2 Provide the following information on the slip provided Name …the one you want to be called.Code name…a clean one…I will use this to post your grades.Indicate if you require a front desk …include if the reason is for vision.
5 ChemistryThe science that deals with the structure and behavior of matter
6 Unit I Classification of Matter Chemistry –- the study of matter and its changes.Matter –– anything that has substance and takes up space.Data is gathered by investigation and observation.Observations are statements of fact2 kinds of observationsQuantitative– involves measurement (numbers)Qualitative– all the rest
15 Physical & Chemical Properties Physical & Chemical Changes How to determine if an observation is Physical or ChemicalAsk the question; “ Is new matter being formed?”If the answer is YES………CHEMICALIf the answer is NO………PHYSICALHow to determine is the observation is a change or a property.If the verb ends in “ing” …..CHANGEIf the verb does not end in “ing”…….PROPERTYNote: All phase changes are physical changes
16 Physical PropertiesPhysical properties – color, hardness, texture, phases, density, ability to conduct heat, electricity.When a physical change occurs a physical property will be different. For example, melting ice.Heat
17 Ca O S8 Ca S O2 Chemical Properties Chemical change – a substance changes from one type of matter to another.Ca OS8Ca SO2
18 Describe each of the following as a Physical Property, Physical Change, Chemical Property or Chemical ChangeMoth balls melt at 56.0 oC.Material “A” exists as a yellow powder.A plant growing.Crushing rock.Propane burns in air.Water condenses at 100 oC.HCl(aq) is neutralized when it reacts with NaOH(aq).Breaking a piece of Chalk.
19 Describe each of the following as a Physical Property, Physical Change, Chemical Property or Chemical ChangeMoth balls melt at 56.0 oC. PPMaterial “A” exists as a yellow powder. PPA plant growing. CCCrushing rock. PCPropane burns in air. CPWater condenses at 100 oC. PPHCl(aq) is neutralized when it reacts with NaOH(aq). CPBreaking a piece of Chalk. PC
20 A cube of table sugar is dissolved in de-mineralized water A cube of table sugar is dissolved in de-mineralized water. Classify (describe) this sample of matter using as many terms as you can.SolutionMixtureLiquid (solid, gas)Homogeneous (heterogeneous)2 compounds (water and sugar) (element)Non – electrolyte (electrolyte)Neutral (acid, base)Molecules (ions)C12H22O11 (aq)
21 Definitions Homogeneous - sample is uniform throughout (same physical and chemical properties)Heterogeneous- non uniform mixture; you can see individual parts of the mixture. That is – parts have different chemical and physical properties.Pure substances- samples of matter that have a definite set of physical and chemical properties. (elements or compounds)
22 - homogeneous mixtures Elements - a combination of substances that have no definite or fixed proportions.Solutions- homogeneous mixturesElements- a pure substance that cannot be broken down into different kinds of matter. (contains only one kind of atom)Compounds- elements chemically combined in definite proportions.Elements
23 Compounds vs Mixtures Compounds Mixtures Components retain their identities. (C & P properties)Components lose their identities. (C & P properties)Components may be present in any proportion.Components are present in fixed proportions.Components can be separated by chemical means only.Components can be separated by simple physical process.Evidence of chemical action during preparation. (heat, light, color change etc)No evidence of chemical action during preparation
26 Complete the following table by placing an ‘x’ for all that apply Bar of zincC3H8(g)glass of 7-upShovel of dirt from the fieldHelium gasNaHCO3 dissolved in waterGold coinmetal ?Sample of MatterHomogeneousHeterogeneoussolutioncompoundmixtureelement
27 x C3H8(g) Sample of Matter Complete the following table by placing an ‘x’ for all that applyBar of zincxC3H8(g)glass of 7-upShovel of dirt from the fieldHelium gasNaHCO3 dissolved in waterGold coinSample of MatterHomogeneousHeterogeneoussolutionMetal ?compoundmixtureelement
28 Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT) We believe that all molecules are in a state of constant motion.Three kinds of motion are possible:A) Vibrational – back and forthB) Rotational – spinning on an axisC) Translational – movement through space3. We use this theory to explain the states (phases) of matter.
29 Solids Liquids Gases Molecules vibrate Molecules vibrate and rotate Molecules vibrate, rotate and translateShape of the containerDefinite shapeShape of the containerExpand to occupy all the available spaceDefinite volumeDefinite volumeHigh attractive forces between moleculesWeak attractive forces between moleculesVery weak attractive forces between moleculesMolecules very close togetherMolecules very close togetherMolecules very far apartOrderly arrangement of moleculesMolecules very dis-organizedMore orderly than gases but less than solidsNot very compressibleNot very compressibleVery compressible
30 Heating of a solid F Temp. D E (oC) B C A Time (s) A → B : Heating of a solidB → C : Melting of a liquid (Phase change)C → D : Heating of a liquidD → E : Evaporating a liquid (Phase change)E → F : Heating of a gas (closed system)
31 Phase Changes GAS LIQUID SOLID Condensation Freezing Melting EvaporationSublimation145623
32 Quiz will cover up to here Test TimeQuiz will cover up to here