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Evolution vs. Science & the Bible (Lesson 7)

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Presentation on theme: "Evolution vs. Science & the Bible (Lesson 7)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Evolution vs. Science & the Bible (Lesson 7)
Part I: The Age of the Earth Part II: Dinosaurs

2 Dating Rocks and Fossils
AGE OF THE EARTH Dating Rocks and Fossils

3 The Atom Nucleus Electron Fundamental unit of matter
Made up of components called subatomic particles Proton (positive charge) Neutron (no electrical charge) Electron (negative charge) Nucleus Electron

4 Carbon-14 Dating Used only on organic material
Cannot be used to date rocks Maximum age limit about 60,000 years

5 What Is Carbon? Atomic mass C Atomic number
Carbon-14 is also referred to as: C-14 Radiocarbon Types of carbon (isotopes) C 14 6 9 16 Atomic mass Atomic number

6 Unstable isotopes (Atoms)
An atom is generally stable if the number of protons equals the number of neutrons in the nucleus Atom (Isotope) Protons Neutrons Stable Carbon 6 Stable Nitrogen 7 Stable Oxygen 8 Carbon 14 6 8

7 What is Radioactive Decay?
The nucleus of an atom (decays) changes into a new element The proton number (atomic number) must change C N 14 6 7 How long does this take?

8 What is Half-Life? The rate of decay is measured by how long it takes for half an element to decay (half-life) The half-life of C-14 is 5,730 years

9 Half-Life Illustration
5,730 years 1 half-life N-14 C-14 11,460 years 2 half-lives N-14 C-14 Time = 0 C-14 1/2 3/4 1/2

10 How Carbon-14 Is Produced
Cosmic Rays (radiation) C-14 combines with oxygen to form carbon dioxide (CO2) Forms C-14 Collision with atmosphere (N14)

11 Carbon-14 Life Cycle N C N Cosmic radiation 14 7 14 6 14 7
Carbon-14 is produced in the atmosphere Carbon-14 decays into Nitrogen-14

12 Starting the Carbon Dating Clock
Once a plant or animal dies the clock starts Organism dies No more C-14 intake C-14 continues to decay

13 How the Carbon Clock Works
The C-14 dating method relies on measuring the amount of C-14 in the fossil Three Scenarios There is a lot of C-14 remaining in the fossil There is very little C-14 remaining in the fossil There is no detectable C-14 in the fossil

14 What do we need to know to determine how many half-lives have expired?
What We Need to Know What do we need to know to determine how many half-lives have expired? How fast it decays (measured in half-lives). This is known (5,730 years). The starting amount of C-14 in the fossil. A critical Detail

15 Understanding the Starting Point
Illustration You enter a room and see a burning candle The candle is burning at 1 inch per hour How long has the candle been burning? We need to know the starting height of the candle We need to know the starting amount of C-14

16 Determining the Starting Amount
There are two types of carbon used in the dating process: C-12 and C-14 C-12 is a stable isotope (it does not decay) When an organism is alive it has the same ratio (C-12 to C-14) that is found in the atmosphere (1-trillion to 1)

17 A Critical Assumption This is a key assumption
Has the ratio of C-12 to C-14 always been the same (1-trillion to 1)? This is a key assumption If this assumption is true then carbon-14 dating is a reliable dating method If this assumption is false then carbon-14 dating is not a reliable dating method

18 Factors Affecting Carbon-14 Dating
Factors that would cause dates to appear older than they actually are include: Cosmic ray penetration of the earth’s atmosphere The CO2 levels in the atmosphere The Genesis Flood

19 Atmospheric Levels of Carbon
The Genesis Flood buried much carbon from living organisms to form coal and oil This buried carbon (mostly C-12) is about 100 times the total carbon in the present biosphere What does this mean? The CO2 level in the pre-Flood biosphere was different (a higher ratio of C-12 to C-14) C-14 dates using the present ratio of C12/C14 will give incorrect ages – ages that are too old

20 C-14 and Recent Dates R. E. Taylor, “Major Revisions in the Pleistocene Age Assignments for North American human Skeletons by C-14 Accelerator Mass Spectrometry”, American Antiquity, Vol. 50, 1985, pp Ancient human skeletons, when dated by the new Accelerator Mass Spectrometer technique, give surprisingly recent dates. In one study of eleven sets of ancient human bones, all were dated at about 5,000 radiocarbon years or less.

