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Evolution vs. Science & the Bible (Lesson 7) Part I: The Age of the Earth Part II: Dinosaurs.

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Presentation on theme: "Evolution vs. Science & the Bible (Lesson 7) Part I: The Age of the Earth Part II: Dinosaurs."— Presentation transcript:

1 Evolution vs. Science & the Bible (Lesson 7) Part I: The Age of the Earth Part II: Dinosaurs

2 AGE OF THE EARTH Dating Rocks and Fossils

3 Fundamental unit of matter Fundamental unit of matter Made up of components called subatomic particles Made up of components called subatomic particles Proton (positive charge) Proton (positive charge) Neutron (no electrical charge) Neutron (no electrical charge) Electron (negative charge) Electron (negative charge) Electron Nucleus The Atom

4 Used only on organic material Used only on organic material Cannot be used to date rocks Cannot be used to date rocks Maximum age limit about 60,000 years Maximum age limit about 60,000 years

5 What Is Carbon? Carbon-14 is also referred to as: Carbon-14 is also referred to as: C-14 C-14 Radiocarbon Radiocarbon Types of carbon (isotopes) Types of carbon (isotopes) 14 6 9 6 16 6 Atomic mass Atomic number

6 An atom is generally stable if the number of protons equals the number of neutrons in the nucleus Unstable isotopes (Atoms) Atom (Isotope) ProtonsNeutrons Stable Carbon 66 Stable Nitrogen 77 Stable Oxygen 88 Carbon 14 6 8

7 What is Radioactive Decay? The proton number (atomic number) must change 14 6 14 7 How long does this take? The nucleus of an atom (decays) changes into a new element

8 The half-life of C-14 is 5,730 years The half-life of C-14 is 5,730 years The rate of decay is measured by how long it takes for half an element to decay (half-life) What is Half-Life?

9 Half-Life Illustration Time = 0 C-14 5,730 years 1 half-life N-14 C-14 11,460 years 2 half-lives N-14 C-14 1/2 3/4

10 How Carbon-14 Is Produced Cosmic Rays (radiation) Collision with atmosphere (N14) Forms C-14 C-14 combines with oxygen to form carbon dioxide (CO 2 )

11 Carbon-14 Life Cycle 14 6 14 7 14 7 Cosmic radiation Carbon-14 is produced in the atmosphere Carbon-14 decays into Nitrogen-14

12 Starting the Carbon Dating Clock Once a plant or animal dies the clock starts Organism dies No more C-14 intake C-14 continues to decay

13 1. There is a lot of C-14 remaining in the fossil 2. There is very little C-14 remaining in the fossil 3. There is no detectable C-14 in the fossil The C-14 dating method relies on measuring the amount of C-14 in the fossil How the Carbon Clock Works Three Scenarios

14 1.How fast it decays (measured in half-lives). This is known (5,730 years). 2.The starting amount of C-14 in the fossil. What do we need to know to determine how many half-lives have expired? A critical Detail What We Need to Know

15 Understanding the Starting Point The candle is burning at 1 inch per hour The candle is burning at 1 inch per hour How long has the candle been burning? How long has the candle been burning? Illustration You enter a room and see a burning candle We need to know the starting height of the candle We need to know the starting amount of C-14

16 Determining the Starting Amount There are two types of carbon used in the dating process: C-12 and C-14 There are two types of carbon used in the dating process: C-12 and C-14 C-12 is a stable isotope (it does not decay) C-12 is a stable isotope (it does not decay) When an organism is alive it has the same ratio (C-12 to C-14) that is found in the atmosphere (1-trillion to 1) When an organism is alive it has the same ratio (C-12 to C-14) that is found in the atmosphere (1-trillion to 1)

17 Has the ratio of C-12 to C-14 always been the same (1-trillion to 1)? If this assumption is true then carbon-14 dating is a reliable dating method If this assumption is false then carbon-14 dating is not a reliable dating method This is a key assumption A Critical Assumption

18 Cosmic ray penetration of the earths atmosphere Cosmic ray penetration of the earths atmosphere The CO 2 levels in the atmosphere The CO 2 levels in the atmosphere The Genesis Flood The Genesis Flood Factors that would cause dates to appear older than they actually are include: Factors Affecting Carbon-14 Dating

