SEC. FOR 6 – 8 REPS

26 Link between flexibility and strength
Strength training can have negative effect on flexibility. As muscles bulk flexibility can decrease Therefore flexibility training must be done to counteract this

Illnesses or Medical Conditions –colds can make you short of breath, effect your concentration, make you weak Asthma – affects breathing Staleness – Poor form or staleness can be caused by over doing things like exercising without enough breaks

Fatigue – The state of being physically tired, when your body hasn’t had time to recover from exercise – performance can be affected Lack of sleep – without enough sleep you lose strength and concentration more quickly Menstruation – women seem to perform better at certain stages of the menstrual cycle

29 Short term effects SMOKING Causes nose throat and chest irritations
Bad breath, loss of taste and appetite Longer recovery rate

30 SMOKING Long term effects
Shortness of breath, reduced lung capacity and oxygen carrying capacity due to carbon monoxide being absorbed Increases the risk of developing heart disease, bronchitis and other diseases Increases risk of cancer of mouth, throat and lungs

31 ALCOHOL Short term effects
Reduced co-ordination/balance/ judgement / vision Slower reaction time Stomach irritation / vomiting Headache, increased blood flow, blood pressure

32 ALCOHOL Long term effects
Weight gain, kidney problems, cirrhosis of the liver Depression, brain damage Stomach ulcers Heart disease / hardening of the arteries

33 DRUGS A drug is a chemical substance that affects the body systems


35 Stimulants – improves reactions and reflexes and reduces pain
DRUGS Stimulants – improves reactions and reflexes and reduces pain BUT Feeling less pain can make an athlete train too hard, can lead to high blood pressure, heart and liver problems and strokes

36 Narcotic Analgestics – kill pain and tiredness. Mask injury
DRUGS Narcotic Analgestics – kill pain and tiredness. Mask injury BUT they are addictive with unpleasant withdrawal Feeling less pain can make an athlete train too hard. Can lead to constipation and low blood pressure.

37 DRUGS Anabolic Agents (STEROIDS) – Increase muscle size
delay fatigue , therefore you can train for longer Can cause high blood pressure, heart disease infertility and cancer Women may grow facial and body hair and their voice may deepen

38 DRUGS Diuretics – make you urinate causing weight loss important if you are competing in a certain weight division Can hide traces of other drugs in the body BUT They can cause cramp and dehydration

39 DRUGS Peptide Hormones Most have a similar effect to anabolic steroids
EPO (Erythropoietin) has a similar effect to blood doping BUT They can cause strokes and abnormal growth

40 DRUGS Beta Blockers – Medicines that lower the heart rate , steady shaking hands and reduce anxiety BUT They are banned in sports where they might give an advantage such as shooting, ski-jumping, snooker and bobsleigh

41 DRUGS Blood doping -used to simulate high altitude training without actually going to high altitude Red blood cells are taken out of an athlete – their body then makes more red blood cells to replace them Before a competition the red blood cells are injected back so that more oxygen can be carried around the body Possible side effects – allergic reactions, kidney damage, viruses such as aids and blocked capillaries

42 BODY TYPES Endo morph Meso morph Ecto morph

43 ENDOMORPH DUMPY Wide hips, lots of fat on body arms and legs but ankles and wrists are relatively slim Sports – Sumo wrestler need strength, weight and low centre of gravity so they have strong endomorph and mesomorph features

44 MESOMORPH Muscular Broad shoulders, narrow hips, low body fat.
Mesomorphs are suited to events like decathlon, swimming, gymnastics. Swimming – broad shoulders and good muscles with little body fat will help them move through the water more efficiently. Strong powerful legs to kick and arm to pull will increase speed of swimmer

45 ECTOMORPH Thin Narrow shoulders, not much muscle or fat, long and thin arms and legs, thin face and high forehead. High jumpers need to be tall and light but with powerful muscles so a mixture of ectomorph and mesomorphic features is required. Longer legs gives them advantage in jumping, little weight, less to lift

46 AGE Young age – body still developing
Performance alters as we progress through the ageing process Young age – body still developing Bones and ligaments and tendons not fully formed therefore too much training could cause damage or overuse injuries Young players have lots of energy and enthusiasm but lack concentration and skill is not as fully developed as an older player

47 AGE Middle – we peak in our twenties
You achieve your maximum strength when you are fully grown usually about 20 In your 20’s it is still easy to build muscle mass You have more experience that younger players You will be able to train for longer and have good oxygen capacity which will help aerobic fitness

48 AGE Older Players As we get older eyesight deteriorates and reaction time becomes slower. Bones become fragile and joints stiffen more prone to injury Factors affecting performance with ageing are endurance, speed, flexibility, timing, co-ordination and skill level. Experience is a vital and an older player has gained more experience. Keeping fit will slow down the process of ageing

Tension Anxiety Boredom Motivation

50 PERSONALITIES Introvert Quiet, shy, retiring Individual sports –
Routine and repetitive – swimming Like to perform precise and intricate skills Do not enjoy contact sports

51 PERSONALITIES Extrovert Outgoing, loud and lively Team sports – hockey
Enjoy lots of excitment Enjoy fast sport with lots of involvement High levels of excitement – ski-ing

52 AGGRESSION Positive Can be positive and negative
Controlled aggression is necessary in most sports, particularly in games such as rugby, or batting and bowling in cricket. A bowler may show aggression in bowling bouncers. In athletics there may be aggression in the run up to the long jump. The expression of ‘attacking ‘the board is often used.

