Presentation on theme: "Evolution vs. Science & the Bible (Lesson 7)"— Presentation transcript:
1 Evolution vs. Science & the Bible (Lesson 7) Part I: The Age of the EarthPart II: Dinosaurs
2 Dating Rocks and Fossils AGE OF THE EARTHDating Rocks and Fossils
3 The Atom Nucleus Electron Fundamental unit of matter Made up of components called subatomic particlesProton (positive charge)Neutron (no electrical charge)Electron (negative charge)NucleusElectron
4 Carbon-14 Dating Used only on organic material Cannot be used to date rocksMaximum age limit about 60,000 years
5 What Is Carbon? Atomic mass C Atomic number Carbon-14 is also referred to as:C-14RadiocarbonTypes of carbon (isotopes)C146916Atomic massAtomic number
6 Unstable isotopes (Atoms) An atom is generally stable if the number of protons equals the number of neutrons in the nucleusAtom (Isotope)ProtonsNeutronsStable Carbon6Stable Nitrogen7Stable Oxygen8Carbon 1468
7 What is Radioactive Decay? The nucleus of an atom (decays) changes into a new elementThe proton number (atomic number) must changeCN1467How long does this take?
8 What is Half-Life?The rate of decay is measured by how long it takes for half an element to decay (half-life)The half-life of C-14 is 5,730 years
10 How Carbon-14 Is Produced Cosmic Rays (radiation)C-14 combines with oxygen to form carbon dioxide (CO2)Forms C-14Collision with atmosphere (N14)
11 Carbon-14 Life Cycle N C N Cosmic radiation 14 7 14 6 14 7 Carbon-14 is produced in the atmosphereCarbon-14 decays into Nitrogen-14
12 Starting the Carbon Dating Clock Once a plant or animal dies the clock startsOrganism diesNo more C-14 intakeC-14 continues to decay
13 How the Carbon Clock Works The C-14 dating method relies on measuring the amount of C-14 in the fossilThree ScenariosThere is a lot of C-14 remaining in the fossilThere is very little C-14 remaining in the fossilThere is no detectable C-14 in the fossil
14 What do we need to know to determine how many half-lives have expired? What We Need to KnowWhat do we need to know to determine how many half-lives have expired?How fast it decays (measured in half-lives). This is known (5,730 years).The starting amount of C-14 in the fossil.A critical Detail
15 Understanding the Starting Point IllustrationYou enter a room and see a burning candleThe candle is burning at 1 inch per hourHow long has the candle been burning?We need to know the starting height of the candleWe need to know the starting amount of C-14
16 Determining the Starting Amount There are two types of carbon used in the dating process: C-12 and C-14C-12 is a stable isotope (it does not decay)When an organism is alive it has the same ratio (C-12 to C-14) that is found in the atmosphere (1-trillion to 1)
17 A Critical Assumption This is a key assumption Has the ratio of C-12 to C-14always been the same (1-trillion to 1)?This is a key assumptionIf this assumption is true then carbon-14 dating is a reliable dating methodIf this assumption is false then carbon-14 dating is not a reliable dating method
18 Factors Affecting Carbon-14 Dating Factors that would cause dates to appear older than they actually are include:Cosmic ray penetration of the earth’s atmosphereThe CO2 levels in the atmosphereThe Genesis Flood
19 Atmospheric Levels of Carbon The Genesis Flood buried much carbon from living organisms to form coal and oilThis buried carbon (mostly C-12) is about 100 times the total carbon in the present biosphereWhat does this mean?The CO2 level in the pre-Flood biosphere was different (a higher ratio of C-12 to C-14)C-14 dates using the present ratio of C12/C14 will give incorrect ages – ages that are too old
20 C-14 and Recent DatesR. E. Taylor, “Major Revisions in the Pleistocene Age Assignments for North American human Skeletons by C-14 Accelerator Mass Spectrometry”, American Antiquity, Vol. 50, 1985, ppAncient human skeletons, when dated by the new Accelerator Mass Spectrometer technique, give surprisingly recent dates. In one study of eleven sets of ancient human bones, all were dated at about 5,000 radiocarbon years or less.
