3THE TREATIES OF VELASCO Public TermsThe war between Mexico and Texas was officially ended, and Texas was declared independent.Santa Anna would not take up arms against Texas.All Mexican forces would withdraw beyond the Rio Grande.Prisoners would be exchanged.Mexico would return all captured property.Texas leaders would promptly return Santa Anna to Mexico.
4THE TREATIES OF VELASCO Secret TermsProvided for Santa Anna’s immediate releaseSanta Anna would try to persuade Mexican leaders to recognize the independence of Texas.Santa Anna would push for the Rio Grande to be Mexico’s border with Texas.
5RESPONSE TO THE TREATIES OF VELASCO Texans Respond:A small force stopped Santa AnnaDavid G. Burnet imprisoned himMexican Response:Leaders did not recognize treaties or Texas independence
6Response to the Treaties Treaties of VelascoPublic TermsSecret Terms**Response to the TreatiesTexasMexico**
8Texans took these steps in building their new nation: Sam Houston was elected president of the Republic of Texas.Mirabeau B. Lamar was elected vice-president.A constitution was adopted.Were these steps enough to make them successful?
9The Early Republic Results of the Election of 1836 Vice President: Congress:President:Constitution:Annexation:Sam HoustonMirabeau B. Lamarelected senators and representativesapproved the Texas Constitution of 1836voted to seek U.S. annexation of Texas
10Sam Houston’s Inaugural Address - 1836 “[We] modestly remonstrated against oppression, and, when invaded by a numerous host, we dared to proclaim our independence and to strike for freedom on the breast of the oppressor. As yet our course is onward. We are only in the outset of the campaign of liberty.”
11Problems in the New Republic The Mexican government refused to recognize Texas’s independence.Mexico and Texas were still at war.Other nations also needed to be persuaded that Texas is independent.The new government was in debt from the Texas revolution.Indians are now way out numbered and Anglo Americans are taking over their territory.Indians threaten to declare war on the Texans.
12How can Houston solve these problems? Houston was cautious.He tried to prevent another war with Mexico or with Native Texans.Houston limited government spending.Houston thought the best solution to Texas’s problems was annexation to the United States.Houston’s well appointed cabinet helped him with these problems. (Stephen F. Austin served as secretary of state.)Cabinet – council that advises the chief executive
13Stephen F. Austin Dies What did he accomplish? After serving as secretary of state for only three months, Stephen F. Austin dies at the age of 43.What did he accomplish?Texas’s first empresarioserved as leader for all American colonists in Texasled the first major military conflict in the Revolutiontraveled to the United States to raise money for the war.
14A New CapitalInitially, Columbia, a small town in Brazoria County, was declared the capital city.Two brothers, John and Augustus Allen, planned on building a new town near Harrisburg, which had been burned during the Revolution.They named this town Houston, after Sam.Houston remained the capital of Texas throughout Houston’s first administration, even though people complained about the conditions in this town.It was muddy, hot, and had simple log structures, etc.
15The First Attempt at Annexation The addition of Texas to the United States made sense to many.Texan Anson Jones went to the U.S. Congress and tried to get them to accept Texas into the Union.Texas would have been considered a slave state, and many members of the U.S. congress opposed slavery.This decision was delayed, and Houston ordered Jones to withdraw the request.Houston didn’t want Texas to be embarrassed by having its request delayed any longer.
16Revenue – annual or current income of the government Financial WoesOne of the biggest problems in the new Republic was the lack of money.When Sam Houston began his presidency, Texas was in debt over $1 million.Houston held government expenses to a minimum and tried to raise revenue only for items that were absolutely necessary.Revenue – annual or current income of the government
17Financial WoesIn 1837 the Texas Congress authorized Houston to issue about $600,000 in promissory notes.These notes made a promise that the government would pay the specified amount to the holder of the note at a future date.This was called “star money” because these “notes” had a star on the front of them.promissory notes – written promise to pay a sum of money at a future time
18Financial WoesWhen Texas’s financial situation did not improve, some feared that the promise of future payment might not be kept.As a result, people started refusing to accept the promissory notes.I.O.U.