21 Carbon-14 Summary Carbon-14 can only be used to date organic material
Carbon-14 dating accuracy is dependent upon a consistent ratio between C-12 and C-14 (equilibrium) The assumption of equilibrium is FALSE There are factors that can affect C-14 in the atmosphere (Genesis Flood) Ancient fossils as well as coal contain C-14 residue

22 Radioisotope Dating Methods Dating Rocks
What are they and how do they operate? What is the basic perception? How accurate are they? Are there any hidden assumptions?

23 Radioactive Decay Daughter element Lead Uranium Argon Potassium
Parent element Daughter element Uranium Lead Decay Potassium Argon Decay

24 Radioisotope Dating Used to date igneous and metamorphic rocks (basalt) Cannot be used on sedimentary rocks (limestone, sandstone, and shale) 238 U 234 Th Pa 230 206 Pb 210 Po a

25 Four Assumptions Potassium Argon
The starting amount of daughter element is known All the daughter element is due to radioactive decay The sample was always in a closed environment The decay rate has always been constant Parent Element Daughter Element Potassium Argon

26 Examples of Dating Sunset Crater, Northern Arizona
Potassium-argon: 200,000+ Reality: AD 1065 Lava flows at Mt. Ngaurhoe, New Zealand Potassium-argon: 275,000 Reality: 1949, 1954, 1975 Hualalai basalt, Hawaii Potassium-argon: 1.4 – 22 million Reality: AD 1801 Mt. Etna basalt, Sicily Potassium-argon: 140,000 – 350,000 Reality: 1972

27 Examples of Dating Rocks that were created since the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens dated up to 2.8 million years old

28 Reliability and Consistency
Radioisotope Dating John Morris, Ph.D. Geology, The Geology Book, 2000, p. 52. Reliability and Consistency “When the same rock is dated by more than one method, it will often yield different ‘ages.’ And when the rock is dated more than one time by the same method, it will often give different results.”

29 Scientific Evidence for a Young Earth

30 Wood embedded in lava flow (basalt)
Conflict in Dating In 1993 scientists found wood (trees) buried in basalt flows (69 feet deep) Wood samples sent to two laboratories to be carbon-14 dated 44,000 years Basalt sent to two laboratories to be potassium-argon dated 45,000 million years 69 feet deep Wood encased in basalt Wood embedded in lava flow (basalt)

31 Helium in the Atmosphere
Uranium ultimately decays into lead During this process helium atoms are formed Helium nucleus a 238 U 234 Th Pa 230 206 Pb 210 Po

32 Helium in the Atmosphere
Not enough helium for an old earth He He Helium atoms Radioactive Decay He He He He He

33 Evidences for a Young Earth
Helium in the Earth’s atmosphere Nuclear decay rates (Radioisotope dating) Sodium in the oceans Erosion of continents Sediments in the ocean Decay of the Earth’s magnetic field Carbon-14 ratio in the atmosphere Population statistics Recession of the moon Many more …..

34 Conclusion: Five Facts
The earth has not been scientifically proven to be billions of years old The Bible teaches a literal 6-day creation Many scientists believe in a literal 6-day creation about 6,000 years ago New evidence from nuclear decay supports a young earth model There are many scientific evidences for a young earth



37 Dinosaurs interesting to many people of all ages
subject of many movies Jurassic Park series Disney’s Dinosaur, Land Before Time, etc. subject of many books children’s books science books subject of much speculation and misinformation often used to propel evolutionary dogma

38 Why Teach On Dinosaurs? majority of young people have been taught:
that dinosaurs lived 230 million years ago and became extinct 65 million years ago that man began to live 2 million years ago and did not coexist with these creatures that death, disease, and blood shed existed for millions of years before man

39 Why Teach On Dinosaurs? pertains to the Bible
relevant to our understanding of creation and the world in which we live of interest to all either tools used for atheism or special creation

