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1 Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High School Jacksonville, FL
The Fall of Communism Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High School Jacksonville, FL

2 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
Informational Source! The main sources for this presentation come from Vladislav M. Zubok’s: A Failed Empire: The Soviet Union in the Cold War from Stalin to Gorbachev (2007) & Tony Judt’s: Postwar: A History of Europe Since 1945 (2005). All sources are listed at the close of this presentation. Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

3 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
Chapter Nine: A Failed Empire, by Vladislav M. Zubok (2007, Chapel Hill Press) The early eighties are called the “Second Cold War,” it had a feeling of déjà vu: Rampant arms race; Covert battles via secret services around the world, and Fierce psychological warfare gave the situation “a resemblance to the last years of Stalin.” [1] [1] Zubock, p. 265 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

4 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
A Failed Empire The last Brezhnev years, followed by Andropov and Chernenko were times of political and economical deterioration of the Soviet system. The CIA had a sense of the economic situation, as well as the shaky hold Moscow had on their satellites, but they did not know the depth of the problems. Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

5 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
A Failed Empire The empire that Stalin built was terribly shaken in the 1980’s with the Solidarity movement in Poland ( ), mixed with the growing dependency of other countries of the Warsaw Pact on the financial and economic power of the Western capitalist states (thus embargoes or economic sanctions by them on the Warsaw nations would be detrimental, especially considering the USSR’s financial woes). Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

6 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
Lech Walesa Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

7 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
1980: Gdansk Shipyard August 1980, labor strike in Gdansk escalates into a crisis (Solidarnosc: Solidarity movement is very organized, “on November 10th, 1980 it became the first officially registered independent trade union in a Communist country, with an estimated ten million members”[1]) [1] Judt, p. 588 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

8 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
Poland, 1980 Polish and Russian officials sense outside help: ‘Instigators’ Zbigniew Brezinski (Carter’s former Natl. Security Adviser) Ioannes Paulus PP. II (Krakow’s own: Karol Wojtyla). Elected at 58 Yrs. Old, Visits Poland THREE times. His first trip was June 2nd, (Pope John Paul II: 1978 – 2005)[1] “What John Paul II lacked in soldiers he made up in visibility—and timing.” [2] [1] [2] Judt, p. 586 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

9 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
Pope John Paul II Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

10 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
1981 1981: the revolutionary spirit begins to spread Strikes in the Baltic Republics, especially Latvia KGB calls for a strict closure of Poland’s borders Closed down tourism, student programs, jam Polish radio, shut down publications and all cultural exchange (an iron curtail within the Iron Curtain) Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

11 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
1981 Would Moscow send in the troops, ala the Prague Spring (1968)? Cost Factor for the USSR Thoughts of other Warsaw nations watching critically GDR, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Rumania Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

12 USSR’s Ailing Leadership
Brezhnev’s continued health problems leads to a “troika” Andropov, Ustinov, Gromyko Even though Brezhnev tried in vain to have his loyal disciple Konstantin Chernenko named his successor before he died, Andropov will be next! Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

13 Yuri Andropv Succeeds Brezhnev
Andropov (KGB Director) is key “Andropov recognized that the Soviet economy had begun to collapse under the weight of the disastrous policies of the Brezhnev years…’era of stagnation’”[1] [1] Keylor, p. 310 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

14 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
Yuri Andrpov Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

15 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
Andropov Advocate of the Soviet invasion Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Afghanistan But before his terminal kidney disease really takes hold, he comments to an assistant: “the quota of interventions abroad has been exhausted.”[1] But what exactly is meant by “abroad?” Stages a fake invasion (full-scale intimidation) on the border of Poland as well as military exercises within its borders for three weeks [1] Zubok, p. 267 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

16 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
Andropov The future of the Warsaw Pact (Poland’s location) is in jeopardy Cost is a huge factor: “By the 1980’s the Soviet Union assisted or maintained sixty-nine Soviet satellites and clients around the world.”[1] [1] Zubock, p. 268 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

17 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
Economics in the USSR President Carter’s economic sanctions and the drop in oil prices (the USA goes to Saudi Arabia and OPEC and requests this during the early portion of the invasion of Afghanistan- thus the Soviet’s could not EXPORT oil for huge profits) are hurting the Soviet economy Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

18 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
Poland October 1981, Prime Minister General Wojciech Jaruzelski took over party control from Stanyslaw Kania Soviets want him to declare martial law, he will put this off until Dec. 13, 1981 He warns Moscow that the Polish Catholic Church might join forces with Solidarity, but impatient radicals start to demonstrate for radical reforms ASAP Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

