Presentation on theme: "Jefferson, Madison, and the War of 1812"— Presentation transcript:
1 Jefferson, Madison, and the War of 1812 America at 1800Jefferson, Madison, and the War of 1812
2 Quiz: JeffersonHow are Jeffersonian Democratic-Republicans different from Hamiltonian Federalists? Vision of society and View of ConstitutionExplain how the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions are a response to the Alien and Sedition Acts.
4 Quiz: Jefferson's Presidency America at Massive Growth- in what areas?Revolution of Federalists loseRepublican ValuesReduction of the Federal Government and Federal Debt“Less is more”The Supreme Court under John MarshallMarbury vs. MadisonLouisiana PurchaseBurr conspiracyNeutral rightsImpressmentEmbargo
8 Test items Republican Vision/Jefferson/embargo/reduce the budget Revolution of Jefferson/overturn Federal policiesJefferson/a great politicianEnded internal taxesGovernment spendingNational debtJefferson and the courtJudiciary act of 1801Mabry Vs. MadisonLouisiana Purchase reasonsAaron BurrWar of 1812 causes, War Hawks/Clay/Calhoun/Tecumseh’s goals
9 Essay QuestionThe War of 1812 was foisted upon an unwilling nation by a Congress controlled by a group of congressmen called the “War Hawks” whose main goal was the conquest of Canada.Assess the validity of this statement using the documents and your knowledge of US History
10 Not elitist like Federalist Believed in the “Common Man” Republican Agenda 1790’sThomas JeffersonNot elitist like FederalistBelieved in the “Common Man”Reacting against the philosophy of the Federalists and HamiltonPro-French, French Revolution as a great movement toward democracyBelieved in the strength of the small farmerWants to reduce the size of the Federal GovernmentRegarding the National BankFederal Government had no authority to create the National BankA strict interpretation of Constitution.The constitution did not address or allowHamilton said, the constitution allows all laws that are necessary, known as the Elastic ClauseBelieved in concepts of the States vs. Federal Gov
11 Sectionalism Developing Northeast- Manufacturing=want to send goods WestWestern Farmers agriculture=want to send goods EastProblem of Transportation= roads, canals, river transportation important building transportation networks.Problem: Spain controls mouth of Mississippi until the French reacquire Louisiana under Napoleon and US make the Louisiana Purchase-1803
12 American Growth New Century Census office million people 1820= 9.5 mill33% ? growth rate each decadeRapid Economic growthCommercial and Geographic expansionCities- 1820New York + 100,000Philadelphia + 100,00075% Pop Rural5% in cities20% in townsPeople moving west in search of farm landOhio, Mississippi Valley
13 Jefferson Presidency 1801-1809 Lawyer, diplomat, scientist, philosopherInterested in AgricultureSupported innovations and technology“Where a new invention is supported by well-known principles, and promises to be useful, it ought to be tried.”
14 How is Jefferson’s Election “Revolutionary” or the Revolution of 1800? Peaceful transfer of power- was not commonIt was a watershed for the Republic in that the opposing political parties would cooperate with a change in leadershipSome will say, changes Jefferson advocates will be revolutionary.Jefferson as a common man- open to common peopleWants to remove the Federalist program and reduce the size of the Federal government
15 Jefferson’s Social Vision Wanted to see individuals own landLand was the key to democracy-didn’t believe that cities and industry were idealRecognized manufacturing was necessary“The cultivators of the earth are the most valuable citizens”
16 Jefferson’s Plan Wanted to return governing power to the states Economics-Thought Federalist enacted too many protective tariffs – that hurt farmer and favored merchantsHated the national debt- $112 million by 1801Gallatin was his Secretary of Treasury- proposed cutting spending to balance the budgetFederal jobs, military, navy budget cutEnd internal taxes/excise taxes
17 Quiz: Jefferson and the Court Judiciary Act of 1801John MarshallMarbury v MadisonJudicial Review
18 Speaking of “Midnight Judges” Republican from Kentucky called Adams’s tactics "the last effort of the most wicked, insidious and turbulent faction that ever disgraced our political annals."
19 Jefferson vs. The Court A Federalist law is passed, Judiciary Act 1801 Created 16 new Federal judgeshipsAdams appointed a number of judges before he left office (Midnight Appointments)Jefferson pushes republican controlled congress to repeal the act and not seat Federalist judgesHowever the Supreme Court is packed with Federalist and will rule against Republican issues
20 John Marshall Chief Justice 1801-1835 link Appointed as Chief Justice during last days of Adams' termMost important Chief Justice in U.S. history; served for about 34 yearsMolded or developed the power of the Judiciary
21 John Marshall Chief Justice 1801-1835 link Key leader, “non-partisan” FederalistStrengthened the Federal Government- at expense of statesAdvanced the interests of the richSupported the legality of contractsSupported the concept of Federal government supremacy over statesDartmouth Case- overrode a state court
22 Marbury vs Madison, 1803 Link "Midnight judge" William Marbury sued(on the behalf of several other judges) for thedelivery of his commission that was being held up by the new Secretary of State Madison.Madison was ordered by Jefferson to withhold appointments of Judiciary Act o 1801 Marbury asked the Supreme Court should force the president to give him his job.The Judiciary Act of 1789 said Court had a the power to compel the executive to act…Marshall said 1789 Act Congress gave too much authority to Court…by giving the Court the right to enforce appointments (only the executive branch had right to enforce the law)Ruling established a precedentSupreme Court power to rule a law by Congress unconstitutionalJudicial Review(the concept that the Supreme Court can rule laws unconstitutional)
23 Marshall Marshall Said: “Marbury had a right to the commission but- the court had no authority to order Madison to deliver it.”
