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The War of 1812 and the Rise of Nationalism

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1 The War of 1812 and the Rise of Nationalism

2 Nationalism (n.) – loyalty or devotion to a nation, especially an attitude, feeling, or belief characterized by a sense of national consciousness; an exaltation of one nation above all others, and an emphasis on loyalty to and promotion of national culture and interests as opposed to subordinate areas or other nations. Sectionalism (n.) – devotion to one’s region; holding the interests of a region over the interests of the whole nation.

3 Post-War Nationalism Nationalism was reflected in the post-War period through increased national pride, an emphasis on national issues, an increase in the power and scope of the national gov’t, and a growing sense of American identity. In what ways was nationalism present after the War of 1812? Patriotism Political Economic Cultural

4 Economic Nationalism The War of 1812 illustrated problems with roads and transportation in the west – years of Embargo and blockades had enabled American manufacturing to develop. 1815 – cheap British goods flood the American market Henry Clay calls for an “American System”

5 Mechanization Samuel Slater Eli Whitney
establishes first textile mill in Rhode Island Textile factories emerge slowly, but boom from After Treaty of Ghent, 150 of 151 mills close in Rhode Island… Tariff of 1816 implemented to protect textiles. Eli Whitney 1793 patents the Cotton “Gin” – device for removing seeds from cotton; leads to cotton “kingdom” in deep south and a renewed commitment to slavery. 1798 – interchangeable parts – contract for gun manufacturing for the US Gov’t

6 “American System” Proposal Action Protective Tariff
Adopted 1816; % National Bank BUS Rechartered in 1816 Road / Canal Building National Road (aka Cumberland Road) construction begins Bonus Bill (1817) vetoed by Madison; ”internal improvements” seen as unconstitutional States must undertake their own projects: Erie Canal (1817/1825); Ohio & Erie Canal (1832)

7 Cumberland Road

8 Erie Canal ( ) 363 miles; connects Lake Erie to the Hudson

9 Impact of the Erie Canal
Cost of shipping 1 ton of grain from Buffalo to NYC drops $100 to $5; time from 20 days to 6. Food prices drop as a result; potato prices drop 50% (hurts New England farmers, who move west). Towns and cities emerge on the canal; transforms the Trans-Allegehny west into a center of commercial agriculture.

10 How Locks Work


12 Cultural Nationalism Literature Webster’s New American Dictionary
North American Review (1815) Knickerbocker School – group of NY writers who gain recognition Washington Irving – The Sketch Book (1819) Rip Van Winkle; Legend of Sleepy Hollow James Fenimore Cooper Writer from frontier NY The Spy (1821); The Leatherstocking Tales; The Last of the Mohicans Themes explore the contrast between the “natural men” of the American wilderness v. the artificial men of the “civilized” world William Cullen Bryant First American poet to gain recognition Thanatopsis (1817)

13 Art Hudson River School American landscape artists
Romanticized images of the American West

14 Thomas Cole “The Oxbow” (1836)

15 Asher B. Durand “Kindred Spirits” (1845)

16 Politics Death of the Federalist Party
“Era of Good Feelings” / One party rule emerges James Madison elected 1816 / 1820 Makes “tour” of the nation on 1817 John Marshall & Judicial Nationalism Decisions increase the power of the federal gov’t and expand its authority

17 Marshall’s Decisions Fletcher v. Peck States cannot override contracts
Marbury v. Madison Judicial Review McCulloch v. Maryland National bank is constitutional. Upholds “loose construction” Dartmouth v. Woodward Upholds contracts against state actions Cohens v. Virginia Judicial review applies to state court decisions as well… Gibbons v. Ogden Only federal gov’t can regulate interstate trade

18 Nationalism in Foreign Policy

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