2Nationalism (n.) – loyalty or devotion to a nation, especially an attitude, feeling, or belief characterized by a sense of national consciousness; an exaltation of one nation above all others, and an emphasis on loyalty to and promotion of national culture and interests as opposed to subordinate areas or other nations.Sectionalism (n.) – devotion to one’s region; holding the interests of a region over the interests of the whole nation.
3Post-War NationalismNationalism was reflected in the post-War period through increased national pride, an emphasis on national issues, an increase in the power and scope of the national gov’t, and a growing sense of American identity.In what ways was nationalism present after the War of 1812?PatriotismPoliticalEconomicCultural
4Economic NationalismThe War of 1812 illustrated problems with roads and transportation in the west– years of Embargo and blockades had enabled American manufacturing to develop.1815 – cheap British goods flood the American marketHenry Clay calls for an “American System”
5Mechanization Samuel Slater Eli Whitney establishes first textile mill in Rhode IslandTextile factories emerge slowly, but boom fromAfter Treaty of Ghent, 150 of 151 mills close in Rhode Island…Tariff of 1816 implemented to protect textiles.Eli Whitney1793 patents the Cotton “Gin” – device for removing seeds from cotton; leads to cotton “kingdom” in deep south and a renewed commitment to slavery.1798 – interchangeable parts – contract for gun manufacturing for the US Gov’t
6“American System” Proposal Action Protective Tariff Adopted 1816; %National BankBUS Rechartered in 1816Road / Canal BuildingNational Road (aka Cumberland Road) construction beginsBonus Bill (1817) vetoed by Madison; ”internal improvements” seen as unconstitutionalStates must undertake their own projects:Erie Canal (1817/1825); Ohio & Erie Canal (1832)
8Erie Canal ( )363 miles; connects Lake Erie to the Hudson
9Impact of the Erie Canal Cost of shipping 1 ton of grain from Buffalo to NYC drops $100 to $5; time from 20 days to 6.Food prices drop as a result; potato prices drop 50% (hurts New England farmers, who move west).Towns and cities emerge on the canal; transforms the Trans-Allegehny west into a center of commercial agriculture.
11IMPROVEMENTS IN TRANSPORTATION (ROADS, CANALS, STEAMSHIPS, AND RAILROADS) LEAD TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF A: NATIONAL MARKET ECONOMY !!!!!
12Cultural Nationalism Literature Webster’s New American Dictionary North American Review (1815)Knickerbocker School – group of NY writers who gain recognitionWashington Irving – The Sketch Book (1819)Rip Van Winkle; Legend of Sleepy HollowJames Fenimore CooperWriter from frontier NYThe Spy (1821); The Leatherstocking Tales; The Last of the MohicansThemes explore the contrast between the “natural men” of the American wilderness v. the artificial men of the “civilized” worldWilliam Cullen BryantFirst American poet to gain recognitionThanatopsis (1817)
13Art Hudson River School American landscape artists Romanticized images of the American West
16Politics Death of the Federalist Party “Era of Good Feelings” / One party rule emergesJames Madison elected 1816 / 1820Makes “tour” of the nation on 1817John Marshall & Judicial NationalismDecisions increase the power of the federal gov’t and expand its authority
17Marshall’s Decisions Fletcher v. Peck States cannot override contracts Marbury v. MadisonJudicial ReviewMcCulloch v. MarylandNational bank is constitutional.Upholds “loose construction”Dartmouth v. WoodwardUpholds contracts against state actionsCohens v. VirginiaJudicial review applies to state court decisions as well…Gibbons v. OgdenOnly federal gov’t can regulate interstate trade