19Tension Between Texas and Mexico Still ExistsIn the Treaties of Velasco, Santa Anna agreed to the independence of Texas. Mexico refused to accept the treaties.Mexico refused to acknowledge that Texas was independent.
20Trouble in the ArmyThousands of citizens arrived in Texas too late to fight in the Revolution.Felix Huston raised an army of 500 to 700 volunteers to fight in the Texas Revolution.The war was over when Huston’s army;therefore, their eagerness to fight made them try to renew the war with Mexico!Houston sent Huston’s soldiers home.This helped financially because nowHouston didn’t have to pay these soldiers.
21Houston's Native Texan Policy Texas not only had conflicts with Mexico but also the Native Texans.Remember, the Native Texans were promised by Houston the title to their land they occupied in East Texas.The Texas Congress refused touphold this treaty (promise)Houston had agreed upon.
22Houston's Native Texan Policy Many Texans wanted the Native Texans out because the land they occupied was the richest farmland in Texas.Houston, unlike most Texans, was sympathetic to the Native Texans.The Texas Rangers had to be called in to patrol the frontier.Attacks on both sides continued.
23ELECTION OF 1838 Mirabeau B. Lamar Since the Texan Constitution did not have back to back terms, President Houston had to hand over the government in 1838.Vice-President Lamar remained popular by the Texas people and was elected as the second president of the Republic of Texas.Mirabeau B. Lamar
25LAMAR HOUSTON was bold liked flashy clothing worked on keeping peace with Mexico and the Native Texans.spent little moneypromoted annexation of Texas to the U.S.liked quiet readingdid not shy away from conflicts with Mexico and the Native Texans.wanted to get rid Texas of ALL Native Texansspent LARGE sums of borrowed money on military expeditionswanted Texas to remain independent and expand its borders
26PRESIDENT LAMARLamar’s aggressive approach to Texas’s policies was obvious in his 1838 inaugural address:“If peace can be obtained only by the sword, let the sword do its work.”
27Clashes with Native Texans Unlike Houston, Lamar wanted to kill or force all of the Native Texans out of Texas.Lamar’s generals forced the Cherokees out of East Texas.The Cherokees went to live in present-day Oklahoma.
28The Texans were outraged! Council House FightLamar also wanted the Comanches out of Southwest Texas.Many skirmishes took place Texas troops vs Comanches.Finally the Comanches agreed to meet in San Antonio (March ) to discuss peace.The Comanches promised to release all Anglo captives.One Anglo girl released looked as though she had been tortured.The Texans were outraged!
29The Texans refused to let the Comanche leaders leave without having all the Texas captives released from all Comanche bands.When the Comanche leaders tried to leave, they were attacked. This fight was known as the Council House Fight.7 Texans were killed.MANY Comanche leaders were killed.The Comaches were outnumbered and unarmed.
30When news of the Council House Fight reached the Comanche villagers, they were FURIOUS! They thought their leaders should have been safe while attending the PEACE talks.The Comanches killed the rest of the Texas prisoners and raided the towns of Linnville and Victoria (South Texas.)The Texans fought back killing more than 100 Comanches in a battle calledBATTLE OF PLUM CREEK
31Lamar’s actions only increased tension between Mexico and Texas. Relations with MexicoLamar thought that sending rebels to revolt in Mexico would help Texas.Lamar’s actions only increased tension between Mexico and Texas.Lamar also upset New Mexico by assuming that the land west of Texas, along the Rio Grande, was Texas’s.Lamar felt he was entitled to this land under the Treaties of Velasco that was signed by Santa Anna in 1836.
32The Santa Fe expedition was a waste of money that Texas did not have. In 1841 Lamar asked permission from congress to send troops to New Mexico. Congress said, “NO!”Lamar sent General Hugh McLoed and a force of 270 men to Santa Fe (1,300 miles away) to convince those in New Mexico they were Texans.The people in New Mexico refused to become part of Texas.Without the necessary supplies to return home, the Texans surrendered to Mexican authorities and were imprisoned in Mexico for about a year.The Santa Fe expedition was a waste of money that Texas did not have.Lives were also unnecessarily lost on this expedition as well.