19 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
Poland 1981: USSR gives Poland 1.5 billion dollars, plus supplies and oil (they need it so badly it is used very quickly) Russia (via an angry and bitter Andropov) introduces a new intelligence operation named “RYAN – after the first letters of the Russian words raketno-yadernoye napadeniie (nuclear-missile attack). Andropov feels that a first strike by the Americans is eminent. Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

20 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
Poland Walesa was going up against Wojciech Jaruzelsky. Jaruzelsky declared martial law, outlawed Solidarity, and jailed Walesa. Martial law would not be suspended until 1982. The former Archbishop of Krakow Karol Wojtyla was elected Pope John Paul II in 1978, and made his first trip back to Poland in He was the first Pope to visit a Communist country. Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

21 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
November 10, 1982 November 10, 1982: Leonid Brezhnev died in his sleep 68 yr. old Andropov takes over (he is in the final phase of terminal kidney disease at this time) Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

22 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
March 8th, 1983 (Orlando, FL) March 8th : President Reagan gives his infamous “evil empire” speech March 23rd: Reagan announces his plans for the development of the Strategic Defense Initiative- “SDI” (Star Wars). The Soviet Union realizes that they can NOT effectively compete against due to cost. Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

23 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

24 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
1983 April/May: America’s Pacific fleet conducts a massive military exercise, which includes simulated assaults on Soviet strategic submarines with nuclear missiles on board Soviets respond with their own exercises which for the first time includes a rehearsal for mobilization and interaction with strategic nuclear forces (Operation RYAN is now constantly being updated) Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

25 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
Andropov v. Reagan Andropov has a deep mistrust of Reagan, “fortified by emotions- contempt, animosity, and a tinge of fear.”[1] [1] Zubock, p. 273 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

26 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
Downing of KAL 747 September 1st (1983): a Korean Air Lines 747 240 passengers, a cabin crew of 20, a three-man flight crew and six other KAL crew members deadheading back to Seoul Five hours and twenty-six minutes after takeoff, KE007 was struck by two Anab missiles fired by the pilot of a Soviet SU-15 interceptor. Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

27 November 1983: Operation Able Archer
“NATO forces conducted the Able Archer exercises; to Soviet intelligence sources, this looked almost indistinguishable from preparations for an imminent attack.” [1] [1] Zubock, pp Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

28 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
“The Politburo fiddled, but the Grim Reaper Did Not Wait”[1] [1] Zubock, p. 277 February 9th, 1984: Andropov Dies “His successor, another septuagenarian (70-80 yrs. Old), Konstanin Chernenko, was a walking mummy, who suffered from severe asthma and lived on tranquilizers”[1] [1] Zubock, p. 276 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

29 The Arrival of Gorbachev
March 10, 1985: Konstanin Chernenko Dies, (enter Mikhail Gorbachev) After the death of Chernenko, “the new general secretary-the fourth in three years during this prolonged leadership crisis in the Kremlin-was ANDROPOV’S hitherto obscure young disciple Mikhail Gorbachev…Gorbachev also shared the concern of his patron Andropov that the decay of the Soviet economy in the Brezhnev era posed a serious security threat.”[1] [1] Keylor,pp Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

30 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

31 Mikhail Gorbachev’s Three Reform measures (May 1985)
Gorbachev announces “Perestroika” (economic restructuring/reform) as part of his “NEW THINKING” policy Glasnost (openness), and Democratization would follow Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

32 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
Gorbachev’s Reforms Like FDR’s New Deal, he knew change was needed but did not exactly how to do it Attacked national and regional corruption and laxity, nomenklatura, and alcoholism Doubled investment in heavy industry Started to talk openly about the need for true arms control He encouraged “NOVOE MYSHLENIE” (New Thinking). Wants to open the Soviet Union up to the outside world. Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

33 Gorbachev’s “New Thinkers”
“New Thinking” would be based on voracious reading, including books by Western socialist politicians and thinkers”[1] New thinkers included his college educated wife Raisa, and other “Children of the Twentieth Congress” [1] Zubock, p. 281 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

34 Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan Dec. 24, 1979
Gorbachev in the mid-1980’s did NOT immediately end the war in Afghanistan- his biggest mistake to date? (Could have help save money and international face). He felt it needed to be solved in stages. Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