21 Carbon-14 Summary Carbon-14 can only be used to date organic material Carbon-14 dating accuracy is dependent upon a consistent ratio between C-12 and C-14 (equilibrium)The assumption of equilibrium is FALSEThere are factors that can affect C-14 in the atmosphere (Genesis Flood)Ancient fossils as well as coal contain C-14 residue
22 Radioisotope Dating Methods Dating Rocks What are they and how do they operate?What is the basic perception?How accurate are they?Are there any hidden assumptions?
23 Radioactive Decay Daughter element Lead Uranium Argon Potassium Parent elementDaughter elementUraniumLeadDecayPotassiumArgonDecay
24 Radioisotope DatingUsed to date igneous and metamorphic rocks (basalt)Cannot be used on sedimentary rocks (limestone, sandstone, and shale)238U234ThPa230206Pb210Poa
25 Four Assumptions Potassium Argon The starting amount of daughter element is knownAll the daughter element is due to radioactive decayThe sample was always in a closed environmentThe decay rate has always been constantParent ElementDaughter ElementPotassiumArgon
26 Examples of Dating Sunset Crater, Northern Arizona Potassium-argon: 200,000+Reality: AD 1065Lava flows at Mt. Ngaurhoe, New ZealandPotassium-argon: 275,000Reality: 1949, 1954, 1975Hualalai basalt, HawaiiPotassium-argon: 1.4 – 22 millionReality: AD 1801Mt. Etna basalt, SicilyPotassium-argon: 140,000 – 350,000Reality: 1972
27 Examples of DatingRocks that were created since the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens dated up to 2.8 million years old
28 Reliability and Consistency Radioisotope DatingJohn Morris, Ph.D. Geology, The Geology Book, 2000, p. 52.Reliability and Consistency“When the same rock is dated by more than one method, it will often yield different ‘ages.’ And when the rock is dated more than one time by the same method, it will often give different results.”
30 Wood embedded in lava flow (basalt) Conflict in DatingIn 1993 scientists found wood (trees) buried in basalt flows (69 feet deep)Wood samples sent to two laboratories to be carbon-14 dated44,000 yearsBasalt sent to two laboratories to be potassium-argon dated45,000 million years69 feet deepWood encased in basaltWood embedded in lava flow (basalt)
31 Helium in the Atmosphere Uranium ultimately decays into leadDuring this process helium atoms are formedHelium nucleusa238U234ThPa230206Pb210Po
32 Helium in the Atmosphere Not enough helium for an old earthHeHeHelium atomsRadioactive DecayHeHeHeHeHe
33 Evidences for a Young Earth Helium in the Earth’s atmosphereNuclear decay rates (Radioisotope dating)Sodium in the oceansErosion of continentsSediments in the oceanDecay of the Earth’s magnetic fieldCarbon-14 ratio in the atmospherePopulation statisticsRecession of the moonMany more …..
