2 Accuracy Counts!You must make sure that the quotation is presented accurately in the document you are checking.Check:order of wordsspellingcapitalizationtypefacepunctuationomissions and alterations.
3 Short Quotations: Rule 47.4 If a quotation is less than fifty words or is no longer than four lines of text, place the quotation in double quotation marks, but do not set it off from the text.
4 Short Quotations and Punctuation: Rule 47.4(d) Place periods and commas inside the quotation marks – even if they are not part of the original quotation.Place all other punctuation outside of the quotation marks unless the punctuation is part of the original quotation.These rules also apply to quotations within quotations.
5 Longer Quotations: Rule 47.5 If a quotation is fifty words or more or is longer than four lines of text, it should be block-indented and single-spaced.Do not use quotation marks at the beginning or the end of the block quotation.Exception: Quotation within a quotationThe block quote should be separated from text by a double space, above and below the block quotation.The indentation should be one tab on both the right and the left sides.
6 Longer Quotations Retain the paragraphing of the original source. If the quotation starts with a sentence found in the middle of a paragraph in the original source, indent one tab on the left and right sides for the block quote, but do not indent further.If the quotation starts with the first sentence of a paragraph in the original source, indent a second tab on the left side.If multiple paragraphs are quoted, every time the first sentence in each new paragraph of the original is cited, indent a second tab on the left side.
7 Quotations within Quotations: Rule 47.7 Short QuotationsUse single quotation marks to designate a quotation within a short quotation.Follow Rule 47.4(d) for punctuation.“The court held that the defendant was ‘completely out of order.’”
8 Quotations within Quotations Longer QuotationsUse double quotation marks to designate a quotation within a block-indented quotation.Follow Rule 47.4(d) for punctuation.The court held that the unruly defendant was “completely out of order” when the defendantbanged his fists on the table and yelled several obscenities in the jury’s direction. Because ofthe defendant’s conduct, and refusal to stopwhen asked, the court held the defendant incriminal contempt of court.
9 Citations for Internal Quotations: Rule 47.7(c) This rule applies when one source quotes another source.If the original source is cited within the quoted passage, retain the citation within the quotation, and do not repeat it within the citation for the main quote.
10 Example“[T]he FAA specifically states that any ‘final decision with respect to arbitration’ is immediately appealable, 9 U.S.C. § 16(a)(3), regardless of whether that decision allows the arbitration process to go forward.” John Hancock Mut. Life Ins. Co. v. Olick, 151 F.3d 132, 135 (3d Cir. 1998).
11 However . . .If the original source does not appear within the quoted material, you must identify it in an explanatory parenthetical following the main citation.
12 ExampleThe Court then reversed, stating, “In this case, petitioner’s right to counsel, a ‘specific federal right,’ is being denied anew.” Burgett v. Tex., 389 U.S. 109, 116 (1967) (quoting Spencer v. Tex., 385 U.S. 554, 565 (1966)).
13 Altering Quoted Material: Rule 48 Enclose an altered letter in square bracketsOriginal = “The court held”Modified = Moreover, “[t]he court held”Original = “In the latter event, the court held”Modified = “[T]he court held”
14 Adding, Changing, or Deleting One or More Letters: Rule 48.2 Enclose added, changed, or deleted material in square brackets.Original = stateModified = state[d]Indicate an omission of one or more letters by inserting empty brackets.Original = statedModified = state[ ]
15 Adding a Footnote within a Block Quotation: Rule 48.3 Typically, the note reference number is inserted at the end of a block quotation; however, in the rare occasion that it is necessary or desirable to add a note reference number within a block quotation, enclose the superscripted note reference number in brackets.For example,We recognize, as does Clayton, that absent aconstitutional bases for a challenge, the . . .Standing rule, applied to cases of this type, creates a rare situation [where] there is a wrongwithout a remedy
16 Substituting or Adding Words: Rule 48.4 Instead of altering one letter, it sometimes makes more sense just to replace the entire word.If you substitute or add words to a quotation, enclose those words in square brackets.Original = “The court held for Mr. Jamison.”Modified = “The court held for [the defendant].”
17 Altering Typeface: Rule 48.5 If you alter typeface (such as adding or deleting italics), describe the alteration in a parenthetical that follows the citation.(emphasis added). (emphasis omitted).If quoted material contains emphasis, some of which was in the original source and some of which was added, be sure to indicate the alterations.(second emphasis added).
18 Mistakes within Original Quoted Material: Rule 48.6 Original material may contain mistakes, such as spelling and grammatical errors.You may correct all mistakes and place square brackets around the corrections you made.You may use [sic] to note the error appears in the original.
19 Omissions within Quoted Material: Rule 49 Use an ellipsis to indicate the omission of one or more words (^.^.^.^ ).^ = one spaceTypically insert a space before and after the ellipsis.If quotation marks follow an ellipsis, do not insert a space between the ellipses and the closing quotation mark( ”).
20 When Not to Use an Ellipsis: Rule 49.3 Do not use an ellipsis before or after a quote that is obviously incomplete sentence (i.e., there is text on either side of the quoted material) in the context in which it is used.The Supreme Court held that while “students are entitled to freedom of expression of their views,” they may not engage in a type of expression that materially and substantially interferes with schoolwork or discipline.
21 Beginning a QuotationOriginal = “But, in our system, undifferentiated fear or apprehension”Modified correctly = “[I]n our system, undifferentiated fear or apprehension”Not: “. . . [I]n our system, undifferentiated fear or apprehension”
22 No Ellipses – Continued Do not use an ellipsis at the end of a block quotation that concludes with a grammatically complete sentence.Do not use an ellipsis to indicate the omission of a footnote or citation.However, this type of omission should be noted in a parenthetical after the citation. (Rule 49.3(d))Smith v. Jones, 145 F.3d 1, 5 (2d Cir. 1999) (footnote omitted).
23 Using Ellipses: Rule 49.4(b) When the end of a quoted sentence is omitted, insert an ellipsis and the final punctuation.
24 ExampleOriginal sentence: We hold today that the Sixth Amendment's right of an accused to confront the witnesses against him is likewise a fundamental right and is made obligatory on the States by the Fourteenth Amendment.Omissions: “[T]he Sixth Amendment’s right of an accused to confront the witness against him is^.^.^.^a fundamental right^.^.^.^.”^^
25 When the Quote Continues: Rule 49.4(c) When the last word ends the quoted sentence, do not use an ellipsis unless the quotation continues. If the quotation does continue, insert the ellipsis, then the final punctuation.“Quoted sentence ends.^.^.^.^^One or more sentences are deleted, and another quoted sentence begins.”
26 Omitting One or More Paragraphs: Rule 49.4(d) Place the ellipsis on its own line.Center the ellipsis.Put five spaces between each ellipsis point..^^^^^.^^^^^.