35 Chernobyl Accident April 26, 1986
Second worse man-made nuclear disaster, behind the bombs in Japan Soviet denial, panic spreads with rumors 100, 000 displaced AFTER a few days passed 8, 000 dead The health and well-being of 453,000 people affected Gorbachev is humiliated Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

36 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
Chernobyl April 1986 “Chernobyl’s effect on the Soviet political leadership was greater than any other event since the Cuban Missile Crisis…the catastrophe demanded the end of xenophobia and obsessive secrecy and a reprisal of security policies in the nuclear age…our work is now transparent to the whole people, to the whole world. There are no interests that could force us to hide the truth.” [1] [1] Zubock, pp Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

37 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
May 1987 May 1987: “Matthias Rust, a young West German pilot, flew a sport plane into the USSR from Finland and landed on Red Square. The bizarre “Rust affair” allowed Gorbachev to remove most of the old top brass, beginning with the minister of defense…Rust, after spending several months in the KGB Lubianka prison, quietly obtained amnesty.”[1] July 1987, as part of his GLASNOST policy the “new thinkers” started to publish forbidden manuscripts, criticizing the Brezhnev Era of stagnation, and promoting anti-Stalinist films and novels. [1] Zubock, p. 300 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

38 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
Gorby and the UN: Dec. 7, 1988 Gorbachev addressed the United Nations General Assembly. He Amazed the global community when he announced drastic cuts in the Soviet military presence in Eastern Europe and along the Chinese border -- a move that ultimately allowed Soviet satellites to choose their own paths.[1] [1] Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

39 Soviet Union Military Cuts
“In January 1989, Gorbachev announced the reduction of Soviet forces in Central and Eastern Europe by 14 percent and cuts in armaments by 19 percent[1].” [1]. Zubok , p. 322 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

40 The Revolutionary Year of 1989
Poland The Solidarity movement of 1980 made Poland the most ripe for a radical political transformation 1989: Jaruzelski lifted the ban against Solidarity that had been in place for seven years. Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

41 The Revolutionary Year of 1989
June 4th, 1989: Poland’s Election: “The results came back as a shock to everyone…Solidarity won 99/100 seats for the Senate.” [1] “Gorbachev made quite explicit to Jaruzelski in a private phone conversation, the election must stand.” [2] August 1989: a Solidarity-led coalition took power in Warsaw, the first non-communist government in Eastern Europe since the start of the Cold War. [1] Judt, p. 607 [2] Judt, p. 607 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

42 The Revolutionary Year of 1989 Hungary
“Hungary, a comparable caution was born of very different experience. Two decades of ambiguous tolerance had obscured the precise limits of officially condoned dissent. Hungary, after all, was the Communist state where Hilton opened its first hotel behind the Iron Curtain, in December 1976; where Billy Graham undertook not one but three public tours in the course of the Eighties.” [1] [1] Judt, p. 608 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

43 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
Hungary However, there was NO organized political opposition in Hungary. “The catalyst for change was the frustration of younger, ‘reform-Communists’- openly enthusiastic about the transformations Gorbachev was working in the CPSU-at the inflexibility of their own ageing Party leadership.”[1] [1] Judt, p. 609 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

44 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
Hungary “When the Hungarian authorities took down the barbed wire along the Austrian border, they had intended only to make it easier for their own citizens…But the word spread, and soon thousands of East Germans…were walking across” (Gaddis, p. 243) Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

45 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
The Sinatra Doctrine Even before the wall fell: “By October 1989, Gennadi Gerasimov, the Soviet foreign ministry press spokesman could joke about [the pending changes] ‘You know that Frank Sinatra song My Way…Hungary and Poland are doing it their way. We now have the Sinatra Doctrine.” (Gaddis, p. 248) Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

46 Trouble in East Germany
Honecker’s Swan Song

47 Fleeing East Germany (again)
“By September [of 1989], there were more than 130,000 East Germans in Hungary and the government announced that for , “humanitarian” reasons, it would not try to stop their emigration to the West. Honecker and his associates were furious…Meanwhile guests-including Gorbachev himself-were arriving in East Berlin for the official commemorations on October 7-8, 1989” (Gaddis, p. 244) Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

48 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
Gorbachev & Honecker Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

49 Trouble for Honecker’s East Germany
“During the parade…the marchers abandoned the approved slogans and began shouting, ‘Gorby, help us! Gorby, stay here…the regime was doomed…Gorbachev tried to warn the East Germans of the need for drastic changes…[but] trying to get through to him [Honecker] was like throwing peas against the wall” (Gaddis, pp ) Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

