Presentation on theme: "The Earth as a System The Earth is a system of 4 interacting components. Consists of: - Geosphere- Hydrosphere - Atmosphere- Biosphere."— Presentation transcript:
The Earth as a System The Earth is a system of 4 interacting components. Consists of: - Geosphere- Hydrosphere - Atmosphere- Biosphere
The Geosphere Composition The solid part of the Earth (rocks, minerals, soil, etc.) –Most of the geosphere is below the surface ThicknessWhat is it? Lithosphere15-300kmCool, rigid layer that includes the crust; divided into plates Asthenosphere250kmPlastic layer of the mantle that flows slowly, allowing plates above it to move Outer Core2200kmLiquid nickel and iron Inner Core1228kmSolid nickel and iron
The Geosphere Plate Tectonics Look at the world map. Does anything look like it could fit together like a puzzle? Pangaea – Wegeners idea that all of Earths continents were joined into one giant landmass 200 million years ago.
The Geosphere Plate Tectonics The tectonic plates ride atop the asthenosphere, moving in different directions BoundaryMovementResult Convergent2 plates move together Mountains, volcanoes, earthquakes Divergent2 plates move apart Ocean ridges (volcanic), rift valleys, earthquakes Transform2 plates slide past each other Faults, earthquakes
The Geosphere Plate Tectonics Global Earthquake DistributionGlobal Volcano Distribution
The Geosphere EarthquakesVolcanic Eruptions How does it happen? Earths crust slips along a fault (crack in the crust) Local Effects Destruction, injuries, death Global Effects Tsunamis Which of these geologic hazards poses the greatest threat to the environment? Why?
The Geosphere EarthquakesVolcanic Eruptions How does it happen? Earths crust slips along a fault (crack in the crust) Pressure of magma inside the volcano becomes so great that it blows open the solid surface. Local Effects Destruction, injuries, death Destruction, injuries, death, mudflows, improved soil fertility Global Effects Tsunamis Ash clouds from major eruptions can block sunlight & change drop the average global temp.
The Geosphere Erosion Rocks on the surface are changed by wind, running water, and weather. Erosion is the removal and transport of weathered surface materials. Over long periods of time, erosion can wear away entire mountains and produce spectacular landforms.
The Atmosphere The atmosphere is a mixture if gases surrounding Earth Composition:Air Pressure: air pressure as altitude
The Layers of the Atmosphere Thermosphere – high temps but molecules spread out, ions Mesosphere – coldest layer, disintegrates meteors Stratosphere – ozone layer (absorbs UV rays) Troposphere – densest layer, weather occurs here
Energy in the Atmosphere Radiation – transfer of energy in waves (ex: sunlight) Conduction – flow of heat from objects that are touching Convection – hot fluids rise and cool fluids sink
Greenhouse Effect Greenhouse Effect - atmospheric gases (greenhouse gases) trap heat near the Earth. Without the Greenhouse Effect the Earth would be too cold for life to exist!
The Hydrosphere Includes all of the water on or near the Earths surface (oceans, lakes, rivers, polar icecaps, groundwater, & clouds)
The Water Cycle is the continuous movement of water into the air, onto the land, and then back to water sources. - Evaporation – the change of state from a liquid to a gas (liquid water to water vapor) –Condensation – the change of state from a gas to a liquid (water vapor to liquid water) –Precipitation – any form of water that falls to Earths surface from clouds (rain, snow, etc.) –Runoff – excess water that flows off of the surface
The Hydrosphere The Water Cycle Think-Pair- Share How are all of Earths spheres (geosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere) connected by the water cycle?
The Hydrosphere Earths Oceans All of Earths oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian,& Arctic Oceans) are connected. Oceans cover over 70% of Earths surface.
The Hydrosphere Ocean Currents Surface Currents Caused by wind patterns Influence climates of land areas they flow past Ex: The Gulf Stream (warm surface current) makes the British Isles warmer than other areas at the same latitude) Deep Currents Caused when cold, dense polar water sinks below warmer, less dense water and flows toward the equator
Surface Ocean Currents Common surface ocean currents show the flow of the sea In 1993, thousands of rubber duckies washed up on Alaskan beaches. Oceanographers determined that a ship carrying the toys lost a container during a storm near Hawaii in The ducks were used to map ocean currents.
Oceans: The Global Temperature Regulator The main function of the world ocean is to: Absorb & store energy from the sun How? Water absorbs and releases heat slower than land does. **Without the ocean, the temperature of Earths atmosphere would be too extreme for life
Fresh Water Only 3% of Earths water is fresh Most freshwater is held in polar icecaps and glaciers Less than 1% of all Earths water is groundwater Rain and melted snow sinks into the ground forming groundwater. A rock layer called an Aquifer stores and allows the flow of groundwater. Groundwater gives people drinking water and supplies water for many agricultural & industrial needs
The biosphere is the narrow layer of Earth where life can exist. Life on Earth requires: A. Liquid water B. Temperatures between 10°C and 40°C C. Source of energy a. Plants & algae use sunlight to make food b. Most other organisms get energy from what they eat Earth is a closed system – energy is transferred among living things through the food chain.