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Writing a DBQ: AP World History. PATTERNS OF TRADE 1000–1450 DBQ ANALYSIS AND ORGANIZATION.

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Presentation on theme: "Writing a DBQ: AP World History. PATTERNS OF TRADE 1000–1450 DBQ ANALYSIS AND ORGANIZATION."— Presentation transcript:

1 Writing a DBQ: AP World History

2 PATTERNS OF TRADE 1000–1450 DBQ ANALYSIS AND ORGANIZATION

3 DBQ STEP 1: Analyzing the Prompt

4 Using the documents, analyze the patterns of trade in the period 1000– In addition, identify possible cultural consequences of trade in this time period. Are there recognizable patterns? What were the consequences of the contacts? What is the prompt (question) asking for? QUESTIONQUESTION

5 Trade within and among societies has existed since the time of the first civilizations. On the eve of Columbuss discovery of the new world, trade networks in both the eastern and western hemispheres were well-established and thriving. Historical Background Use everything available! Obvious categories have been provided in the supplemental material.

6 DBQ STEP 2: Organizing the Information

7 Analysis and Organization Develop a table or chart Certain pieces of information (universals) will be the same for every DBQ Document number Major point of the document Point of view Information needed

8 MAJOR CONCEPT P of VNEEDDOC PATCONCOA In addition to the universal categories, well add the prompt categories. Another method of grouping would be regions. Trade patterns = PAT Consequences = CON Documents on Africa = A Documents on China = C Documents on other regions (Latin America, Europe) = O Your Table

9 DBQ STEP 3: The Documents

10 MAJOR CONCEPT P of VNEEDDOC PATCONCOA Lets look at the documents one at a time. Number, region, and major concept Pattern or consequence? Complete each document, separated by a line. Your Table

11 Source: Leo Africanus: Description of Timbuktu from The Description of Africa (1526) The women of the city maintain the custom of veiling their faces, except for the slaves who sell all the foodstuffs. The inhabitants are very rich, especially the strangers who have settled in the country; so much so that the current king has given two of his daughters in marriage to two brothers, both businessmen, on account of their wealth… This document indicates the incorporation of Muslim customs (veiling) and the ability of the visiting merchants to assimilate into African society through marriage, directly related to their status in the community and based upon their relationship to trade. The point of view is from an outsider visiting and describing a foreign culture and its relationship to the outsiders own culture. DOCUMENT 1

12 MAJOR CONCEPT P of VNEEDDOC PATCONCOA Muslims effect on African cultures (veiling and intermarriage) x x #1 Outsider, in terms of own culture DOCUMENT 1

13 Source: The Aztec Civilization of Mexico from Bernal Diaz, The Memoirs of the Conquistador Bernal Diaz de Castillo (1522) The moment we arrived…. We first of all visited those divisions of the market appropriated for the sale of gold and silver wares. Of jewels… This slave market was upon as great a scale as the Portuguese market for negro slaves at Guinea… And yet I have not mentioned the paper, which in this country is called amatl; the tubes filled with liquid amber and tobacco, the various sweet-scented salves, and similar things; nor the various seeds which were exposed for sale in the porticoes of this market, nor the medicinal herbs. DOCUMENT 2

14 This document emphasizes the things in the New World that attracted the interest of Europeans, with precious metals and slave trading standing out in particular. Although the point of view is one of an outsider visiting and describing a foreign culture and its relationship to his own culture, the focus seems to be on which items might be of use to Europeans (metals, paper, medicinal herbs) rather than on any value judgments. Gold and silver wares seem to be objects of primary interest. DOCUMENT 2

15 MAJOR CONCEPT P of VNEEDDOC PATCONCOA #2 x European interest in gold and silver, slavery x Muslims effect on African cultures (veiling and intermarriage) x x #1 Outsider, in terms of own culture DOCUMENTS 1–2

16 Source: John of Monte Corvino, Report from China (1305). John of Monte Corvino (1247–1328) was a Franciscan priest. He crossed central Asia when the Mongol Khans controlled that region. I made my way to Cathay…and invited him to adopt the Catholic Faith of our Lord Jesus Christ, but he had grown too old in idolatry. However he bestows many kindnesses upon the Christians, and these two years past I am abiding with him.... I have built a church in the city… in which the king has his chief residence… I have baptized there… some 6000 persons… DOCUMENT 3

