Presentation on theme: "An Exploration of the Effect of High- Stakes Examinations on the Teaching and Learning of Mathematics in Post-Primary Education in Turkey and Ireland Tugba."— Presentation transcript:
An Exploration of the Effect of High- Stakes Examinations on the Teaching and Learning of Mathematics in Post-Primary Education in Turkey and Ireland Tugba Aysel ( NUIM) Co-Supervisor: Ann O`Shea ( NUIM) Co-Supervisor: Sinead Breen (St. Patrick`s College, DCU)
Motivation for study Both Ireland and Turkey have high-stakes examinations at the end of second level schooling that determine entry to third level education. This project aims to explore the effect of such examinations on the teaching & learning of mathematics at second level in both countries
Situation in Ireland Lyons, Lynch, Close, Sheerin & Boland (2003- Inside Classrooms) and Hourigan & O`Donoghue (2007) have expressed that the teaching and learning of mathematics in Irish post-primary schools: is focused on examination results, there is pressure on teachers and students, there is an emphasis on procedural skills.
Situation in Turkey There is a less evidence of the effect of examinations In PISA 2006 Turkish students performed less well than Irish students but their attitudes to mathematics were better.
Aim of my study Investigate students` attitudes to mathematics and to learning mathematics. Investigate the effects of exams on teachers and students. Compare two countries.
Overview Introduction to Turkish Education System Comparison with Irish system Preliminary results
TURKISH EDUCATION SYSTEM Types of Post-Primary Schools 1. Science School 2. Anatolian High School 3. Private School 4. Ordinary School 5. Vocational School
Types of Irish Post-Primary Schools 1. Secondary Single Sex Girls Fee Paying 2. Secondary Single Sex Girls not-Fee Paying, not Deis 3. Secondary Single Sex Boys not-Fee Paying, Deis 4. Secondary Single Sex Boys Fee Paying 5. Secondary Coed Fee Paying 6. Secondary Coed not-Fee Paying, not Deis 7. Vocational/Community College not-Fee Paying, not Deis 8. Vocational/Community College not-Fee Paying, Deis 9. Comprehensive/Community School not-Fee Paying, not Deis 10. Comprehensive/Community School not-Fee Paying, Deis
The difference between Irish and Turkish post-primary schools Turkey classifies secondary schools into 5 different levels Ireland classifies students into 3 different levels (Foundation&Ordinary&Higher)
There are 4 groups in a post-primary school Science group Turkish-Maths group Social group Language group
Syllabus in Maths In both countries the syllabus is very similar. For example; algebra, trigonometry, calculus, geometry.
EXAMS IN TURKEY AND IRELAND Leaving Certificate Partial Credit Questions OSYS (Student Selection Settlement Exam) Multiple Choice Questions
Turkish Exam System All the papers were taken in one day in 3 and half hours. This year (June), there will be four papers in 4 days.(Maths, Science, Social-Turkish and Language papers) There were 60 multiple choice maths questions but there will be 85 multiple choice maths questions this year.
Few examples of the exam questions from both countries OSYS-2009 A)e B)e-1 C)e-2 D)2e-1 E)2e-3 Leaving Certificate-Higher Level-2009
A Contextual Question from OSYM-2009 A shepherd`s sheep give birth either to 2 or 3 lambs. 75% of the delivery with 2 lambs and 50% of the delivery with 3 lambs are alive. If 28 sheep gave birth, how many lambs are alive? A) 35 B) 36 C) 39 D) 42 E)45
My Study 10 schools in Turkey 2 schools from each type 661 students and 21 teachers 13 schools in Ireland 1 school from each type at least 666 students and 29 teachers
The topics in student questionnaire; 1. Learning goals, 2. Performance goals, 3. Confidence 4. Anxiety 5. Pressure 6. Usefulness 7. Good teaching 8. Maths learning 9. Study methods
Some examples of teacher`s questionnaire 7- What teaching methods do you use? Describe a typical class? 8- Do you have complete freedom in your choice of teaching methods? Yes No Please comment 9- What do you think of the exam system? What are its positive aspects? What are its negative aspects? 10- Do you think the exam system influences the way that you teach? Yes No Is the influence positive or negative?
Goal Orientation We will focus on learning and performance goals. Students who display performance goals wish to receive positive feedback on their abilities from themselves or others, and to avoid demonstrating a lack of ability. Students with learning goals however, wish to increase their competence and acquire new understanding.
The Measures The validity and reliability of the instrument was determined using Rasch Analysis We will look at the Performance Goal and Learning Goal measures.
Results We will look at Learning Goal and Performance Goal Scales for Turkish&Irish data Analysis is ongoing
Learning Goal Questions Lgoal_1: I work at maths because I want to learn as much as possible Lgoal_2: I work at maths because it is important for me that I understood the ideas Lgoal_3: I work at maths because I like figuring things out. Lgoal_4: I work at maths because I like learning new things. Lgoal_5: I work at maths because I like finding new ways of doing things.
Performance Goal Questions Prfgoal_1: I work at maths because it is important to me that I do well on the Leaving Cert maths exam Prfgoal_2: I work at maths because it is important for me to get as many CAO Points as I can Prfgoal_3: I work at maths because it is important for me that the teacher thinks I do a good job Prfgoal_4: I work at maths because it is important for me to do better than the other students Prfgoal_5: I work at maths because I don`t want people to think that I am stupid
Reliability Person reliability index: indicates how robust the person ordering is. Item reliability index: all the items on a scale measure the same trait.
Reliability Measures Item reliability of Learning scale is.99 Item reliability of Performance scale is 1.00 Person reliability of Learning scale is.78 Person reliability of Performance scale is.51
T-test for comparing the countries on learning and performance scales On Learning Goal scale, there is no significant difference between means of both countries (95% CI is between (-.07765,.31609) On Performance Goal scale, there is significant difference between means of both countries (95% CI is between (-.363589, -.15259) Irish students have higher measures of performance goal.