34 Conclusion: Five Facts The earth has not been scientifically proven to be billions of years oldThe Bible teaches a literal 6-day creationMany scientists believe in a literal 6-day creation about 6,000 years agoNew evidence from nuclear decay supports a young earth modelThere are many scientific evidences for a young earth
37 Dinosaurs interesting to many people of all ages subject of many moviesJurassic Park seriesDisney’s Dinosaur, Land Before Time, etc.subject of many bookschildren’s booksscience bookssubject of much speculation and misinformationoften used to propel evolutionary dogma
38 Why Teach On Dinosaurs? majority of young people have been taught: that dinosaurs lived 230 million years ago and became extinct 65 million years agothat man began to live 2 million years ago and did not coexist with these creaturesthat death, disease, and blood shed existed for millions of years before man
39 Why Teach On Dinosaurs? pertains to the Bible relevant to our understanding of creation and the world in which we liveof interest to alleither tools used for atheism or special creation
40 Misinformation: Some say dinosaurs never existed ignores all fossil evidenceignores historical evidencearcheologicalliterary
41 The Creature, Not The Term “dinosaur” is a relatively new termSir Richard Owen issued the term dinosaur in 1840 after studying some Iguanodon and Megalosaurus fossilsdeino (terrible) + sauros (lizard)called “dragons” rather than “dinosaurs”
48 How Big Were Dinosaurs?The average size was about the size of a small ponySeismosaurus and Argentinosaurus were over 100 feet long and weighed about 100 tonsBlue whale tonsSupersaurus tons, 130 feet longUltrasaurus 100 tons, over 100 feet longBrachiosaurus 55 tons, 75 feet longTyrannosaurus tons, 20 feet tallAfrican elephant tons
50 Not All Dinosaurs Were Big A small dinosaurHeight: 24 inchesLength: 40 inchesWeight: 8 poundsCompsognathusKomp-sog-NAY-thus
51 How Fast Were Dinosaurs? Estimated speedsStegosaurs About 15 mphTyrannosaurus About 20 mphOlympic runner About 25 mphTriceratops About 20 mphHorse 45 mphLion 45 mphCheetah 65 mph
52 New Dinosaur FindA mummified dinosaur carcass was found in Montana (duck-billed hadrosaur)Soft tissues covering 90% of the fossil include muscle, nail material, a beak, and skin were preservedThe last meal in its stomach was preservedA salad of ferns, conifers, and magnolias, seasoned with pollen from 40 different plants
53 Are Dinosaurs Mentioned in the Bible? Job 40:15-18Behold now behemoth, which I made with thee; he eateth grass as an oxHe moveth his tail like a cedar . . .His bones are as strong pieces of brass; his bones are like bars of iron.He is the chief of the ways of God;
54 Behemoth’s Lifestyle eats grass (v. 15) mountains yield food (v. 20)docile, “all the beasts of the field play there” (v. 20)dwells in marshes (v. 21)prefers shade (v. 22)is not spooked at danger:23 “Behold, if a river overflow, he trembleth not; He is confident, though a Jordan swell even to his mouth.24 Shall any take him when he is on the watch, Or pierce through his nose with a snare?” (American Standard Version)
55 Leviathan: A Dinosaurhis outer coat: impenetratable 41:13, 15-17, 26-30his size: gracefully, yet fearfully large 41:12, 25his teeth: terrible 41:14his neck: strong 41:22his breath: fire 41:19-21
56 Extra-Biblical Evidence For the Coexistence of dinosaurs with men ROCK SOLID EVIDENCE!
57 Dinosaurs and People Many traditions of large dinosaur-like creatures Ancient drawings (petroglyphs)
58 a well-weathered petroglyph of Havasupai Canyon, AZ
59 Pliny, Natural History, 70 AD Dragons and HistoryMany historical accounts of large dinosaur-like creaturesPliny, Natural History, 70 AD“Africa produces elephants, but it is India that produces the largest, as well as the dragon…”
60 Herodotus 450 BC“There is a place in Arabia, situated very near the city of Buto, to which I went, on hearing of some winged serpents; and when I arrived there, I saw bones and spines of serpents, in such quantities as it would be impossible to describe. The form of the serpent is like that of the water-snake; but he has wings without feathers, and as like as possible to the wings of a bat” [Historiae, 2, 75-76].