19 This buried carbon ( mostly C-12 ) is about 100 times the total carbon in the present biosphere This buried carbon ( mostly C-12 ) is about 100 times the total carbon in the present biosphere What does this mean? The CO 2 level in the pre-Flood biosphere was different (a higher ratio of C-12 to C-14) The CO 2 level in the pre-Flood biosphere was different (a higher ratio of C-12 to C-14) C-14 dates using the present ratio of C12/C14 will give incorrect ages – ages that are too old C-14 dates using the present ratio of C12/C14 will give incorrect ages – ages that are too old The Genesis Flood buried much carbon from living organisms to form coal and oil Atmospheric Levels of Carbon

20 C-14 and Recent Dates Ancient human skeletons, when dated by the new Accelerator Mass Spectrometer technique, give surprisingly recent dates. In one study of eleven sets of ancient human bones, all were dated at about 5,000 radiocarbon years or less. R. E. Taylor, Major Revisions in the Pleistocene Age Assignments for North American human Skeletons by C- 14 Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, American Antiquity, Vol. 50, 1985, pp. 136-140.

21 Carbon-14 Summary Carbon-14 can only be used to date organic material Carbon-14 can only be used to date organic material Carbon-14 dating accuracy is dependent upon a consistent ratio between C-12 and C-14 (equilibrium) Carbon-14 dating accuracy is dependent upon a consistent ratio between C-12 and C-14 (equilibrium) The assumption of equilibrium is FALSE The assumption of equilibrium is FALSE There are factors that can affect C-14 in the atmosphere (Genesis Flood) There are factors that can affect C-14 in the atmosphere (Genesis Flood) Ancient fossils as well as coal contain C-14 residue Ancient fossils as well as coal contain C-14 residue

22 Radioisotope Dating Methods Dating Rocks What are they and how do they operate? What is the basic perception? How accurate are they? Are there any hidden assumptions?

23 Decay Uranium Lead Potassium Argon Decay Parent element Daughter element Radioactive Decay

24 Used to date igneous and metamorphic rocks (basalt) Used to date igneous and metamorphic rocks (basalt) Cannot be used on sedimentary rocks (limestone, sandstone, and shale) Cannot be used on sedimentary rocks (limestone, sandstone, and shale) 238 U 234 Th 234 Pa 234 U 230 Th 206 Pb 210 Po Radioisotope Dating

25 2. All the daughter element is due to radioactive decay 3. The sample was always in a closed environment 4. The decay rate has always been constant Four Assumptions 1. The starting amount of daughter element is known Potassium Argon Parent ElementDaughter Element

26 Sunset Crater, Northern Arizona Sunset Crater, Northern Arizona Potassium-argon: 200,000+ Potassium-argon: 200,000+ Reality: AD 1065 Reality: AD 1065 Lava flows at Mt. Ngaurhoe, New Zealand Lava flows at Mt. Ngaurhoe, New Zealand Potassium-argon: 275,000 Potassium-argon: 275,000 Reality: 1949, 1954, 1975 Reality: 1949, 1954, 1975 Hualalai basalt, Hawaii Hualalai basalt, Hawaii Potassium-argon: 1.4 – 22 million Potassium-argon: 1.4 – 22 million Reality: AD 1801 Reality: AD 1801 Mt. Etna basalt, Sicily Mt. Etna basalt, Sicily Potassium-argon: 140,000 – 350,000 Potassium-argon: 140,000 – 350,000 Reality: 1972 Reality: 1972 Examples of Dating

27 Rocks that were created since the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens dated up to 2.8 million years old Examples of Dating

28 When the same rock is dated by more than one method, it will often yield different ages. And when the rock is dated more than one time by the same method, it will often give different results. John Morris, Ph.D. Geology, The Geology Book, 2000, p. 52. Radioisotope Dating Reliability and Consistency

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30 Conflict in Dating In 1993 scientists found wood (trees) buried in basalt flows (69 feet deep) In 1993 scientists found wood (trees) buried in basalt flows (69 feet deep) Wood samples sent to two laboratories to be carbon-14 dated Wood samples sent to two laboratories to be carbon-14 dated Basalt sent to two laboratories to be potassium- argon dated Basalt sent to two laboratories to be potassium- argon dated 44,000 years 45,000 million years Wood embedded in lava flow (basalt) 69 feet deep Wood encased in basalt

31 Helium in the Atmosphere Uranium ultimately decays into lead Uranium ultimately decays into lead During this process helium atoms are formed During this process helium atoms are formed 238 U 234 Th 234 Pa 234 U 230 Th 206 Pb 210 Po Helium nucleus

32 Helium in the Atmosphere He Not enough helium for an old earth Radioactive Decay Helium atoms He

33 Evidences for a Young Earth Helium in the Earths atmosphere Helium in the Earths atmosphere Nuclear decay rates (Radioisotope dating) Nuclear decay rates (Radioisotope dating) Sodium in the oceans Sodium in the oceans Erosion of continents Erosion of continents Sediments in the ocean Sediments in the ocean Decay of the Earths magnetic field Decay of the Earths magnetic field Carbon-14 ratio in the atmosphere Carbon-14 ratio in the atmosphere Population statistics Population statistics Recession of the moon Recession of the moon Many more ….. Many more …..

