Presentation on theme: "The Earth as a System Consists of: - Geosphere - Hydrosphere"— Presentation transcript:
1The Earth as a System Consists of: - Geosphere - Hydrosphere The Earth is a system of 4 interacting components.Consists of:- Geosphere - Hydrosphere- Atmosphere - Biosphere
2The Geosphere Composition The solid part of the Earth (rocks, minerals, soil, etc.)Most of the geosphere is below the surfaceThicknessWhat is it?Lithosphere15-300kmCool, rigid layer that includes the crust; divided into platesAsthenosphere250kmPlastic layer of the mantle that flows slowly, allowing plates above it to moveOuter Core2200kmLiquid nickel and ironInner Core1228kmSolid nickel and iron
3The Geosphere Plate Tectonics Look at the world map. Does anything look like it could fit together like a puzzle?Pangaea – Wegener’s idea that all of Earth’s continents were joined into one giant landmass 200 million years ago.
4The Geosphere Plate Tectonics The tectonic plates ride atop the asthenosphere, moving in different directionsBoundaryMovementResultConvergent2 plates move togetherMountains, volcanoes, earthquakesDivergent2 plates move apartOcean ridges (volcanic), rift valleys, earthquakesTransform2 plates slide past each otherFaults, earthquakes
5The Geosphere Plate Tectonics Global Earthquake DistributionGlobal Volcano Distribution
6Destruction, injuries, death The GeosphereEarthquakesVolcanic EruptionsHow does it happen?Earth’s crust slips along a fault (crack in the crust)Local EffectsDestruction, injuries, deathGlobal EffectsTsunamisWhich of these geologic hazards poses the greatest threat to the environment? Why?
7The Geosphere Destruction, injuries, death Tsunamis Earthquakes Volcanic EruptionsHow does it happen?Earth’s crust slips along a fault (crack in the crust)Pressure of magma inside the volcano becomes so great that it blows open the solid surface.Local EffectsDestruction, injuries, deathDestruction, injuries, death, mudflows, improved soil fertilityGlobal EffectsTsunamisAsh clouds from major eruptions can block sunlight & change drop the average global temp.
8The Geosphere ErosionRocks on the surface are changed by wind, running water, and weather.Erosion is the removal and transport of weathered surface materials.Over long periods of time, erosion can wear away entire mountains and produce spectacular landforms.
9The Atmosphere The atmosphere is a mixture if gases surrounding Earth Composition: Air Pressure:air pressure as altitude
10The Layers of the Atmosphere Thermosphere – high temps but molecules spread out, ionsMesosphere – coldest layer, disintegrates meteorsStratosphere – ozone layer (absorbs UV rays)Troposphere – densest layer, weather occurs here
11Energy in the Atmosphere Radiation – transfer of energy in waves (ex: sunlight)Conduction – flow of heat from objects that are touchingConvection – hot fluids rise and cool fluids sink
12Greenhouse EffectGreenhouse Effect - atmospheric gases (greenhouse gases) trap heat near the Earth.Without the Greenhouse Effect the Earth would be too cold for life to exist!
13The HydrosphereIncludes all of the water on or near the Earth’s surface (oceans, lakes, rivers, polar icecaps, groundwater, & clouds)
14The Water Cycle is the continuous movement of water into the air, onto the land, and then back to water sources.- Evaporation – the change of state from a liquid to a gas (liquid water to water vapor)Condensation – the change of state from a gas to a liquid (water vapor to liquid water)Precipitation – any form of water that falls to Earth’s surface from clouds (rain, snow, etc.)Runoff – excess water that flows off of the surface
15The Hydrosphere The Water Cycle Think-Pair- ShareHow are all of Earth’s spheres (geosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere) connected by the water cycle?
16The Hydrosphere Earth’s Oceans All of Earth’s oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian,& Arctic Oceans) are connected.Oceans cover over 70% of Earth’s surface.
17The Hydrosphere Ocean Currents Surface CurrentsCaused by wind patternsInfluence climates of land areas they flow pastEx: The Gulf Stream (warm surface current) makes the British Isles warmer than other areas at the same latitude)Deep CurrentsCaused when cold, dense polar water sinks below warmer, less dense water and flows toward the equator
18Surface Ocean Currents Common surface ocean currents show the flow of the seaIn 1993, thousands of rubber duckies washed up on Alaskan beaches. Oceanographers determined that a ship carrying the toys lost a container during a storm near Hawaii in The ducks were used to map ocean currents.
19Oceans: The Global Temperature Regulator The main function of the world ocean is to:Absorb & store energy from the sunHow?Water absorbs and releases heat slower than land does.**Without the ocean, the temperature of Earth’s atmosphere would be too extreme for life
20Fresh Water Only 3% of Earth’s water is fresh Most freshwater is held in polar icecaps and glaciersLess than 1% of all Earth’s water is groundwaterRain and melted snow sinks into the ground forming groundwater. A rock layer called an Aquifer stores and allows the flow of groundwater.Groundwater gives people drinking water and supplies water for many agricultural & industrial needs
21The biosphere is the narrow layer of Earth where life can exist. Life on Earth requires:Liquid waterTemperatures between 10°C and 40°CSource of energya. Plants & algae use sunlight to make foodb. Most other organisms get energy from what they eatEarth is a closed system – energy is transferred among living things through the food chain.