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2 Photo from

3 Treaty of Velasco

4 THE TREATIES OF VELASCO Public Terms 1. The war between Mexico and Texas was officially ended, and Texas was declared independent. 2. Santa Anna would not take up arms against Texas. 3. All Mexican forces would withdraw beyond the Rio Grande. 4. Prisoners would be exchanged. 5. Mexico would return all captured property. 6. Texas leaders would promptly return Santa Anna to Mexico.

5 THE TREATIES OF VELASCO Secret Terms 1.Provided for Santa Annas immediate release 2.Santa Anna would try to persuade Mexican leaders to recognize the independence of Texas. 3.Santa Anna would push for the Rio Grande to be Mexicos border with Texas.

6 RESPONSE TO THE TREATIES OF VELASCO Texans Respond: 1.A small force stopped Santa Anna 2.David G. Burnet imprisoned him Mexican Response: 1.Leaders did not recognize treaties or Texas independence



9 Texans took these steps in building their new nation: Sam Houston was elected president of the Republic of Texas. Mirabeau B. Lamar was elected vice- president. A constitution was adopted.

10 Results of the Election of 1836 Vice President:Congress:President: Constitution:Annexation: The Early Republic Mirabeau B. Lamarelected senators and representatives Sam Houston approved the Texas Constitution of 1836 voted to seek U.S. annexation of Texas

11 Sam Houstons Inaugural Address [We] modestly remonstrated against oppression, and, when invaded by a numerous host, we dared to proclaim our independence and to strike for freedom on the breast of the oppressor. As yet our course is onward. We are only in the outset of the campaign of liberty.

12 Problems in the New Republic The Mexican government refused to recognize Texass independence. –Mexico and Texas were still at war. Other nations also needed to be persuaded that Texas is independent. The new government was in debt from the Texas revolution. Indians are now way out numbered and Anglo Americans are taking over their territory. –Indians threaten to declare war on the Texans.

13 Houston was cautious. He tried to prevent another war with Mexico or with Native Texans. Houston limited government spending. Houston thought the best solution to Texass problems was annexation to the United States. Houstons well appointed cabinet helped him with these problems. (Stephen F. Austin served as secretary of state.) Cabinet – council that advises the chief executive

14 After serving as secretary of state for only three months, Stephen F. Austin dies at the age of 43. Texass first empresario served as leader for all American colonists in Texas led the first major military conflict in the Revolution traveled to the United States to raise money for the war.

15 Initially, Columbia, a small town in Brazoria County, was declared the capital city. Two brothers, John and Augustus Allen, planned on building a new town near Harrisburg, which had been burned during the Revolution. –They named this town Houston, after Sam. Houston remained the capital of Texas throughout Houstons first administration, even though people complained about the conditions in this town. –It was muddy, hot, and had simple log structures, etc.

16 The addition of Texas to the United States made sense to many. Texan Anson Jones went to the U.S. Congress and tried to get them to accept Texas into the Union. Texas would have been considered a slave state, and many members of the U.S. congress opposed slavery. This decision was delayed, and Houston ordered Jones to withdraw the request. –Houston didnt want Texas to be embarrassed by having its request delayed any longer.

17 One of the biggest problems in the new Republic was the lack of money. When Sam Houston began his presidency, Texas was in debt over $1 million. Houston held government expenses to a minimum and tried to raise revenue only for items that were absolutely necessary. Revenue – annual or current income of the government

18 In 1837 the Texas Congress authorized Houston to issue about $600,000 in promissory notes. These notes made a promise that the government would pay the specified amount to the holder of the note at a future date. This was called star money because these notes had a star on the front of them. promissory notes – written promise to pay a sum of money at a future time

19 When Texass financial situation did not improve, some feared that the promise of future payment might not be kept. As a result, people started refusing to accept the promissory notes.

20 In the Treaties of Velasco, Santa Anna agreed to the independence of Texas. Mexico refused to accept the treaties. Mexico refused to acknowledge that Texas was independent.

21 Thousands of citizens arrived in Texas too late to fight in the Revolution. Felix Huston raised an army of 500 to 700 volunteers to fight in the Texas Revolution. The war was over when Hustons army; therefore, their eagerness to fight made them try to renew the war with Mexico! Houston sent Hustons soldiers home. –This helped financially because now Houston didnt have to pay these soldiers.

22 Texas not only had conflicts with Mexico but also the Native Texans. Remember, the Native Texans were promised by Houston the title to their land they occupied in East Texas. The Texas Congress refused to uphold this treaty (promise) Houston had agreed upon.

23 Many Texans wanted the Native Texans out because the land they occupied was the richest farmland in Texas. Houston, unlike most Texans, was sympathetic to the Native Texans. The Texas Rangers had to be called in to patrol the frontier. Attacks on both sides continued.

24 ELECTION OF 1838 Since the Texan Constitution did not have back to back terms, President Houston had to hand over the government in Vice-President Lamar remained popular by the Texas people and was elected as the second president of the Republic of Texas.