34 Conclusion: Five Facts 1. The earth has not been scientifically proven to be billions of years old 2. The Bible teaches a literal 6-day creation 3. Many scientists believe in a literal 6-day creation about 6,000 years ago 4. New evidence from nuclear decay supports a young earth model 5. There are many scientific evidences for a young earth

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36 DINOSAURS

37 Dinosaurs interesting to many people of all ages interesting to many people of all ages subject of many movies subject of many movies Jurassic Park series Jurassic Park series Disneys Dinosaur, Land Before Time, etc. Disneys Dinosaur, Land Before Time, etc. subject of many books subject of many books childrens books childrens books science books science books subject of much speculation and misinformation subject of much speculation and misinformation often used to propel evolutionary dogma often used to propel evolutionary dogma

38 Why Teach On Dinosaurs? majority of young people have been taught: majority of young people have been taught: that dinosaurs lived 230 million years ago and became extinct 65 million years ago that dinosaurs lived 230 million years ago and became extinct 65 million years ago that man began to live 2 million years ago and did not coexist with these creatures that man began to live 2 million years ago and did not coexist with these creatures that death, disease, and blood shed existed for millions of years before man that death, disease, and blood shed existed for millions of years before man

39 Why Teach On Dinosaurs? pertains to the Bible pertains to the Bible relevant to our understanding of creation and the world in which we live relevant to our understanding of creation and the world in which we live of interest to all of interest to all either tools used for atheism or special creation either tools used for atheism or special creation

40 Misinformation: Some say dinosaurs never existed Some say dinosaurs never existed ignores all fossil evidence ignores all fossil evidence ignores historical evidence ignores historical evidence archeological archeological literary literary

41 The Creature, Not The Term dinosaur is a relatively new term dinosaur is a relatively new term Sir Richard Owen issued the term dinosaur in 1840 after studying some Iguanodon and Megalosaurus fossils Sir Richard Owen issued the term dinosaur in 1840 after studying some Iguanodon and Megalosaurus fossils deino (terrible) + sauros (lizard) deino (terrible) + sauros (lizard) called dragons rather than dinosaurs

42 Dinosaur Groups Theropods Two-footed meat-eaters (T-rex) Sauropods Four-footed plant- eaters (Apatosaurus) Sauropods Four-footed plant- eaters (Apatosaurus)

43 Ultrasaurus Supersaurus Brachiosaurus Sauropods Man Long Necks

44 Argentinosaurus 100 tons, 100 feet long

45 Human Brain Stegosaurus Brain Stegosaurus

46 Triceratops Height: 9 feet Length: 26 feet Weight: 14,000 pounds (7 tons) Horned Dinosaurs

47 Tyrannosaurus rex Dinosaurs With Big Teeth

48 The average size was about the size of a small pony The average size was about the size of a small pony Seismosaurus and Argentinosaurus were over 100 feet long and weighed about 100 tons Seismosaurus and Argentinosaurus were over 100 feet long and weighed about 100 tons Blue whale 200 tons Ultrasaurus100 tons, over 100 feet long Brachiosaurus 55 tons, 75 feet long Tyrannosaurus 8 tons, 20 feet tall African elephant 5 tons Ultrasaurus100 tons, over 100 feet long Brachiosaurus 55 tons, 75 feet long Tyrannosaurus 8 tons, 20 feet tall African elephant 5 tons Supersaurus 100 tons, 130 feet long How Big Were Dinosaurs? How Big Were Dinosaurs?

49 Dinosaur Footprints

50 A small dinosaur Compsognathus Komp-sog-NAY-thus Height: 24 inches Length: 40 inches Weight: 8 pounds Not All Dinosaurs Were Big

51 How Fast Were Dinosaurs? StegosaursAbout 15 mph StegosaursAbout 15 mph TyrannosaurusAbout 20 mph TyrannosaurusAbout 20 mph Olympic runnerAbout 25 mph Olympic runnerAbout 25 mph TriceratopsAbout 20 mph TriceratopsAbout 20 mph Horse45 mph Horse45 mph Lion45 mph Lion45 mph Cheetah65 mph Cheetah65 mph Estimated speeds