50 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
East German Trouble “Anti-government protests had been building for weeks in Leipzig…there was no Tiananmen-like massacre, but that meant there was no authority left for Honecker, who was forced to resign on October, 18th…His successor Egon Krenz…decided to relieve the mounting tension…by relaxing-not eliminating-the rules restricting travel to the west…the hastily drafted decree was handed to…a Politburo member who had not been to the meeting” (Gaddis, p. 245) Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

51 The Wall Comes Down (by mistake?)
Gunter Schabowski, the Politburo member announced to the press “that citizens of the G.D.R. were free to leave ‘through any of the border crossings…within minutes, the word went out that the wall was open. It was not but crowds, but crowds began gathering at crossing points and the guards had no instructions” (Gaddis, p. 246) Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

52 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
Fall of the Wall Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

53 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

54 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
Gorbachev’s Reaction “Gorbachev in Moscow, slept through the whole thing and heard about it only the next morning. All he could do was pass the word to the East German authorities” ‘You made the right decision.” (Gaddis, p. 246) Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

55 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
Hungary “In the early months of 1989 the Communist legislature passed a series of measures recognizing the right of free assembly; officially sanctioning ‘transition’ to a multi-party system; and, in April, formally jettisoning ‘democratic centralism’ in the party itself.”[1] [1] Judt, p. 609 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

56 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
Hungary Opposition throughout 1989 against the Communists They formally abandoned the ideology of Leninism, and changing the name of the party to Hungarian Socialist Party Name change FROM the Soviet-style “Hungarian People’s Republic” TO the “Republic of Hungary” The remains of Imre Nagy- the former Prime Minister who had been overthrown and executed after the 1956 Revolution were reinterred with full national honors Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

57 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
Hungary “On June 16th 1989-the thirty-first anniversary of his death- the remains of Imre Nagy and four of his colleagues were ceremoniously reburied as national heroes. An estimated 300,000 Hungarians lined the streets, with millions more watching the proceedings live on television.”[1] It took down the barbed-wire border with Austria to permit free circulation of people [1] Judt, p. 610 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

58 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
Hungary “On August 25, 1989, Kohl (of West Germany) reached an understanding with the reformist leadership of Hungary to open the Hungarian-Austrian border to defectors from the GDR [East Germany]. In return, Hungary received 1 billion Deutsche Marks to cover its budget deficit…In October, Hoenecker told Gorbachev that Nemwth received from the SPD a loan of 550 million D-marks on the condition that the “Hungarians opened a border with Austria.”[1] [1] Zubok, p Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

59 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
Hungary In January of 1990 the Hungarian government asked the Soviets to remove all of its troops, which in March the Kremlin promised to do by the summer of 1991 With Poland and Hungary out of the way the rest of the Warsaw Pact began to fall like dominos Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

60 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
Bulgaria November 1989: Communist boss the 78 yr. old Todor Zhivkov had been ruling since 1954 was replaced by a coalition of Communist reformists. Zhikov had been the longest-serving leader in the Communist bloc, but the economy had been in trouble for a long while. Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

61 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
Bulgaria Zhikov had stressed ethnic nationalism at the EXPENSE of the Turkish minority in Bulgaria (900,000 in the land of Nine Million). The Turkish minority was still a symbol of the hated Ottoman Empire: “a tottering Party autocracy turned the full fury of ethnic prejudice upon a helpless domestic victim.” [1] [1] Judt, p. 626 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

62 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
Bulgaria Bulgaria stripped the “Turkish Bulgarians” of many rights, and the international community complained bitterly An exodus by the minority to Turkey began (300,000 in the summer of 1989). These fleeing numbers cut the supply of labor in Bulgaria. November 10th, 1989: “not coincidently the day after the fall of the Berlin Wall”-they ousted Zhikov.[1] [1] Judt, p. 627 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

63 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
Bulgaria Opposition from Bulgarian intellectuals, and Bulgaria was denounced by the UN and the European Court of Justice Change did come to Bulgaria and “Bulgaria successfully avoided the catastrophe awaiting Yugoslavia” [1] December 29th , 1989, “in the face of angry nationalist protests, Muslims and Turks were granted full and equal rights.” [2] [1] Judt, p. 627 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