17 This document centers on attempts to spread European religious values to China. The document emphasizes intellectual aspects of cultural contact as a result of trading; this contrasts with other documents that center on descriptions of trade exchanges and material goods. In this document, the focus of the contact is the introduction of religious beliefs into a foreign culture. The reference to the Emperors being too old in idolatry indicates a bias. The point of view is from an outsider motivated by the desire to convert others to his religion; the author indicates little about the foreign culture other than the fact that it seems to be tolerant of outsiders. DOCUMENT 3

18 MAJOR CONCEPT P of VNEEDDOC PATCONCOA #2 x European interest in gold and silver, slavery x Muslims effect on African cultures (veiling and intermarriage) x x #1 Outsider, in terms of own culture Europeans religious influence on the Chinese #3 xx Religious outsider interested in converting DOCUMENTS 1–3

19 Source: Northwest African trade routes in the 6th–19th century CE DOCUMENT 4

20 This map shows that strong trading ties existed between northern and central Africa. It also seems to indicate a great deal of cultural exchange between Muslim and African societies as a result of trade. Documents of this nature are generally neutral (no apparent bias), but this map tends to support other documents that indicate a strong Muslim cultural influence on African societies. DOCUMENT 4

21 MAJOR CONCEPT P of VNEEDDOC PATCONCOA #2 x European interest in gold and silver, slavery x Muslims effect on African cultures (veiling and intermarriage) x x #1 Outsider, in terms of own culture Europeans religious influence on the Chinese #3 xx Religious outsider interested in converting African and Muslim contacts and likely influence #4 xx DOCUMENTS 1–4

22 Source: Humbert de Romans, a member of the Dominican Order and a professor of theology; wrote c Though markets and fairs are terms often used indiscriminately, there is a difference between them, for fairs deal with larger things and only once in the year, or at least rarely in the same place, and to them come men from afar. But markets are for lesser things, the daily necessaries of life; they are held weekly and only people from near at hand come. Hence markets are usually morally worse than fairs… Frequently you will hear men swearing …the lord is defrauded of market dues, which is perfidy and disloyalty... quarrels happen and violent disputes..., but in the market-place, since each man is a devil to himself, only one other demon suffices. DOCUMENT 5

23 In this document, the author tends to relate moral motives to the process of trade. Although the document focuses on Europe, there is a sense of the church having a problem withmarkets because they are morally worse than fairs. This links directly with other documents that focus on religion and are less concerned with material and cultural exchanges. Therefore, the point of view is that of a cleric providing a religious response to the process of trade. DOCUMENT 5

24 MAJOR CONCEPT P of VNEEDDOC PATCONCOA Morality more important than trade Religious bias #5 x x DOCUMENT 5

25 Source: lbn Battuta (1325–1355 CE), an Islamic scholar and traveler from Morocco, reported on Mali in The Travels of Ibn Battuta (1352) : …Their women are of surpassing beauty, and are shown more respect than the men…but on the contrary from his mothers brother. A persons heirs are his sisters sons, not his own sons. This is a thing which I have seen nowhere in the world except among the Indians of Malabar. But those are heathens; these people are Muslims, punctilious in observing the hours of prayer, studying books of law, and memorizing the Koran. Yet their women show no bashfulness before men and do not veil themselves…their zeal for learning the Koran by heart. They put their children in chains if they show any backwardness in memorizing it… The women servants, slave-girls, and young girls go about in front of everyone naked, without a stitch of clothing on them…grotesque ceremonies we have described when the poets recite their verses. DOCUMENT 6

26 This document describes the impact of Muslim trade contacts on African culture, but also indicates a blend of cultures with respect to the modifications of religious (veiling and ceremonies) and cultural practices (matrilineality). The Africans seem to be more rigid in terms of the memorization of the Koran, yet more lax when it comes to the physical presence of females in society. The point of view is from an outsider visiting and describing a foreign culture and its relationship to his own culture; we can see this in his reference to grotesque ceremonies and the customs associated with dress. DOCUMENT 6