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26 HOUSTON was bold liked flashy clothing worked on keeping peace with Mexico and the Native Texans. spent little money promoted annexation of Texas to the U.S. liked quiet reading did not shy away from conflicts with Mexico and the Native Texans. wanted to get rid Texas of ALL Native Texans spent LARGE sums of borrowed money on military expeditions wanted Texas to remain independent and expand its borders LAMAR

27 Lamars aggressive approach to Texass policies was obvious in his 1838 inaugural address: –If peace can be obtained only by the sword, let the sword do its work.

28 Unlike Houston, Lamar wanted to kill or force all of the Native Texans out of Texas. Lamars generals forced the Cherokees out of East Texas. –The Cherokees went to live in present-day Oklahoma.

29 Lamar also wanted the Comanches out of Southwest Texas. –Many skirmishes took place Texas troops vs Comanches. Finally the Comanches agreed to meet in San Antonio (March ) to discuss peace. The Comanches promised to release all Anglo captives. –One Anglo girl released looked as though she had been tortured.

30 The Texans refused to let the Comanche leaders leave without having all the Texas captives released from all Comanche bands. When the Comanche leaders tried to leave, they were attacked. This fight was known as the Council House Fight. –7 Texans were killed. –MANY Comanche leaders were killed. –The Comaches were outnumbered and unarmed.

31 BATTLE OF PLUM CREEK When news of the Council House Fight reached the Comanche villagers, they were FURIOUS! They thought their leaders should have been safe while attending the PEACE talks. The Comanches killed the rest of the Texas prisoners and raided the towns of Linnville and Victoria (South Texas.) The Texans fought back killing more than 100 Comanches in a battle called

32 Lamar thought that sending rebels to revolt in Mexico would help Texas. Lamars actions only increased tension between Mexico and Texas. Lamar also upset New Mexico by assuming that the land west of Texas, along the Rio Grande, was Texass. –Lamar felt he was entitled to this land under the Treaties of Velasco that was signed by Santa Anna in

33 In 1841 Lamar asked permission from congress to send troops to New Mexico. Congress said, NO! –Lamar sent General Hugh McLoed and a force of 270 men to Santa Fe (1,300 miles away) to convince those in New Mexico they were Texans. The people in New Mexico refused to become part of Texas. –Without the necessary supplies to return home, the Texans surrendered to Mexican authorities and were imprisoned in Mexico for about a year. The Santa Fe expedition was a waste of money that Texas did not have. Lives were also unnecessarily lost on this expedition as well.



36 A New Capital Lamar did not like Houston being the capital of Texas. Lamar wanted a more centrally located capital. He choose 100 miles north of San Antonio. He named this site Austin, in honor of Stephen F. Austin.

37 Lamar is best known for his contributions to public education. Lamar believed that a strong educational system would make Texas a great nation. The Texas Congress set aside almost 18,000 acres of land in each county for public schools. Although few schools were actually build during Lamars administration, he became known as the FATHER EDUCATION IN TEXAS.

38 Texass financial problem got worse during Lamars presidency. Lamar expanded the use of bills known as redbacks. –They were called redbacks because of the color of ink that was used. The redbacks went down in value. Lamar spent money on battles that he didnt have. Public debt increased to almost $7 million by the end of Lamars term. Public debt – amount of money a national government owes

39 During Lamars presidency, the empresarial system returned. The Texas Constitution promised: – 4,605 acres to every Anglo family already living in Texas. –640 acres were given to immigrants –320 acres were given for 3 months in the army Texass population increased from 34,000 when the Republic was first formed to more than 100,000.

40 Mexico not recognizing Texas as independent DEBT Raids by Indians Promissory notes Cut Spending Texas Rangers Reduce military (ie: Felix Huston who wanted to start war)

41 Action LAND POLICY Result ECONOMYTEXAS INDIANS Action Result Action Result Lamars Presidency issued red backs worthless within three years, in part because of rising national debt passed homestead law protected Texans homes and up to 50 acres from seizure for debts declared war on American Indians removed Cherokee from East Texas, pushed Comanche north & west, increased debt

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43 Sam Houston as President Again Since the Texas constitution stated that you could not be president for two consecutive terms, Lamar was not eligible to run for president….BUT Sam Houston was. Although not everyone agreed with Houstons plan and ideas for Texas, he was reelected in 1841.

44 Once in office, Houston put his plan back into action. –reduced government spending –pulled Texas military out of Mexico

45 Moore was the Texas Navy Commander in Mexico. Moore defied Houstons orders to leave Mexico and went to New Orleans to repair his ships and re-supply his crew. Houston declared Moore a pirate and invited other countries to sink his ships! Moore eventually returned back to Texas.

46 On March 5, 1842, Mexicans General Vasquez and about 700 soldiers took control of San Antonio. Vasquez raised the Mexican flag, declaring Mexican control. Two days later, Vasquez returned to Mexico.