64 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
Czechoslovakia Czech Communists were actually rather successful at maintaining total control to the very end. Neither the Catholic Church nor intellectual opposition gained significant support in society at large.”[1] [1] Judt, p. 616 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

65 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
Czechoslovakia Havel and thirteen other Charter 77 activists were arrested and once again imprisoned: (excerpt) “In January 1977, 230 prominent Czech intellectuals signed and published a manifesto announcing the formation of Charter 77, a “loose, informal and open association of people” committed to human rights. Signatories included the playwrights Vaclav Havel and Pavel Kohout. The manifesto was published in various Western newspapers on January 6. Czech authorities arrested several of the signatories the next day, denounced them and began cracking down on dissident activities. The United States charged Czechoslovakia with violating the 1975 HELSINKI ACCORDS on human rights.” [1] [1] Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

66 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
Czechoslovakia November 17th, 1989: “Prague police officially approved a student march through the inner-city to commemorate…the 50th anniversary of the Nazi murder of a Czech student. But when marching students began to chat anti-Communist slogans the police attacked, scattering the crowd and beating up isolated victims.” [1] A FALSE RUMOR CIRCULATED THAT A STUDENT WAS KILLED. THIS LED TO MORE PROBLEMS FOR THE GOVERNMENT. WITHIN A WEEK THE ENTIRE PRAESIDIUM RESIGNED! (NOV. 24TH, 1989) [1] Judt p. 618 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

67 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
Czechoslovakia Nov. 25th, 1989: half a million people gathered at the Letna Stadium just because they could! December 1989: The “Velvet Revolution” (peaceful exit from communism) like the changes in most of Eastern Europe during 1989 occurred in a peaceful manner. “The playwright Vaclav Havel, the country’s most famous dissident, was elected president, was elected president, while the parliament chose as its speaker former prime minister Alexander Dubcek, who had been ousted by the Russians after the “Prague Spring” of 1968.”[1] [1] Keylor, p. 316 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

68 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
Czechoslovakia Nov. 25th, 1989: half a million people gathered at the Letna Stadium just because they could! December 1989: The “Velvet Revolution” (peaceful exit from communism) like the changes in most of Eastern Europe during 1989 occurred in a peaceful manner. “The playwright Vaclav Havel, the country’s most famous dissident, was elected president, was elected president, while the parliament chose as its speaker former prime minister Alexander Dubcek, who had been ousted by the Russians after the “Prague Spring” of 1968.”[1] [1] Keylor, p. 316 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

69 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
Czechoslovakia Jan. 1, 1990: 16,000 political prisoners were released in Czechoslovakia NOTE: “In response to requests by Czechoslovakia and Hungary for the removal of troops, Gorbachev’s agreement in February and March 1990, respectively, to a total military withdrawal from the two countries by the end of June 1991 sounded the death knell of Moscow’s hegemony in Eastern Europe.” [1] [1] Keylor, p. 317 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

70 Romania (NASTY ENDING)
The exception to a relatively non-violent transfer of power in the former eastern bloc was Romania. Brutal Communist rule in the 1950’s under “Dej” (Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej who was the General Secretary of the Romanian Communist from 1944 – 65) Pro-Stalin ruler, angered by Khrushchev’s anti-Stalin comments, followed by Ceausescu! Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

71 General Secretary of the Romanian Communist Party 1965-1989
Nicolae Ceausescu General Secretary of the Romanian Communist Party

72 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
Nicolae Ceausescu Compared to DEJ, Nicolae Ceausescu (Ciao-Sessh-Koo) flew under the radar: i.e. Within one year of violently putting down a miner’s strike in 1977, Ceausescu visited the United States as a guest of President Jimmy Carter. Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

73 Nicolae Ceausescu (rules 1965 – 1989)
Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

74 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
Nicolae Ceausescu In the early stages of the “Second Cold War” of the 1980’s was happy to criticize the USSR, and he even sent his gymnasts to the Los Angeles Olympics…Americans and others kept silent about his domestic crimes. To increase population he outlawed abortions for women under forty with fewer than four children, he raised the age to 45 in 1986 1984 the minimum age to married was dropped to 15 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

75 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
Nicolae Ceausescu Compulsory monthly medical exams for women-in order to prevent abortions Abortions were only allowed if a member of the Communist Party were in attendance Doctors in districts that had a declining birth rate had their salaries reduced Population did not increase, but the death rate from abortions far exceeded that of any other European country (from at least 10,000 women died via illegal abortions)[1] [1] Judt p. 622 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