61 Map from the Middle Ages Genoeses 1457 World Map (The Rhamphorhynchoid Pterosaur, Scaphognathus crassirostris:A "Living Fossil" Until the 17th Century, John Goertzen, MS)
62 Aelian, De Natura Animalium, 220 AD Dragons and HistoryAelian, De Natura Animalium, 220 AD“The Phrygian History also states that dragons are born which reach ten paces in length…”
63 More of the Same from Rome A sketch of a dragon that was said to have existed near Rome in 1691.Note: two featherless wings, reptilian tail, head crest, long neck, wings in front of legs matching the fossil of Scaphognathus crassirostris (chart 42)
64 Figurines from Acambaro Mexico Ankylosarus(~800 BC – 200 AD)
66 The Point:stories of dragons are more than likely stories of dinosaurs that existed with menmany of these ancient legends are exaggerations of dinosaurs that roamed the earth and of terrifying reptiles that ruled the skies and seas
67 Do You Believe Dinosaurs Went on The Ark? Do you believe God created all land animals on day 6 (Gen. 1:24, 25)?Do you believe 2 of every kind of land-creature went aboard Noah’s ark (Gen. 6:19, 20; 7:8, 9; 8:19)?Dinosaurs were land dwellers; therefore, they were created on day six and went aboard the ark (Job. 40:15)
68 Dinosaurs were on the Ark and they came off the Ark Dinosaurs on the ArkAnd of every living thing of all flesh, two of every sort shalt thou bring into the ark, to keep them alive with thee; they shall be male and female. (Genesis 6:19)Dinosaurs were on the Ark and they came off the Ark
71 About Dinosaurs Being Too Large To Fit In The Ark. . . it seems that God would have used younger creatures rather than fully grown onesthe average size of dinosaurs (known collectively from fossil record) is that of a sheep or small pony
72 What Happened to the Dinosaurs? Dinosaurs starved to deathThey died from overeatingThey were poisonedThey became blind from cataracts and could not reproduceMammals ate their eggsOther causes include-volcanic dust, poisonous gases, comets, sunspots, meteorites, mass suicide, constipation, parasites, shrinking brain (and greater stupidity), slipped discs, changes in the composition of air, …
73 The Popular Theory65 million years ago a meteor destroyed all the dinosaurs
74 Evaluating the theory: 2 evidences Meteor Impact TheoryLayer of iridium located at the northern end of Mexico's Yucatan peninsula (Chicxulub)Buried a kilometer below ground and dated at 65 million years oldAlleged meteor impactEvaluating the theory: 2 evidences
75 Evaluating the Evidence: 1 Why did the alleged impact kill off the dinosaurs while many other forms of life remained healthy?Some of the least mobile creatures (tortoises, snakes, crocodiles) and the most sensitive to climatic change (birds, fish) are still with us today.Plants also survived the cataclysm in great abundance.
76 Evaluating the Evidence: 2 It is not certain that Chicxulub is an actual impact site. The iridium concentration in the region could have resulted from volcanic processes.
77 The Mystery of Dinosaurs the subject of dinosaurs are shrouded in a mystery only if you accept the evolutionary story associated with themevolved 230 million years agotheir roam ended by some catastrophic event (i.e., asteroid hitting the earth) 65 million years agoPROBLEM: why did crocodiles, snakes, turtles remain?
78 Bible Answer to Dinosaurs existed ~ years agocreated with mandinosaurs were land animalsall land animals were created on day 6 (Gen. 1:24ff)therefore dinosaurs were created on day 6representatives of all kinds (including dinosaur kinds) went onto the ark ~ 4500 years ago
79 Bible Answer to Dinosaurs they came off the ark to live in the present world along with man and every other kind of creaturethe effects of the flood and the curse of sin have greatly changed our world from the world in which Noah livedsince the flood, many kinds of animals have died out because of disease, environmental factors, lack of food, killing themselves, overly hunted by other predators, etc.such is what happened to dinosaurs—there is no mystery!
80 Conclusions About Dinosaurs The evolution story is based on faith not real evidenceThe Bible teaches that people and dinosaurs lived at the same timeThe evidence (fossils) supports the Biblical claim:Created after their kindPeople and dinosaurs lived at the same time