27 MAJOR CONCEPT P of VNEEDDOC PATCONCOA Morality more important than trade Religious bias #5 x x Muslim influence on African culture #6 xx Outsider, in terms of own culture DOCUMENTS 5–6

28 Source: Map of the Mongol Empire DOCUMENT 7

29 This document emphasizes the importance of the Islamic regions as a sort of connector between the various trading groups. Although the document is neutral (no apparent bias), it does support the perception that Muslim customs would be far more influential than those of any other region since traders would likely go through Islamic trade centers before reaching their destination. DOCUMENT 7

30 MAJOR CONCEPT P of VNEEDDOC PATCONCOA Morality more important than trade Religious bias #5 x x Muslim influence on African culture #6 xx Outsider, in terms of own culture Islamic region as a connector between regions, likely to have greater impact #7 xx DOCUMENTS 5–7

31 Source: Francesco Balducci Pegolotti, worked for a Florentine merchant. The following is an excerpt from a manuscript copied in 1471 and published in the 18th century. CHAPTER II Things needful for merchants who desire to make the journey to Cathay…you must let your beard grow…furnish yourself with a dragoman [translator/guide] And you must not try to save money in the matter of dragomen… you should take with you twenty- five days provisions…flour and salt fish, for as to meat you will find enough of it at all the places along the road… DOCUMENT 8

32 This document focuses on the need to make important adjustments in order to ensure survival during these contacts. It stresses the importance of selecting a competentdragoman and remaining aware of what items along the way are scarce (flour, salt fish) and what items are plentiful (meat). The point of view is from a European urging other Europeans to adjust to foreign cultures rather than attempting to enlighten them. DOCUMENT 8

33 MAJOR CONCEPT P of VNEEDDOC PATCONCOA Morality more important than trade Religious bias #5 x x Muslim influence on African culture #6 xx Outsider, in terms of own culture Islamic region as a connector between regions, likely to have greater impact #7 xx Adjustments to foreign cultures necessary in order to survive xx #8 DOCUMENTS 5–8 Outsider urging adaptation

34 Source: Marco Polos account in the Book of Hangchow (c CE); he called the city Kinsay …ten principal markets…three days in the week, frequented by 40,000 or 50,000 persons, who bring thither for sale every possible necessary of life… Those markets make a daily display of every kind of vegetables and fruits. Neither grapes nor wine are produced there, but very good raisins are brought from abroad, and wine likewise... Any one who should see the supply of fish in the market would suppose it impossible that such a quantity could ever be sold; and yet in a few hours the whole shall be cleared away; so great is the number of inhabitants who are accustomed to delicate living. …squares are thronged and crammed with purchasers, and with the traders who have brought in stores of provisions by land or water; and everything they bring in is disposed of. DOCUMENT 9

35 This document describes the culture visited and its interaction with other cultures in the region. It reveals cooperation and specialization undertaken in the interest of trade. Like earlier documents we have seen, this one emphasizes the concept of what might be gained by attempting to understand the nature of foreign interactions rather than trying to change orenlighten people from other cultures. The point of view is from a European obviously impressed by what he has observed in another culture. DOCUMENT 9

36 MAJOR CONCEPT P of VNEEDDOC PATCONCOA x x #9 Positive description of Chinese market system; interdependence DOCUMENT 9 Outsider, impressed by foreign culture

37 Source: Map of medieval trade routes DOCUMENT 10

38 This document shows a concentration of trading in the northern part of Europe and extensive links to southern Europe and Islamic regions. Although the map highlights cross-cultural contacts, it does not indicate cultural exchanges or influences upon Europe as a result of these contacts. DOCUMENT 10

39 MAJOR CONCEPT P of VNEEDDOC PATCONCOA x x #9 Positive description of Chinese market system; interdependence x #10 Shows concentration of activity in northern Europe x Extensive contact through trade routes but no info on influences DOCUMENTS 9–10 Outsider, impressed by foreign culture