40 Misinformation: Some say dinosaurs never existed
ignores all fossil evidence ignores historical evidence archeological literary

41 The Creature, Not The Term
“dinosaur” is a relatively new term Sir Richard Owen issued the term dinosaur in 1840 after studying some Iguanodon and Megalosaurus fossils deino (terrible) + sauros (lizard) called “dragons” rather than “dinosaurs”

42 Dinosaur Groups Theropods Sauropods Two-footed meat-eaters (T-rex)
Four-footed plant- eaters (Apatosaurus)

43 Long Necks Ultrasaurus Supersaurus Brachiosaurus Sauropods Man

44 Argentinosaurus 100 tons, 100 feet long

45 Stegosaurus Human Brain Stegosaurus Brain

46 Horned Dinosaurs Triceratops Height: 9 feet Length: 26 feet
Weight: 14,000 pounds (7 tons)

47 Dinosaurs With Big Teeth
Tyrannosaurus rex

48 How Big Were Dinosaurs? The average size was about the size of a small pony Seismosaurus and Argentinosaurus were over 100 feet long and weighed about 100 tons Blue whale tons Supersaurus tons, 130 feet long Ultrasaurus 100 tons, over 100 feet long Brachiosaurus 55 tons, 75 feet long Tyrannosaurus tons, 20 feet tall African elephant tons

49 Dinosaur Footprints

50 Not All Dinosaurs Were Big
A small dinosaur Height: 24 inches Length: 40 inches Weight: 8 pounds Compsognathus Komp-sog-NAY-thus

51 How Fast Were Dinosaurs?
Estimated speeds Stegosaurs About 15 mph Tyrannosaurus About 20 mph Olympic runner About 25 mph Triceratops About 20 mph Horse 45 mph Lion 45 mph Cheetah 65 mph

52 New Dinosaur Find A mummified dinosaur carcass was found in Montana (duck-billed hadrosaur) Soft tissues covering 90% of the fossil include muscle, nail material, a beak, and skin were preserved The last meal in its stomach was preserved A salad of ferns, conifers, and magnolias, seasoned with pollen from 40 different plants

53 Are Dinosaurs Mentioned in the Bible?
Job 40:15-18 Behold now behemoth, which I made with thee; he eateth grass as an ox He moveth his tail like a cedar . . . His bones are as strong pieces of brass; his bones are like bars of iron. He is the chief of the ways of God;

54 Behemoth’s Lifestyle eats grass (v. 15)
mountains yield food (v. 20) docile, “all the beasts of the field play there” (v. 20) dwells in marshes (v. 21) prefers shade (v. 22) is not spooked at danger: 23 “Behold, if a river overflow, he trembleth not; He is confident, though a Jordan swell even to his mouth. 24 Shall any take him when he is on the watch, Or pierce through his nose with a snare?” (American Standard Version)

55 Leviathan: A Dinosaur his outer coat: impenetratable 41:13, 15-17, 26-30 his size: gracefully, yet fearfully large 41:12, 25 his teeth: terrible 41:14 his neck: strong 41:22 his breath: fire 41:19-21

56 Extra-Biblical Evidence For the Coexistence of dinosaurs with men

57 Dinosaurs and People Many traditions of large dinosaur-like creatures
Ancient drawings (petroglyphs)

58 a well-weathered petroglyph of Havasupai Canyon, AZ

59 Pliny, Natural History, 70 AD
Dragons and History Many historical accounts of large dinosaur-like creatures Pliny, Natural History, 70 AD “Africa produces elephants, but it is India that produces the largest, as well as the dragon…”

60 Herodotus 450 BC “There is a place in Arabia, situated very near the city of Buto, to which I went, on hearing of some winged serpents; and when I arrived there, I saw bones and spines of serpents, in such quantities as it would be impossible to describe. The form of the serpent is like that of the water-snake; but he has wings without feathers, and as like as possible to the wings of a bat” [Historiae, 2, 75-76].

