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The Computer As a New Space for Communication Susana Tosca Livre premier Chapitre un La grand'salle Il y a aujourd'hui trois cent quarante-huit ans six.

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Presentation on theme: "The Computer As a New Space for Communication Susana Tosca Livre premier Chapitre un La grand'salle Il y a aujourd'hui trois cent quarante-huit ans six."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Computer As a New Space for Communication Susana Tosca Livre premier Chapitre un La grand'salle Il y a aujourd'hui trois cent quarante-huit ans six mois et dix-neuf jours que les parisiens s'éveillèrent au bruit de toutes les cloches sonnant à grande volée dans la triple enceinte de la Cité, de l'Université et de la Ville. Ce n'est cependant pas un jour dont l'histoire ait gardé souvenir que le 6 janvier Rien de notable dans l'événement qui mettait ainsi en branle, dès le matin, les cloches et les bourgeois de Paris. Ce n'était ni un assaut de picards ou de bourguignons, ni une châsse menée en procession, ni une révolte

2 “Ceci tuera cela” Victor Hugo, Notre-Dame de Paris as commented by J.David Bolter

3 “There are no attributes that I can imagine that would make screen reading preferable to page reading – just as there are no prosthesis I can think of that would improve love-making.” Sven Birketts “All nonfiction books, reference works, journals and such will be available to read on screen or to download to one´s computer within 15 years.” Leona Weiss apocaliptic/integrated Livre premier Chapitre un La grand'salle

4 PAPER - production: incunabula, Gutenberg, laser printing, eBooks... - disposition + typography: words, paragraphs, indexes... -looks: more and more images, aesthetics from different media influence each other RADIO + TELEVISION -return of orality, time and space -own genres communication has changed Livre premier Chapitre un La grand'salle

5 Bolter -electronic text is text on text -writing in layers (p. 15) -hypertext: writing with intrinsic and extrinsic significance (p. 16) -writing topically (p ) -writing as a technology -looking at and looking through the text Livre premier Chapitre un La grand'salle

6 so... e-text can be: Multilinear Hypertext (structure) DisparateMarkup languages (separates content from design) DynamicMultimedia (temporal & spatial dimensions) InteractiveDatabases (flexible & searchable) Livre premier Chapitre un La grand'salle

7 "Hypertext is a computer-based structure for organizing information that makes possible to connect text units (different sizes, categories and natures) electronically (links) within the same document or to external documents. It requires active manipulation by the reader in order to be read/wread/used, apart from the cognitive activity common to all reading.“ TEXT + LINKS = HYPERTEXT what is hypertext? Livre premier Chapitre un La grand'salle example

8 a hypertextual edition: Sirens Livre premier Chapitre un La grand'salle

9 e-text can be: Multilinear Hypertext (structure) DisparateMarkup languages (separates content from design) DynamicMultimedia (temporal & spatial dimensions) InteractiveDatabases (flexible & searchable) Livre premier Chapitre un La grand'salle

10 Origins Began as symbols from publisher to printer to indicate how text should be laid out on a page Markup conventions varied from publisher to publisher and printer to printer Electronic text markup With the move from manually setting metal type to computerised text, markup became part of the electronic text Markup is anything above and beyond the actual character codes that give us the plain text. Usually separated from text with angle brackets tagging or markup of text Types of markup: -descriptive -presentational Livre premier Chapitre un La grand'salle

11 SGML (Standard General Markup Language) ”Come here, Mr. Watson, I need you!” XML (eXtensible Markup Language) Both need a DTD (Document Type Definition) to specify rules: -Element names -Attribute names and default values (The A tag can take the HREF attribute: ) -Rules about element nesting word -Names for all your entities (i.e. The entity name for é is é, because the character is generated differently in Macs and PCs) -Sometimes objects need to be given unique identifiers markup formats: from HTML to SGML, XML...

12 Separating content from design: More control over documents Different display for different output devices Change content without changing design (and viceversa) Improved accesibility for impaired people (i.e. text can be audio) Livre premier Chapitre un La grand'salle

13 e-text can be: Multilinear Hypertext (structure) DisparateMarkup languages (separates content from design) DynamicMultimedia (temporal & spatial dimensions) InteractiveDatabases (flexible & searchable) Livre premier Chapitre un La grand'salle

14 Dynamic text and multimedia The focus is on design Bring new dimensions to text: –Space –Time Bring new languages together (visual, audio, video, animation...) Technologies/Trends: Flash, Director, Java, javascript, cgi scripts... example Livre premier Chapitre un La grand'salle

15 so... e-text can be: Multilinear Hypertext (structure) DisparateMarkup languages (separates content from design) DynamicMultimedia (temporal & spatial dimensions) InteractiveDatabases (flexible & searchable) Livre premier Chapitre un La grand'salle

16 interactivity: databases Generates multiple documents from the same data (updating and searching much easier) Ideal for managing vast quantities of data (i.e. catalogues, e-commerce...) Dynamic webpages (vs static) Community support (registration of users, access privileges, forms...) Livre premier Chapitre un La grand'salle

17 how does it work? DATA kept in the database Web Server Pages created Dynamically. USER’S COMPUTER Interface Technology: ASP, CGI... SQL... example Livre premier Chapitre un La grand'salle

18 e-text can be: Multilinear Hypertext (structure) DisparateMarkup languages (separates content from design) DynamicMultimedia (temporal & spatial dimensions) InteractiveDatabases (flexible & searchable) Livre premier Chapitre un La grand'salle

19 -Fiction/Poetry -Self publishing (blog, website) -Encyclopedia -Directory or reference work -Research Journal -Journalism -Bibliography -Magazine -Tourist/other kinds of guides -Art book -Corporate site (Information, advertisement, official)... Some types of E-communication genres Livre premier Chapitre un La grand'salle

20 -Fiction/Poetry (Multimedia, multilinearity, critical editions, educational value) -Self publishing (blog, website) -Encyclopedia (Update, links to other material, multimedia) -Directory or reference work (Searchable, update) -Research Journal (Quicker publication date, cheaper) -Journalism (Update, multimedia, other added value) -Bibliography (Searchable capacities) -Magazine (Update, other services) -Tourist/other kinds of guides (update, book online...) -Art book (Multimedia) -Corporate site (Information, advertisement, official)... Some types of E-communication genres + advantages Livre premier Chapitre un La grand'salle


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