76 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
Ceausescu Portraits of Ceausescu and his wife were put everywhere, almost as many as North Korea’s Kil Il Sung November of 1989 he was re-elected Secretary-General December 1989 Ceausescu cracked down on a Hungarian pastor in a western Romanian city, the Hungarian minority held an all night vigil for the pastor Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

77 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
Romanian Violence In December of 1989, Communist dictator Nicolae Ceausescu ordered his troops to fire on the demonstrators After a trip to Iran, Ceausescu decided to appear before a huge crowd that jeered him, he tried again the next day and was jeered again and he fled with his wife via a helicopter (while portions of his military began to switch sides) Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

78 End of Ceausescu’s Rule
He was caught, returned, tried and on Dec was executed with his wife. His successors removed all remnants of the former dictator’s rule and planned for the country’s free elections. Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

79 The Reunification of Germany
Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

80 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
German Reunification “The fall of the Berlin Wall on November 9, 1989, caught everyone in Moscow by surprise. The East German leaders, acting under growing public pressure and without any advice from Moscow, decided to allow the controlled movement of population between East and West Berlin”[1] [1] Zubok, p. 326 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

81 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
German Reunification “Credit for German re-unification-a unique case of fusion in a decade of fission-must go in the first instance to Helmut Kohl (West German Chancellor)”. [1] November 28th, 1989: Kohl presents, to the Bundestag, a five-year series of cautious steps towards German unification [1] Judt p. 638. Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

82 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
German Reunification But after listening to East Germans-and getting Washington’s backing- he felt that unification had to happen ASAP Like previous German unification, the first stage was to be a “currency union” with the political unification to follow East Germany (GDR) called for elections (March 1990) Alliance for Germany (Christian Democrats) ran on a unification ticket and took 48% of the vote Social Democrats took 22% Communists took 16% Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

83 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
German Reunification May 1990: The CDU/PD Liberal Coalition took steps to unify May 18th 1990: “a MONETARY, ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL UNION was SIGNED BETWEEN THE TWO GERMANIES, AND ON July 1st its crucial clause-the EXTENSION OF THE DEUTSCHMARK TO EAST GERMANY-came into force. East Germans could now exchange their virtually useless German marks- up to the equivalent of DM 40,000- at a highly advantageous rate of 1:1.”[1] [1] Judt, p. 639 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

84 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
German Reunification August 23rd, 1990: “the Volkskammer voted to accede to the Federal Republic. A week later a Treaty entered into force: the GDR ‘acceded’ to the Federal Republic and ceased to exist”[1] NOTE: E. Germans had 360,000 Soviet troops still in their country as late as 1989 France and the Brits were NOT excited about German Reunification [1] Judt p. 639 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

85 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
Money to the USSR The Soviet’s were open to financial persuasion regarding German reunification. Gorbachev tried to hold the reunification process “hostage” by demanding $20. Billion (before finally settling for $8 plus an additional $2 billion in interest-free credits).[1] “Overall from 1990 through 1994 Bonn (W. German Capital) transferred to the Soviet Union (and Latterly Russia) the equivalent of $71 billion (with a further $36 billion going to the former Communist states of Eastern Europe)”[2] [1] Judt, p. 642 [2] Judt, p. 642 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

86 Reunification in Germany
German reunification led to an ERASURE of HISTORY, not a RECOVERY of HISTORY. In the former East Germany, “the names of towns, streets, buildings and counties were changed, often reverting to pre-1933 usage…rather than engage the GDR’s troubled history…its former subjects were encouraged to forget it”[1] [1] Judt, p. 642 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

87 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
German Reunification “In the three years following unification total transfers from Western into Eastern Germany amounted to the equivalent of 1,200 Billion Euros; by the end of 2003 the cost of absorbing the former GDR had reached 1.2 Trillion Euros. East Germans were subsidized into the Federal Republic: their jobs, pensions, transport, education and housing underwritten by huge increases in government expenditure.”[1] Gorbachev’s concessions of the German Reunification issue hurt his popularity at home. [1] Judt, p. 643 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

88 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
The Fall of the U.S.S.R. Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

89 Soviet Withdrawal From Afghanistan
The Withdrawal From Afghanistan Not completed until February of 1989 “By late 1986 it became clear to Gorbachev…[that] the invigorated Soviet strategy in Afghanistan was not working[1]” [1] Westad, p. 372 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

