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Secret Archives An Unusual Classical Scholar?. Institute of National Remembrance  1945 Main Commission for the Study of German Crimes in Poland  1949.

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Presentation on theme: "Secret Archives An Unusual Classical Scholar?. Institute of National Remembrance  1945 Main Commission for the Study of German Crimes in Poland  1949."— Presentation transcript:

1 Secret Archives An Unusual Classical Scholar?

2 Institute of National Remembrance  1945 Main Commission for the Study of German Crimes in Poland  1949 Main Commission for the Study of Nazi Crimes in Poland  1984 Main Commission for the Study of Nazi Crimes in Poland – Institute of National Remembrance  1991 Main Commission for the Study of Crimes against the Polish Nation - Institute of National Remembrance  1998 Institute of National Remembrance – Commission for the Prosecution of Crimes against the Polish Nation

3 Institute of National Remembrance  Commission for the Prosecution of Crimes against the Polish Nation – government affiliated research institute with lustration and prosecution powers, created by an act of Parliament in  IPN collects, archives and organizes documents about the Polish communist security apparatus 22 July 1944 to 31 December  IPN investigates both Nazi and communist crimes committed in Poland, documents its findings and disseminates the results of its investigations to the public.

4 Institute of National Remembrance  IPN took over archival collections and catalogues of the Main Commission for the Study of Crimes against the Polish Nation  of PRL Interior Ministry  as well as documents of the Military State Security Forces, recovered from Army Archives  relevant files from the State Archives  from tribunals  offices of the Prosecutor  and prisons.

5 Institute of National Remembrance  IPN collections are far from complete  secret services destroyed between 50 and 60% of the existing documents  in Gdańsk up to 80%  an unspecified number of secret files was illegally transferred to Russia.

6 Methodological Issues  The Secret Police documents cannot be taken at face value –Agents activity reports –Sources’ reports –Interrogation and meeting reports –Statements –Requests for information –Passport forms –CVs, testimonials –Correspondence between departments

7 Differences in Attitude  Filomarxists  Party members –Faithful and politically active –Opportunists  Suspects  Enemies of the People

8 The Most Coveted Rewards  1962 Polish – French Agreement on Cultural Cooperation and establishment of cultural centres in Paris and Warsaw  – the first director Bronisław Gieremek

9 File # 7172  11 documents from 1966:  CV  three references  a police report about the wife of the candidate  a reminder  a secret police note accompanying two reports: –from a „source” –from an official university contact  a secret police assessment  a closing note.

10 Oktawiusz Jurewicz  2 years at a Soviet high school in Białystok ( )  Youth activist ZNMS ( )  Party member (1947 PPS, after merger PZPR)  ( ) National Museum, Party Committee Secretary and party trainer  Polish Academy of Science, party organizer, scholar, Secretary of KNoKA (1956 Berlin, 1958 Munich, 1959 Moscow, 1960 Belgrade & Budapest, 1962, 1964 Paris)  a classical scholar and teacher at the UoW  Vice-Dean and Dean  Professor at UoW  Director of the Centre for Polish Culture in Paris

11 Official assessment and professional profile signed by the Dean of the Philological Faculty prof. Eugeniusz Sawrymowicz.  A brief review of employment history at the UoW.  „I confirm that he performs his duties [as a Vice-Dean] in a fully satisfactory manner.”

12 Official assessment and professional profile signed by the Secretary of Department I of PAN, prof. Stefan Żółkiewski.  Review of employment at PAN  „Citizen Okt. Jurewicz actively participates in the political life of the Academy”.

13 Official assessment and professional profile signed by prof. K. Kumaniecki, Head of the Department of Classical Philology, at UoW and President of KNoKA.  Short review of employment  „Talented and dynamic scholar and a dedicated teacher”  „Participates actively in the life of the Polish Philological Society”  „a good organizer of the scholarly activities of KNoKA.”

14 Confidential From the Command of Citizen Militia for the City of Warsaw to the Ministry of Interior: Assessment of Hanna Jurewicz. „She is considered at her work place as a person without initiative. In spite of adequate education, she had to be transferred several times due to inability to fulfill her duties. Not a party member. Not involved at all in socio-political activities at the University.” Signed: Deputy Head, Dep. III of the Command of C.M. for the City of Warsaw, Captain W. Jędrzejewski.