52 Soft tissues covering 90% of the fossil include muscle, nail material, a beak, and skin were preserved Soft tissues covering 90% of the fossil include muscle, nail material, a beak, and skin were preserved The last meal in its stomach was preserved The last meal in its stomach was preserved u A mummified dinosaur carcass was found in Montana (duck-billed hadrosaur) A salad of ferns, conifers, and magnolias, seasoned with pollen from 40 different plants New Dinosaur Find

53 Are Dinosaurs Mentioned in the Bible? Behold now behemoth, which I made with thee; he eateth grass as an ox.... He moveth his tail like a cedar... His bones are as strong pieces of brass; his bones are like bars of iron. He is the chief of the ways of God; Job 40:15-18

54 Behemoths Lifestyle eats grass (v. 15) eats grass (v. 15) mountains yield food (v. 20) mountains yield food (v. 20) docile, all the beasts of the field play there (v. 20) docile, all the beasts of the field play there (v. 20) dwells in marshes (v. 21) dwells in marshes (v. 21) prefers shade (v. 22) prefers shade (v. 22) is not spooked at danger: is not spooked at danger: 23 Behold, if a river overflow, he trembleth not; He is confident, though a Jordan swell even to his mouth. 24 Shall any take him when he is on the watch, Or pierce through his nose with a snare? (American Standard Version)

55 Leviathan: A Dinosaur his outer coat: impenetratable 41:13, 15-17, 26-30 his outer coat: impenetratable 41:13, 15-17, 26-30 his size: gracefully, yet fearfully large 41:12, 25 his size: gracefully, yet fearfully large 41:12, 25 his teeth: terrible 41:14 his teeth: terrible 41:14 his neck: strong 41:22 his neck: strong 41:22 his breath: fire 41:19-21 his breath: fire 41:19-21

56 Extra-Biblical Evidence For the Coexistence of dinosaurs with men ROCK SOLID EVIDENCE!

57 Many traditions of large dinosaur-like creatures Many traditions of large dinosaur-like creatures Ancient drawings (petroglyphs) Ancient drawings (petroglyphs) Dinosaurs and People

58 PETROGLYPH a well-weathered petroglyph of Havasupai Canyon, AZ

59 Dragons and History Many historical accounts of large dinosaur- like creatures Africa produces elephants, but it is India that produces the largest, as well as the dragon… Pliny, Natural History, 70 AD

60 Herodotus 450 BC There is a place in Arabia, situated very near the city of Buto, to which I went, on hearing of some winged serpents; and when I arrived there, I saw bones and spines of serpents, in such quantities as it would be impossible to describe. The form of the serpent is like that of the water- snake; but he has wings without feathers, and as like as possible to the wings of a bat [Historiae, 2, 75-76]. There is a place in Arabia, situated very near the city of Buto, to which I went, on hearing of some winged serpents; and when I arrived there, I saw bones and spines of serpents, in such quantities as it would be impossible to describe. The form of the serpent is like that of the water- snake; but he has wings without feathers, and as like as possible to the wings of a bat [Historiae, 2, 75-76].

61 Map from the Middle Ages Genoeses 1457 World Map (The Rhamphorhynchoid Pterosaur, Scaphognathus crassirostris: A "Living Fossil" Until the 17th Century, John Goertzen, MS) www.anzwers.org

62 Dragons and History The Phrygian History also states that dragons are born which reach ten paces in length… Aelian, De Natura Animalium, 220 AD

63 More of the Same from Rome A sketch of a dragon that was said to have existed near Rome in 1691. Note: two featherless wings, reptilian tail, head crest, long neck, wings in front of legs matching the fossil of Scaphognathus crassirostris (chart 42)

64 Figurines from Acambaro Mexico (~800 BC – 200 AD) Ankylosarus

65 Other Art From Mexico

66 The Point: stories of dragons are more than likely stories of dinosaurs that existed with men stories of dragons are more than likely stories of dinosaurs that existed with men many of these ancient legends are exaggerations of dinosaurs that roamed the earth and of terrifying reptiles that ruled the skies and seas many of these ancient legends are exaggerations of dinosaurs that roamed the earth and of terrifying reptiles that ruled the skies and seas

67 Do You Believe Dinosaurs Went on The Ark? Do you believe God created all land animals on day 6 (Gen. 1:24, 25)? Do you believe God created all land animals on day 6 (Gen. 1:24, 25)? Do you believe 2 of every kind of land- creature went aboard Noahs ark (Gen. 6:19, 20; 7:8, 9; 8:19)? Do you believe 2 of every kind of land- creature went aboard Noahs ark (Gen. 6:19, 20; 7:8, 9; 8:19)? Dinosaurs were land dwellers; therefore, they were created on day six and went aboard the ark (Job. 40:15) Dinosaurs were land dwellers; therefore, they were created on day six and went aboard the ark (Job. 40:15)