90 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
Afghanistan “American willingness to supply an almost unlimited quantity of arms to the Mujahedin, the improved organization of the guerillas, and the participation of foreign fighters-mostly Pakistanis and Arabs-on the side of the resistance had upped the ante to a level where fighting for a better position prior to withdrawal seemed impossible. In February 1987 Gorbachev was close to desperation.”[1] [1] Westad, p. 372 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

91 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
Afghanistan “On the chilly winter morning of 15 February 1989 Lieutenant General Boris Gromov, the last commander of Soviet forces in Afghanistan, walked across the bridge over the Amu Darya River and back into Uzbekistan, from where the Red Army had come almost ten years before…the ignoble Soviet exit from Afghanistan became a global symbol for the failure of Moscow’s Third World policies”[1] [1] Westad, pp Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

92 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
According to Westad, the three major reasons for the Soviet’s withdrawal: “(first) the Soviet critique of Third World socialism that found its way into the party leadership through Gorbachev’s choice of advisers…(secondly) the Soviet hope that it could remove American hostility through making compromises in the Third World…(lastly) the ideological adherence to the principle of national self-determination that Gorbachev’s reading of Lenin gave rise to, and which led the CPSU both out of Afghanistan and eventually, out of the Kremlin.”[1] [1] Westad, p. 380 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

93 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
A Failed Coup “On August 18, 1991, Gorbachev, his wife Raisa, and his foreign policy minister Anatoly Chernyaev, were on vacation in the Crimea when the majority of Gorbachev’s ministers took power into their own hands…tanks and troops flooded Moscow…[they] lacked the will to use violence and spill blood…for three days, the leader of a superpower was a prisoner of the KGB in his Crimean residence… the architects of the coup claimed he was “sick.”[1] The coup failed! [1] Zubok, p Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

94 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
Last Days of Gorbachev “Gorbachev was seen as a pathetic and procrastinating figure, hated and despised by many of his fellow countrymen and by former Soviet allies around the world. Intellectual and artistic elites abandoned Gorbachev (although he and his wife had cultivated and helped them so much) and enthusiastically supported the anti-Communist course and rhetoric of Boris Yeltsin.” [1] [1] Zubok, p. 332. Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

95 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
The Rise of Yeltsin “The resistance to the coup was the golden hour of the ‘men and women of the sixties’…young people, students, businessmen and intellectuals [rushed] to defend the Russian Parliament, where Yeltsin stood in defiance of the Kremlin’s hard-liners…the international media, including CNN, beamed the image of a defiant Boris Yeltsin, standing on an armored troop carrier in front of the threatened Russian parliament, around the world…As the leaders dithered, the coup lost its momentum and collapsed like a house of cards…the active participants of this “revolution never numbered more than 50,000 to 60,000 demonstrators does not diminish its significance[1]” [1] Zubok, p. 333. Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

96 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
Fall of Communism Yeltsin, the President, banned the Communist party and separated from the USSR. Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

97 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
Yeltsin December 8th, 1991 Yeltsin and other former communist leaders from the Ukraine, and Belorussia disbanded the Soviet Union. “One last time Gorbachev refused to use force to remain In power…On December 25th, 1991, the triumphant Yeltsin and his followers forced Gorbachev out of his Kremlin office. A bit later, the Soviet flag went down the Kremlin mast one more time”[1] [1] Zubok, p. 334 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

98 The Legacy of Mikhail Gorbachev
“The peaceful and rapid end of the Cold War secured Gorbachev’s place in international history. The unwitting destruction of the Soviet Union made him one of the most controversial figures in Russian history”[1] [1] Zubok, p. 335 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

99 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
Bibliography CNN Cold War. Retrieved July 6, 2008, from Episode 23: The Wall Comes Down Web site (1998): Gaddis, J.L. (2005). The Cold War: A new history. New York, NY: Penguin Press. Ioannes Paulus PP. II. Retrieved July 6, 2008, from The Holy See Web site: Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

100 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote
Bibliography Judt, T. (2005). Postwar: A history of Europe since New York, NY: Penguin Press. Keylor, W.R. (2003). A world of nations: The international order since Oxford, England: Oxford University Press) Westad, O.A. (2007). The global Cold War: Third world interventions and the making of our times. New York, NY: Cambridge Press Zubok, V.M. (2007). A failed empire. Chapel Hill, NC: Chapel Hill Press. Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation," Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote


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