61 Map from the Middle Ages Genoeses 1457 World Map
(The Rhamphorhynchoid Pterosaur, Scaphognathus crassirostris: A "Living Fossil" Until the 17th Century, John Goertzen, MS)

62 Aelian, De Natura Animalium, 220 AD
Dragons and History Aelian, De Natura Animalium, 220 AD “The Phrygian History also states that dragons are born which reach ten paces in length…”

63 More of the Same from Rome
A sketch of a dragon that was said to have existed near Rome in 1691. Note: two featherless wings, reptilian tail, head crest, long neck, wings in front of legs matching the fossil of Scaphognathus crassirostris (chart 42)

64 Figurines from Acambaro Mexico
Ankylosarus (~800 BC – 200 AD)

65 Other Art From Mexico

66 The Point: stories of dragons are more than likely stories of dinosaurs that existed with men many of these ancient legends are exaggerations of dinosaurs that roamed the earth and of terrifying reptiles that ruled the skies and seas

67 Do You Believe Dinosaurs Went on The Ark?
Do you believe God created all land animals on day 6 (Gen. 1:24, 25)? Do you believe 2 of every kind of land-creature went aboard Noah’s ark (Gen. 6:19, 20; 7:8, 9; 8:19)? Dinosaurs were land dwellers; therefore, they were created on day six and went aboard the ark (Job. 40:15)

68 Dinosaurs were on the Ark and they came off the Ark
Dinosaurs on the Ark And of every living thing of all flesh, two of every sort shalt thou bring into the ark, to keep them alive with thee; they shall be male and female. (Genesis 6:19) Dinosaurs were on the Ark and they came off the Ark



71 About Dinosaurs Being Too Large To Fit In The Ark. . .
it seems that God would have used younger creatures rather than fully grown ones the average size of dinosaurs (known collectively from fossil record) is that of a sheep or small pony

72 What Happened to the Dinosaurs?
Dinosaurs starved to death They died from overeating They were poisoned They became blind from cataracts and could not reproduce Mammals ate their eggs Other causes include-volcanic dust, poisonous gases, comets, sunspots, meteorites, mass suicide, constipation, parasites, shrinking brain (and greater stupidity), slipped discs, changes in the composition of air, …

73 The Popular Theory 65 million years ago a meteor destroyed all the dinosaurs

74 Evaluating the theory: 2 evidences
Meteor Impact Theory Layer of iridium located at the northern end of Mexico's Yucatan peninsula (Chicxulub) Buried a kilometer below ground and dated at 65 million years old Alleged meteor impact Evaluating the theory: 2 evidences

75 Evaluating the Evidence: 1
Why did the alleged impact kill off the dinosaurs while many other forms of life remained healthy? Some of the least mobile creatures (tortoises, snakes, crocodiles) and the most sensitive to climatic change (birds, fish) are still with us today. Plants also survived the cataclysm in great abundance.

76 Evaluating the Evidence: 2
It is not certain that Chicxulub is an actual impact site. The iridium concentration in the region could have resulted from volcanic processes.

77 The Mystery of Dinosaurs
the subject of dinosaurs are shrouded in a mystery only if you accept the evolutionary story associated with them evolved 230 million years ago their roam ended by some catastrophic event (i.e., asteroid hitting the earth) 65 million years ago PROBLEM: why did crocodiles, snakes, turtles remain?

78 Bible Answer to Dinosaurs
existed ~ years ago created with man dinosaurs were land animals all land animals were created on day 6 (Gen. 1:24ff) therefore dinosaurs were created on day 6 representatives of all kinds (including dinosaur kinds) went onto the ark ~ 4500 years ago

79 Bible Answer to Dinosaurs
they came off the ark to live in the present world along with man and every other kind of creature the effects of the flood and the curse of sin have greatly changed our world from the world in which Noah lived since the flood, many kinds of animals have died out because of disease, environmental factors, lack of food, killing themselves, overly hunted by other predators, etc. such is what happened to dinosaurs—there is no mystery!

80 Conclusions About Dinosaurs
The evolution story is based on faith not real evidence The Bible teaches that people and dinosaurs lived at the same time The evidence (fossils) supports the Biblical claim: Created after their kind People and dinosaurs lived at the same time

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