35A New Capital Lamar did not like Houston being the capital of Texas. Lamar wanted a morecentrally located capital.He choose 100 miles north of San Antonio.He named this site Austin, in honor of Stephen F. Austin.
36EDUCATIONLamar is best known for his contributions to public education.Lamar believed that a strong educational system would make Texas a great nation.The Texas Congress set aside almost 18,000 acres of land in each county for public schools.Although few schools were actually build during Lamar’s administration, he became known as the “FATHER EDUCATION IN TEXAS”.
37Financial Difficulties Texas’s financial problem got worse during Lamar’s presidency.Lamar expanded the use of bills known as “redbacks”.They were called “redbacks” because of the color of ink that was used.The redbacks went down in value.Lamar spent money on battles that he didn’t have.Public debt increased to almost $7 million by the end of Lamar’s term.Public debt – amount of money a national government owes
38Land PolicyDuring Lamar’s presidency, the empresarial system returned.The Texas Constitution promised:4,605 acres to every Anglo family already living in Texas.640 acres were given to immigrants320 acres were given for 3 months in the armyTexas’s population increased from 34,000 when the Republic was first formed to more than 100,000.
39Problems Solutions Mexico not recognizing Texas as independent Raids by IndiansDEBTPromissory notesCut SpendingReduce military (ie: Felix Huston who wanted to start war)Texas RangersSolutions
40Lamar’s Presidency Action LAND POLICY Result ECONOMY TEXAS INDIANS issuedred backspassedhomestead lawdeclared war on American Indiansworthless within three years, in part because of rising national debtprotected Texans’ homes and up to 50 acres from seizure for debtsremoved Cherokee from East Texas, pushed Comanche north & west, increased debt
42Sam Houston as President Again Since the Texas constitution stated that you could not be president for two consecutive terms, Lamar was not eligible to run for president….BUT Sam Houston was.Although not everyone agreed with Houston’s plan and ideas for Texas, he was reelected in 1841.
43A Return to Houston's Policy Once in office, Houston put his plan back into action.reduced government spendingpulled Texas military out of Mexico
44obeyed Houston's orders Not all military menobeyed Houston's ordersto leave Mexico.Moore was the Texas Navy Commander in Mexico.Moore defied Houston’s orders to leave Mexico and went to New Orleans to repair his ships and re-supply his crew.Houston declared Moore a pirate and invited other countries to sink his ships!Moore eventually returned back to Texas.
45Mexican Troops ReturnOn March 5, 1842, Mexican’s General Vasquez and about 700 soldiers took control of San Antonio.Vasquez raised the Mexican flag, declaring Mexican control.Two days later, Vasquez returned to Mexico.
46...and take Texans hostage! Mexican Troops Return...and take Texans hostage!In September of that same year, Mexican soldiers invaded Texas again.General Woll led 1,400 Mexican soldiers to San Antonio where they captured San Antonio again and took 67 Texas hostages with them.Houston sent a group of 300 militia to pursue Woll and his men.This Texas militia was led by General Alexander Somervell.
47Somervell's forces chase the Mexican soldiers.Before Somervell’s forces could reach the Mexican troops, they had already crossed the Rio Grande into Mexico.Somervell stopped the chase because he thought his orders prohibited him to cross into Mexico.Many members of the militia were upset.They didn’t want to leave without a fight.They thought they didn’t have enough supplies to return across South Texas.In revolt, the militia elected William Fisher to lead them into Mexico.They crossed the Rio Grande on December 23, 1842.
48The Mier ExpeditionOnce in Mexico, the Texans demanded that the citizens of Mier (a small town) provide them with needed supplies.While the Texans waited, Mexican general Pedro de Ampudía and his troops arrived and captured them.Santa Anna ordered one of every ten prisoners to be put to death. (The others would be imprisoned for LIFE!)
49How did they decide which of the Texans would be killed? Thomas Green, a member of the expedition, explained how the Mexican leaders decided which men would be killed:“…by the drawing of black and white beans from a small earthen mug. The white ones signified exemption, and the black death. One hundred and fifty-nine white beans were placed in the bottom of the mug, and seventeen black ones were placed upon the top of them.”If the prisoner drew a black bean, they were shot by a firing squad. The ones drawing a white bean were imprisoned.Many of the Texans died in prison and the others were released in 1844.