47 In September of that same year, Mexican soldiers invaded Texas again. General Woll led 1,400 Mexican soldiers to San Antonio where they captured San Antonio again and took 67 Texas hostages with them. Houston sent a group of 300 militia to pursue Woll and his men. –This Texas militia was led by General Alexander Somervell.

48 Before Somervells forces could reach the Mexican troops, they had already crossed the Rio Grande into Mexico. Somervell stopped the chase because he thought his orders prohibited him to cross into Mexico. Many members of the militia were upset. –They didnt want to leave without a fight. –They thought they didnt have enough supplies to return across South Texas. In revolt, the militia elected William Fisher to lead them into Mexico. –They crossed the Rio Grande on December 23, 1842.

49 Once in Mexico, the Texans demanded that the citizens of Mier (a small town) provide them with needed supplies. While the Texans waited, Mexican general Pedro de Ampudía and his troops arrived and captured them. Santa Anna ordered one of every ten prisoners to be put to death. (The others would be imprisoned for LIFE!)

50 Thomas Green, a member of the expedition, explained how the Mexican leaders decided which men would be killed: …by the drawing of black and white beans from a small earthen mug. The white ones signified exemption, and the black death. One hundred and fifty-nine white beans were placed in the bottom of the mug, and seventeen black ones were placed upon the top of them. If the prisoner drew a black bean, they were shot by a firing squad. The ones drawing a white bean were imprisoned. Many of the Texans died in prison and the others were released in 1844.


52 Houston wanted to move the capital of Texas. –Houston said that Austin was too approachable, making it a target for raids by Mexican troops and attacks of the Native Texans. Many of Houstons opponents said that Houston just didnt want to serve in Lamars Capital. Houston set up the government in Washington-on-the Brazos. The archives remained in Austin because the people in Austin know that the archives were their last claim to the capital. archives – public records, papers, or documents

53 After the raid by Woll, Houston sent men to remove the archives from Austin. As Houstons men loaded the archives onto the wagons, Angelina Eberly sounded the alarm by setting off the cannon. Houstons men were chased and caught as they rode away in their wagons with the archives. The Austin citizens returned the archives to Austin, where they remained throughout Houstons presidency.

54 Houston had to deal with conflicts among the Texans. There was a long-standing feud between two groups in East Texas. This feud became known as the Regulator-Moderator War. In August, 1844, Houston sent 600 troops to stop the violence. Due to the presence of the troops, the violence ended.

55 Houstons Efforts to Gain Annexation Since his first administration, Houston had urged the U.S. to annex Texas. John Tyler, the current U.S. president, agreed to annex Texas; however, the Senate rejected the ballot by one vote. Many Texans were very disappointed. This failure will make annexation a key issue in the presidential campaigns to come.

56 The Texans elected Dr. Anson Jones as president. Edward Burleson was elected vice- president. CANDIDTATES: Martin Van Buren – Free Soil Party Henry Clay – Whig Party James K. Polk – Democratic Party Polk, who among his party favored the annexation of Texas, won the election.

57 On February 26, 1845, the U.S. Congress approved a joint resolution, agreeing to accept Texas as the 28 th state. On February 19, 1846, President Jones announced the annexation of Texas. Joint resolution – formal ruling passed by both houses of the legislature and intended to become a law

58 Last Years of the Republic

59 LAMAR, HOUSTON AND THE ELECTION OF 1844 Republic was divided in the election of 1844 and voters either supported or opposed Houston, who supported Anson Jones Many Texans associated the problems of the Republic with Lamar so his support hurt Edward Burleson Jones wins the election

60 ISSUES FACING TEXAS DURING JONESS PRESIDENCY Faced the problem of the debt of the Republic of Texas Making peace with the Indians Debate over annexation to the U.S.

61 Candidate Supporter: Houston positive OR negative Candidate Supporter: Lamar positive OR negative Presidential Election of 1844 The Last Years of the Republic Anson Jones during second term: helped Texas avoid war with Mexico; saw Texas economy improve Winner Anson Jones Edward Burleson unpopular because many Texans associated the Republics problems with his presidency

62 Elected Presidents of the Republic of Texas 1836–1845 David Burnet Term: March 16, 1836– October 22, 1836 Selected as interim president of Texas during the Texas Revolution. Sam Houston Terms: 1836–1838, 1841–1844 Policies: Limited government spending, established peaceful relations with Mexico and Native Americans, encouraged annexation. Mirabeau B. Lamar Term: 1838–1841 Policies: Used military force against Mexico and Native Americans, wanted Texas to remain independent, promoted education in Texas. Anson Jones Term: 1844–1845 Policies: Supported annexation.

63 limited government spending faced financial problems promissory notes was peaceful with Mexico and the Indians reduced the army eliminated the navy supported annexation served as president of the Republic of Texas served 2 terms increased government spending faced financial problems Redbacks issued encouraged war with Mexico and Indians supported military expeditions established public education wanted TX to be independent served as president of the Republic of Texas served 1 term announced the annexation of Texas supported annexation served as president of the Republic of Texas served 1 term

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