53 AGGRESSION Negative However aggression must be controlled.
When sportsmen and women lose this control it can often lead to foul play. Common in invasion games as well as games such as tennis where racket abuse sometimes occurs.

54 FEEDBACK Knowledge of performance or Internal feedback.
When we learn new skills we require some information to tell us what we are doing and whether it is correct or not. If we obtain this information from our feelings of the actions the feedback to the brain is called Knowledge of performance or Internal feedback.

55 FEEDBACK Knowledge of Results or External Feedback
If the performer receives information from a coach the feedback is called Knowledge of Results or External Feedback

56 FEEDBACK Types of practice
To learn a new skill or improve an existing one you must practice. Part Method – one way to learn a complex skill is to learn parts of it ,then put the parts together, e.g. when learning how to do the triple jump. Whole Method – sometimes the skill cannot be broken down e.g. when learning how to do a somersault Massed Practice – continual practice repeating the action over and over again, for example when learning to shoot or passing skills

57 FEEDBACK Guidance Visual Guidance – Learn by watching a demonstration of the skill, looking at a picture or watching a video. Verbal Guidance – Learn by listening to instructions Manual Guidance – Learn by being helped with the support of a coach, by holding the performer in correct position or with mechanical device such as rig in trampolining

58 SKILLS Open skill – When a performer has to adapt to the changing situation or the environment e.g. invasion games such as rugby and netball Closed skill- When skills are performed in isolation without a changing environment e.g. diving, tennis serve, vault in gymnastics

59 Technological Developments
New materials and new designs of equipment have had a considerable impact on sport Clothing – new materials and designs for one-piece suits for swimming, speed skating and athletics have contributed to improved performance times in these and similar events.

60 Technological Developments
Footwear – sports companies spend considerable amounts of money developing different types of footwear, not just to improve sportsmen’s and womens performance but also to maintain sales in the fashion and recreational market.

61 Technological Developments
Facilities – New facilities now enable events to take place which would previosly have had to be cancelled because of weather conditions. e.g. The Millenium Stadium in Cardiff with a retractable roof allows football, rugby and cricket to take place irrespective of bad weather.

62 Technological Developments
Sports surfaces – New Surfaces such as plastic grass have revolutionised the way hockey is played. Artificial cricket wickets are popular in schools as they require considerably less maintainance than traditional grass wickets. Times and distances have improved in Athletics with the introduction of rubberised surfaces and soft landing areas for high jump and pole vault

63 Technological Developments
Teaching and Coaching – video recording of a sport is useful for the coach and the performer to analyse technique and make comparisons with top class performers. Refereeing – Video replay is now used in a number of sports to help the referee make decisions

64 Technological Developments
In swimming and athletics -electronic starting, timing and the use of photo finishing help officials make the correct decisions In tennis - the electronic eye can be used to detect whether a service is in

65 Technological Developments
Spectators – at the back of large stadium, spectators have little chance of seeing the action. However large video screens show replays and miniature cameras in cricket stumps give spectators a taste of what batsmen expect from fast bowlers.

Strain – these occur in the muscles or tendons They are overstretched or possibly torn Cause- by sudden or violent movement, lifting heavy objects with poor technique Treatment – R.I.C.E.

Sprain – this occurs at a joint The tissues and ligaments are stretched and sometimes torn. This may be minor like a twisted ankle or major where severs and extensive damage has been caused Cause – twisted or suddenly wrenching the joint as a result of running on uneven ground, being tackled in rugby/football or landing awkwardly Treatment – R.I.C.E.

DISLOCATION This occurs when one or more bones as been displaced at a joint usually as a result of a strong force. The bones have been wrenched into an abnormal position. Treatment – call an ambulance and make the casualty as comfortable as possible

RICE Rest injured part – stop sport if you carry on you will make injury worse Ice – Apply ice to injured part – this makes blood vessels contract to reduce internal swelling and bleeding Compression – Bandage injured part will help to reduce swelling. Elevation – Support limb at a raised level i.e. above heart level. The flow of blood reduces because it has to flow against gravity.

70 Recognition of Fractures
Fractures are cracks in the bone or an actual break. They are usually accompanied by swelling This is because they damage blood vessels in or around the bone. In an open fracture the skin is torn and the bone pokes out. In a closed fracture it all happens under the skin. The skin itself is alright

71 Stress Fractures A stress fracture is a crack along a length of a bone. It is caused by continuous stress over a long period of time Long-distance runners get stress fractures called shin splints

72 Recognition of symptoms of Concussion
Unconsciousness, disorientation, memory loss. Caused by a blow to the head Treatment If unconscious place in recovery position and get ambulance If conscious keep casualty under observation for 24 hours

73 Recognition of symptoms of Hypothermia
Symptoms – Body temperature falls below 35 degrees C Muscles go rigid, heart beats irregularly, casualty may fall unconscious Treatment – steadily raise body temperature to 37 degrees C Put them into warm dry clothing or wrap in a blanket Give hot drinks or maybe a hot bath.



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