51archives – public records, papers, or documents The Archives WarHouston wanted to move the capital of Texas.Houston said that Austin was too approachable, making it a target for raids by Mexican troops and attacks of the Native Texans.Many of Houston’s opponents said that Houston just didn’t want to serve in “Lamar’s Capital”.Houston set up the government in Washington-on-the Brazos.The archives remained in Austin because the people in Austin know that the archives were their last claim to the capital.archives – public records, papers, or documents
52The Archives WarAfter the raid by Woll, Houston sent men to remove the archives from Austin.As Houston’s men loaded the archives onto the wagons, Angelina Eberly sounded the alarm by setting off the cannon.Houston’s men were chased and caught as they rode away in their wagons with the archives.The Austin citizens returned the archives to Austin, where they remained throughout Houston’s presidency.
53Regulator-Moderator War Houston had to deal with conflicts among the Texans.There was a long-standing feud between two groups in East Texas.This feud became known as the Regulator-Moderator War.In August, 1844, Houston sent 600 troops to stop the violence.Due to the presence of the troops, the violence ended.
54Houston’s Efforts to Gain Annexation Since his first administration, Houston had urged the U.S. to annex Texas.John Tyler, the current U.S. president, agreed to annex Texas; however, the Senate rejected the ballot by one vote.Many Texans were very disappointed.This failure will make annexation a key issue in the presidential campaigns to come.
55THE ELECTIONS OF 1844 In TEXAS: In the U.S.: The Texans elected Dr. Anson Jones as president.Edward Burleson was elected vice-president.In TEXAS:In the U.S.:CANDIDTATES:Martin Van Buren – Free Soil PartyHenry Clay – Whig PartyJames K. Polk – Democratic PartyPolk, who among his party favored the annexation of Texas, won the election.
56TEXAS BECOMES A STATEOn February 26, 1845, the U.S. Congress approved a joint resolution, agreeing to accept Texas as the 28th state.On February 19, 1846, President Jones announced the annexation of Texas.Joint resolution – formal ruling passed by both houses of the legislature and intended to become a law
58LAMAR, HOUSTON AND THE ELECTION OF 1844 Republic was divided in the election of 1844 and voters either supported or opposed Houston, who supported Anson JonesMany Texans associated the problems of the Republic with Lamar so his support hurt Edward BurlesonJones wins the election
59ISSUES FACING TEXAS DURING JONES’S PRESIDENCY Faced the problem of the debt of the Republic of TexasMaking peace with the IndiansDebate over annexation to the U.S.
60The Last Years of the Republic Presidential Election of 1844CandidateSupporter: Houstonpositive OR negativeSupporter: LamarAnson JonesEdward Burlesonduring second term: helped Texas avoid war with Mexico; saw Texas economy improveunpopular because many Texans associated the Republic’s problems with his presidencyWinnerAnson Jones
61Elected Presidents of the Republic of Texas 1836–1845 David BurnetTerm:March 16, 1836–October 22, 1836Selected as interim president of Texas during the Texas Revolution.Sam HoustonTerms: 1836–1838, –1844Policies: Limited government spending, established peaceful relations with Mexico and Native Americans, encouraged annexation.Mirabeau B. LamarTerm: 1838–1841Policies: Used military force against Mexico and Native Americans, wanted Texas to remain independent, promotededucation in Texas.Anson JonesTerm: 1844–1845Policies:Supportedannexation.
62First 3 Republic of Texas Presidents LamarHoustonJonesincreased government spendingfaced financial problems“Redbacks” issuedencouraged war with Mexico and Indianssupported military expeditionsestablished public educationwanted TX to be independentserved as president of the Republic of Texasserved 1 termlimited government spendingfaced financial problemspromissory noteswas peaceful with Mexico and the Indiansreduced the armyeliminated the navysupported annexationserved as president of the Republic of Texasserved 2 termsannounced the annexation of Texassupported annexationserved as president of the Republic of Texasserved 1 term