40 Source: Ruy Gonzales de Clavijo (1336–1405), the Spanish ambassador to Timur (a.k.a. Tarnerlane), wrote the following sometime around 1406, following his return from Samarkand. The richness and abundance of this great capital and its district is such as is indeed a wonder to behold… Thus trade has always been fostered by Timur…During all his conquests wheresoever he came he carried off the best men of the population to people Samarqand, bringing thither together the master-craftsmen of all nations… from Damascus he carried away with him all the weavers of that city…craftsmen in glass and porcelain, …known to be the best in all the world… Of the nations brought here together there were to be seen Turks, Arabs and Moors, Christians …Greeks… Armenians, Catholics, Jacobites … markets of Samarqand further are amply stored with merchandise. DOCUMENT 11

41 This document focuses on interactions within a region and the creation of a trade and cultural center. Note how craftsmen and specialists were being brought to Samarkand from various regions, indicating a sort of forced assimilation as well as a degree of tolerance of different cultures. The document does not attempt to assess the actions in terms of the narrators culture, but merely describes the activity. As in Document #9, the point of view here is from a European obviously impressed by what he has observed in another culture. DOCUMENT 11

42 MAJOR CONCEPT P of VNEEDDOC PATCONCOA x x #9 Positive description of Chinese market system; interdependence x #10 Shows concentration of activity in the northern Europe x Extensive contact through trade routes but no docs on influences x x #11 Establishing trade center by relocating specialists from other cultures DOCUMENTS 9–11 Outsider, impressed by foreign culture

43 Source: European map created in 1375 showing Mansa Musa (1312–1337), a ruler of Mali. The caption reads, in part, So abundant is the gold found in his country that he is the richest and most noble king in all the land. Although maps and charts do not generally indicate a point of view, this map created by a European depicts Mansa Musa as larger than life because of his richness (note how he is shown holding a gold nugget). The map therefore reveals the value Europeans placed on wealth. DOCUMENT 12

44 MAJOR CONCEPT P of VNEEDDOC PATCONCOA x x #9 Positive description of Chinese market system; interdependence x #10 Shows concentration of activity in the northern Europe x Extensive contact through trade routes but no docs on influences x x #11 Establishing trade center by relocating specialists from other cultures x #12 Relative size of Mansa Musa; importance of Africa European perception of Africa x DOCUMENTS 9–12 Outsider, impressed by foreign culture

45 FORCED CHANGE Docs 3, 5, 11 Attempts to manipulate existing systems through religion or relocation CONSEQUENCES Docs 1, 5, 6, 8 Changes and influences that developed as a result of commercial contacts PATTERNS Docs 2, 4, 7, 9, 10, 12 Nature and methods of contact; foreign perceptions of new markets Region groupings are also possible Africa, Asia, Europe GROUPINGS

46 CONTENT FOR TOPIC SENTENCE What fits together? Why? #3 #5 #8 #9 #4 #7 #10 #11 #1 #6 #12 3 PARAGRAPHS European and Muslim contact and impressions of Africa Contacts and impressions of China Patterns of trade and contacts between regions, attempt to change POSSIBLE GROUPINGS

47 DBQ STEP 4: Needs, Thesis, and Review

48 The documents only presented Islamic and European perceptions. African or Asian impressions concerning trade contacts would have been helpful. Is there additional information that would be valuable? WHATS MISSING?

49 IS THERE… A QUESTION or DILEMMA? A PATTERN? A RATIONALE or CONCEPT? Needed documents discussed on the previous slide can provide the basis for an effective conclusion. Then you have the thesis The documents gave the impression that Muslim commercial contacts were culturally more effective and influential than those of the Europeans. Europeans emphasized religious conversion, descriptions of goods of interest to European needs, or simply adjusting to new environments. THESIS AND CONCLUSION EXAMPLE

50 Body paragraphs Fill-in sentences What does the prompt require? Use all of the information available Universal categories Specific categories USE A TABLE OR CHART TO ORGANIZE2 GROUP AND LINK DOCUMENTS3 DEVELOP A TOPIC SENTENCE 4 DEVELOP A THESIS AND A CONCLUSION5 DISSECT THE QUESTION OR PROMPT1 Links to prior knowledge PROCEDURE


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