2Could anyone of us commit evil acts? Which factors might play a part why some people harm other people?
3Obedience – Would you obey? Stanley Milgram’s experiments 1960/1962
4The resultsThe result: 2 / 3 of the 40 participants gave the highest electric shocks!The experiment showed that normally nice people with simple means can be made to execute other equally nice people.
20Conformity – How adjustable are you? Handout: Asch’s study. Summarize it as the Milgram study but with only 150 words!
21Bystander-effect – would you help? Kitty Genovese:Girl being kidnapped in the USAAnd another…Smoke filled room:
22Have you ever been in the need of help. Or seen others been Have you ever been in the need of help? Or seen others been? Did they help you/ you help them?Why do you think nobody helped?What does it take for somebody to help?
23Bystander Effect Smoke-filled room study (Latané and Darley, 1968) The tendency to be less likely to help if others are also presentSmoke-filled room study (Latané and Darley, 1968)IV: left alonewith 2 other real participantswith 2 other confederates who pretended nothing was wrongDV: Percentage of participants who reported smoke
24Smoke-Filled Room Study 80Percent who report smoke604020AloneWith 2 other real subjectsWith 2 calm confederates
26Situational Influences: 5 Steps to Helping Step 1: Notice the EventIn order to help, you must realize something is happeningOften people are distracted and don’t even notice (especially in large cities)Step 2: Interpret as EmergencyIf you see someone lying on the sidewalk, does that mean they need or want help?Pluralistic ignorance can play a role hereOthers not helping, must not be a problem
275 Steps to Helping Step 3: Feel responsible Step 4: Know how to help Just because you notice someone in need of help, is that your problem?Diffusion of responsibility plays a role at this stepStep 4: Know how to helpIf someone appears to need medical care and you’re not a nurse or doctor, then what?If you can’t offer appropriate help, you will likely not try
285 Steps to Helping Step 5: Assess costs of helping You see someone in need of help, you feel responsible, you know what to do, but…Could be highly dangerousCould make you financially liableCould embarrass you
31More studiesPiliavin et al. – subway in NY (proximity of bystanders and situation may play a role) (next slides)Darley and Latane - the number of bystanders ( discussion over an intercom2 in the group: 85% helped3 in the group: 62%5 other subejcts: 31 %
33The situational determinants of helping behaviour The reaction of others: people look to each other to know how to actThe number of bystanders: a diffusion of responsibility occurs when many witnesses are present. More witnesses can actually men less helping!The closeness of bystanders: the closer the more likely to help (face to face vs. over the phone) on the street vs. subwayAmbiguity, environmental location and the norms of the society
34Results/FindingsHelping behaviour was very high and much higher than earlier laboratory studies.The cane victim received spontaneous help on 62 out of the 65 trials, and the drunk victim received spontaneous help on 19 out of 38 trials.
35On 60% of the 81 trials where spontaneous help was given, more than one person offered help. Once one person had started to help, there were no differences for different victim conditions (black/white, cane/drunk) on the number of extra helpers that appeared.The race of the victims made no significant difference to helping behaviour, but there was a slight tendency for same-race helping in the drunken condition.
36It was found that 90% of helpers were male It was found that 90% of helpers were male. Although there were more men present, this percentage was statistically significant.Diffusion of responsibility was not evident. The diffusion of responsibility hypothesis predicts that helping behaviour would decrease as the number of bystanders increases. In fact the field experiment found that the quickest help came from the largest groups.
37For You! Since you were so brilliant at acting last time… In groups of 3-4, produce and perform a role-play of either obedience, conformity or bystander-effect.You get 15 minutes to rehearse, then it’s show time!
38Prison STUDY By Zimbardo, Haney and Banks (1973) They wanted to demonstrate the situational rather than the dispositional causes of negative behaviour.Read the study and answer the following questions: Why did they simulate a prison for their experiment?What factors contributed to the study’s result?
39ConclusionPhilip Zimbardo shows how people become monsters ... or heroes"Philip Zimbardo knows how easy it is for nice people to turn bad. In this talk, he shares insights and graphic unseen photos from the Abu Ghraib trials. Then he talks about the flip side: how easy it is to be a hero, and how we can rise to the challenge." Ted Talks
41Assessment Social Psychology: Psychology of Evil Essay: Criteria B, C & D 2-3 pages, 1,5 space, size 12, bibliography 1. Pick one historical/current event/crime and summarize the event/outcome. 2. Then analyse that event/outcome/crime to reasons that we have studied for why and how people turn to negative behaviour, to see if one could come to another conclusion today or give an alternative answer to the “why”.