15 Confidential Secretary General of the Committee for Collaboration with Abroad (Council of Ministers), Franciszek Fabijański, reminds the Ministry of Interior, Dep. I that an answer is required: „whether it is possible for Aleksander Kolarski and O. Jurewicz to be posted abroad with their families.” Hand written remark: The question of Kolarski’s posting was decided favourably.

16 Confidential A report of the source „Henryk” solicited by Captain St. Rapało following a request for reference from Dep. I.  Based on what someone who knew Jurewicz since 1955 at PAN is willing to share.  „He was then a party member but did not emphasize the fact at all.”  “Overly polite and well mannered”

17 Confidential A memo summarizing a conversation with an official contact at the university, conducted by Captain Rapało.  Based on the contact’s own observations and on what he heard from other classicists.  Incorrect details: three daughters – in fact two  While his PhD dissertation was decent, a much better one on the same subject was published a few years earlier by a Marxist scholar – in fact 10 years earlier and on an entirely different subject (Slaves in Plautus vs. For a Hesiodean Aspect of Labour.  Jurewicz’s habilitation was simply ridiculed by an eminent scholar at the Faculty Council at the U. of Wrocław. It was accepted only through Kumaniecki’s assistance.

18 Confidential  Not many people knew that he was a party member, because he belonged to PAN’s party organization and not to the university’s. Classicists were ideologically far from Marxism and there was reactionary pressure within the community.  According to the general opinion, Jurewicz is a convenient figure for Kumaniecki who leads the „ancient” philology.  He is quite helpful to colleagues, but only when it is to his advantage.  When in Paris on a bursary, he is believed to have said: „you can succeed in humanities in Poland, only if you belong to the party”. It was understood as a excuse for his own membership.

19 Confidential A memo of col. P. Barański, Deputy Chief of Dep. IV, Section. III, Min. of Interior accompanying doc. 7 & 8.  „O. Jurewicz is currently an employee of the Ministry for Higher Education and is well respected there. The ministry approves his trip abroad.”

20 Confidential Col. M. Milewski to the 1st Deputy of the President of the Committee for Cooperation with Abroad, at the Council of Ministers, Camerade Kazimierz Olszewski.  „I have no reservations concerning Cit. Jurewicz Oktawiusz – a reserve candidate for the pool of UN experts.”  Signed: Major Wł. Fijoł, operations officer, Wydz. III Dep. I, MSW.  Handwritten remark: „Verification did not uncover negative materials. Work place reference favourable. I suggest we agree.”

21 Confidential Decision to close and transfer the file to the archives of Bureau „C” of the Ministry of Interior.  „Dep. I of the Ministry of Interior agrees to the employment of cit. Jurewicz Oktawiusz in the capacity of a UN expert within the Technical Assistance Program. We are not interested in pursuing the investigation.”  Signed: W. Fijoł.

22 Professor Bronisław Biliński July Socio-political Assessment  „Cit. Prof. B. Biliński is one of the most positive scholars. While not a party member, in all his internal interventions at the university, at the Faculty, and at the Institute of Philosophy, he expresses his political views and Marxist outlook in a decisive and convincing manner. His views are also mirrored in his scholarship, his didactic and pedagogical work, as well as in his administrative and organizational activities.

23 Professor Bronisław Biliński  In his scholarship he applies marxist methodology systematically. His didactic and pedagogical work visibly contributes to students’ academic enthusiasm and suitable socio-ideological attitudes.  His work on the scholarly research plans, plans of the young scholars, and student academic groups proves especially valuable from the political point of view.

24 Professor Bronisław Biliński  Outside, at the city level, he works as a voluntary activist in the Polish-Soviet Friendship Society (TPPR)  The work of prof. Biliński is universally recognized and valued by everybody.  It is valued especially highly by the party Committee at the University and by the regional party Committee. Signed: Director (Ministry for Higher Education)

25 Biliński is posted in Rome as Head of the Polish Centre


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