24 Louisiana Purchase 1801 France again controls the Louisiana Territory Jefferson wants to expand US territorySends James Monroe to France to Negotiate the purchase of New Orleans because French tried to close the port to Western farmersMonroe signed the deal with Napoleon 1803The deal created a dilemma for Jefferson, he believed in strict interpretation of Constitution, which means the government only does what the Constitution says it should do.Contrast to Hamilton's Elastic Clause assertion
26 Burr ConspiracyBurr, a scoundrel, and traitor- Killed Hamilton in 1804 (Federalists essentially die with hammy)Jefferson broke with Burr early-Burr became involved with a group of Federalists to create a separate country 1st with New York and NJ then later involving Mexico. (to secede)Jefferson tries to have Burr prosecuted, Burr eventually escapes to Europe.
27 War of 1812 Quiz Choose three of the following: What was the Embargo Who wanted it and why?Who were the “War Hawks”List three mains causes of the War of 1812-What role did Andrew Jackson play in the War of 1812
28 Winds of WarLongtime problem of American merchant ships being seized and sailors forcibly impressed into service by British Navy, continues,000 sailors were removed from US ships by BritishChesapeake Leopard incident-Jefferson/Republicans respond with the Embargo Act of stopping all trade-Results in immediate disasterAmerican agriculture prices fall-over supply-Smuggling begins and Jefferson tries to suppress with Navy and Troops
30 Jefferson to Madison Embargo didn’t work Jefferson never ended the national debtMadison, Jefferson’s Secretary of State, in , is elected and Jefferson, before leaving office, asks Congress to repeal the Embargo and replace it with Non-Intercourse Act
31 Madison 1809-1816 Republican, Jefferson’s Secretary of State Picked up where Jefferson left offTrying to deal with European conflictsBritish interference with trade continued-seizures and impressmentsWestern incitement of Indians
32 MadisonNon-Intercourse Act in an effort to repair damage by the embargoCongress passes law to prohibit trade with Britain and France, but allow trade with other countriesAmericans want Neutral Trading Rights
33 War of 1812 Causes Invasion of Canada Hartford Convention Conduct of the warTreaty of GhentNew Orleans
34 War of 1812 Causes War Hawks- American Nationalists- legislators advocated war with Britain to regain American tradesecure Western lands (kill Indians)invade CanadaSpeaker of the House Henry Clay of KentuckyCongressman John C. Calhoun of South CarolinaBlamed Great Britain for inciting the Indians in Ohio
36 Ohio Indian Trouble White settlement of Ohio increases 1800=5600 1810= 24, 5001820=147,000Indian Tribes pushed West are angry about treaties and White settlement
37 Quiz: War of 1812 Who was Tecumseh- what should we know about him? Hartford Convention-What was it?What group participated in it?What did they want to do?
38 Frontier Two Tribal leaders, The “Prophet” and Tecumseh Shawnee twin brothers- wanted their people to resist the white invasion and live separatelyThey try to form an Indian confederation to resist white settlementWilliam Henry Harrison and the US Army kill “Prophet” at “Prophet’s Town” in the Battle of Tippecanoe 1811Americans believe the British are helping the Indians from forts in the Ohio valley
39 Madison Wins Election 1812 June 1812 War is Declared Federalist against the war but out voted by Western and Southern Republicans (War Hawks)Americans Invade of CanadaThrough DetroitGreat Lakes Oliver Hazard Perry- defeats a British fleet Lake Erie “We have met the enemy and they are ours...two ships, two brigs, one schooner and one sloop." The victory secured the Great Lakes region for the United States and ended the threat of invasion from that quarter.But few lasting effects
41 Military IssuesBritish Invade through the Chessapeake and burn Washington D.C.Fort McHenry, Baltimore Harbor, Star Spangled BannerHero Andrew Jackson- defeats Creek indians in the Mississippi area and then goes on to defend Jan New Orleans from invasion- great victory will bring him national prominence
42 Treaty of Ghent Treaty of Ghent, (Belgium) signed December 1814- British evacuate the Ohio Valley, no major consequencesIndians lose, usually move West , lose large areas of land- in NorthwestRush-Bagot Agreement- de-militarized the Great Lakes
43 Hartford Convention 1814 (Connecticut) Federalist opposition delegates from New England meet to discuss complaints regarding the War and the Republican leadershipSome argue for secessionAfter the War Federalist are marginalized even more than before.
45 Quiz: Madison’s Economic Plans Summarize the two major economic initiatives Madison supported-
46 The Madisonian Platform After the War there is a huge feeling of Nationalism-The idea of loyalty or devotion to a nation, orPride in one’s country, usually excessiveMadison unveils a program to develop the country through the leadership of the Federal Government:Military, banking, protective tariffs, internal improvements (roads, canals), and a national university
47 Madison’s Platform Military Banking- Chartering the Second Bank of the United States -first bank, time ran out and paper money issued caused inflation Bank is created 1816-became economically strongMcCullah vs. Maryland- Marshall-ruled that the Bank was legal and states could not tax it.Protective Tariff- During Embargo, manufacturing in Northeast develops, Brits produce more goods, cheaper, and fasterTextile industrialists, (Lowell) support tariffEven Calhoun of South Carolina, supported the tariff, because of nationalistic or patriotic reasons.