68 And of every living thing of all flesh, two of every sort shalt thou bring into the ark, to keep them alive with thee; they shall be male and female. (Genesis 6:19) Dinosaurs were on the Ark and they came off the Ark Dinosaurs on the Ark

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71 About Dinosaurs Being Too Large To Fit In The Ark... it seems that God would have used younger creatures rather than fully grown ones the average size of dinosaurs (known collectively from fossil record) is that of a sheep or small pony

72 What Happened to the Dinosaurs? They died from overeating They died from overeating They were poisoned They were poisoned They became blind from cataracts and could not reproduce They became blind from cataracts and could not reproduce Mammals ate their eggs Mammals ate their eggs Other causes include-volcanic dust, poisonous gases, comets, sunspots, meteorites, mass suicide, constipation, parasites, shrinking brain (and greater stupidity), slipped discs, changes in the composition of air, … Other causes include-volcanic dust, poisonous gases, comets, sunspots, meteorites, mass suicide, constipation, parasites, shrinking brain (and greater stupidity), slipped discs, changes in the composition of air, … Dinosaurs starved to death

73 The Popular Theory 65 million years ago a meteor destroyed all the dinosaurs

74 Meteor Impact Theory Layer of iridium located at the northern end of Mexico's Yucatan peninsula (Chicxulub) Layer of iridium located at the northern end of Mexico's Yucatan peninsula (Chicxulub) Buried a kilometer below ground and dated at 65 million years old Buried a kilometer below ground and dated at 65 million years old Evaluating the theory: 2 evidences Alleged meteor impact

75 Evaluating the Evidence: 1 Some of the least mobile creatures (tortoises, snakes, crocodiles) and the most sensitive to climatic change (birds, fish) are still with us today. Some of the least mobile creatures (tortoises, snakes, crocodiles) and the most sensitive to climatic change (birds, fish) are still with us today. Plants also survived the cataclysm in great abundance. Plants also survived the cataclysm in great abundance. Why did the alleged impact kill off the dinosaurs while many other forms of life remained healthy?

76 Evaluating the Evidence: 2 It is not certain that Chicxulub is an actual impact site. The iridium concentration in the region could have resulted from volcanic processes.

77 The Mystery of Dinosaurs the subject of dinosaurs are shrouded in a mystery only if you accept the evolutionary story associated with them the subject of dinosaurs are shrouded in a mystery only if you accept the evolutionary story associated with them evolved 230 million years ago evolved 230 million years ago their roam ended by some catastrophic event (i.e., asteroid hitting the earth) 65 million years ago their roam ended by some catastrophic event (i.e., asteroid hitting the earth) 65 million years ago PROBLEM: why did crocodiles, snakes, turtles remain? PROBLEM: why did crocodiles, snakes, turtles remain?

78 Bible Answer to Dinosaurs existed ~6000-10000 years ago existed ~6000-10000 years ago created with man created with man dinosaurs were land animals dinosaurs were land animals all land animals were created on day 6 (Gen. 1:24ff) all land animals were created on day 6 (Gen. 1:24ff) therefore dinosaurs were created on day 6 therefore dinosaurs were created on day 6 representatives of all kinds (including dinosaur kinds) went onto the ark ~ 4500 years ago representatives of all kinds (including dinosaur kinds) went onto the ark ~ 4500 years ago

79 Bible Answer to Dinosaurs they came off the ark to live in the present world along with man and every other kind of creature they came off the ark to live in the present world along with man and every other kind of creature the effects of the flood and the curse of sin have greatly changed our world from the world in which Noah lived the effects of the flood and the curse of sin have greatly changed our world from the world in which Noah lived since the flood, many kinds of animals have died out because of disease, environmental factors, lack of food, killing themselves, overly hunted by other predators, etc. since the flood, many kinds of animals have died out because of disease, environmental factors, lack of food, killing themselves, overly hunted by other predators, etc. such is what happened to dinosaursthere is no mystery! such is what happened to dinosaursthere is no mystery!

80 Conclusions About Dinosaurs The Bible teaches that people and dinosaurs lived at the same time The Bible teaches that people and dinosaurs lived at the same time The evidence (fossils) supports the Biblical claim: The evidence (fossils) supports the Biblical claim: Created after their kind Created after their kind People and dinosaurs lived at the same time People and dinosaurs lived at the same time The evolution story is based on faith not real evidence


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