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P SYCHOLOGY 3351: L EARNING D. Rush McQueen, Ph.D. 334.399.1028 Day 5.

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Presentation on theme: "P SYCHOLOGY 3351: L EARNING D. Rush McQueen, Ph.D. 334.399.1028 Day 5."— Presentation transcript:

1 P SYCHOLOGY 3351: L EARNING D. Rush McQueen, Ph.D Day 5

2 Q UIZ 1. B.F. Skinners work falls under what school of thought? a) Voluntarism b) Structuralism c) Functionalism d) Behaviorism 2. An example of a respondent behavior would be: a) Jerking away from a pin prick. b) Standing up and walking about. c) Beginning to whistle. d) Both B and C. 3. An example of an operant behavior would be: a) Jerking away from a pin prick. b) Standing up and walking about. c) Beginning to whistle. d) Both B and C. 4. A Skinner Box is: a) A container for storing medical records. b) A calculation device c) A mechanism for conducting research about behavior. d) None of the above. 5. A Reinforcer is: a) Something that increases the chances that an organism will emit a behavior. b) Something that decreases the chances that an organism will emit a behavior. c) Neither A nor B. d) Both A and B.

3 Q UIZ ( PART II) 6. A Punisher is: a) Something that increases the chances that an organism will emit a behavior. b) Something that decreases the chances that an organism will emit a behavior. c) Neither A nor B. d) Both A and B. 7. In general, Skinner was of the opinion that Punishment: a) Is a useful means of creating lasting behavior change. b) Is not a useful means of creating lasting behavior change. c) Is a necessary evil. d) Both A and C. 7. The idea of using a high probability behavior to reinforce a low probability behavior: a) Doesnt work. b) Is called Grandmas rule of thumb. c) Is called the Premack Principle. d) Both B and C. 8. To Skinner, learning proceeds most effectively if: a) The information to be learned is presented in small steps. b) The learners are given rapid feedback regarding the accuracy of their learning. c) The learners are able to learn at their own pace. d) All of the above. 9. The text indicates that Skinners work has had an impact on: a) Personalized Systems of Instruction. b) Computer-Based Instruction. c) Online Learning. d) All of the above.

4 Q UIZ (A NSWERS ) 1. B.F. Skinners work falls under what school of thought? a) Voluntarism b) Structuralism c) Functionalism d) Behaviorism 2. An example of a respondent behavior would be: a) Jerking away from a pin prick. b) Standing up and walking about. c) Beginning to whistle. d) Both B and C. 3. An example of an operant behavior would be: a) Jerking away from a pin prick. b) Standing up and walking about. c) Beginning to whistle. d) Both B and C. 4. A Skinner Box is: a) A container for storing medical records. b) A calculation device c) A mechanism for conducting research about behavior. d) None of the above. 5. A Reinforcer is: a) Something that increases the chances that an organism will emit a behavior. b) Something that decreases the chances that an organism will emit a behavior. c) Neither A nor B. d) Both A and B.

5 Q UIZ ( PART II; A NSWERS ) 6. A Punisher is: a) Something that increases the chances that an organism will emit a behavior. b) Something that decreases the chances that an organism will emit a behavior. c) Neither A nor B. d) Both A and B. 7. In general, Skinner was of the opinion that Punishment: a) Is a useful means of creating lasting behavior change. b) Is not a useful means of creating lasting behavior change. c) Is a necessary evil. d) Both A and C. 7. The idea of using a high probability behavior to reinforce a low probability behavior: a) Doesnt work. b) Is called Grandmas rule of thumb. c) Is called the Premack Principle. d) Both B and C. 8. To Skinner, learning proceeds most effectively if: a) The information to be learned is presented in small steps. b) The learners are given rapid feedback regarding the accuracy of their learning. c) The learners are able to learn at their own pace. d) All of the above. 9. The text indicates that Skinners work has had an impact on: a) Personalized Systems of Instruction. b) Computer-Based Instruction. c) Online Learning. d) All of the above.

6 B URRHUS F REDERIC S KINNER(1904 – 1990) Born Susquehanna, Pennsylvania Majored in English at Hamilton College in New York Met Robert Frost, who encouraged him to be a writer Did not do well as a writer, so went to Greenwich Village in New York City Decided to study psychology, went to Harvard and earned Masters degree in 1930 & his Ph.D. in 1931 o Taught at the University of Minnesota 1936 – 1945 o Psychology Department Chair at Indiana University 1945 – 1948 o Harvard University professor 1948 to 1990

7 R ESPONDENT VERSUS O PERANT B EHAVIOR Respondent behavior: behavior that is elicited by (evoked by) a known stimulus (light elicits a pupil dilation, jerking when jabbed with a pin, doctor hits your knee with his little hammer)

8 R ESPONDENT VERSUS O PERANT B EHAVIOR Operant behavior: behavior that the organism emits (does not have a known stimulus – and we do not need to know what the stimulus is )

9 R ESPONDENT AND O PERANT B EHAVIOR Operant conditioning (Type R): a R esponse is emitted at a particular rate depending on the consequences for responding (training your dog to sit on command) Contingent reinforcement: getting access to a reinforcer is dependent on (contingent on) emitting a particular behavior (delivering a doggie treat only when your dog sits when you command it) Respondent conditioning (Type S): a S timulus elicits a response (eye blink and puff of air)

10 S HAPING AND THE O PERANT C HAMBER Establishing a new behavior by gradually reinforcing behavior that approximates the desired behavior

11 S CHEDULES OF R EINFORCEMENT Continuous Reinforcement Schedule: providing a reinforcer whenever the desired response occurs Good for establishing a new behavior but ceases being effective in a hurry Fixed Interval Reinforcement Schedule: providing a reinforcer when a desired response occurs after a fixed time delay (wait for it five minutes) Good for maintaining regular rates of behavior Fixed Ratio Reinforcement Schedule: providing a reinforcer when the desired response occurs a particular number of times (have to do it five times first) Also good for maintaining regular rates of behavior

12 S CHEDULES OF R EINFORCEMENT Variable Interval Reinforcement Schedule: providing a reinforcer when a desired response occurs after a variable time delay (wait for an average of five minutes) Good for maintaining high rates of responding (higher and more reliable than Fixed interval) Variable Ratio Reinforcement Schedule: providing a reinforcer when the desired response occurs a variable number of times (have to do it an average of five times first) Good for maintaining very high rates of responding (higher than Fixed interval or ratio and Variable interval Ratio strain: requiring too much

13 Contingency Positive (Add) Negative (Remove) Consequence ReinforcementBehavior Increases (Game time increases doing chores) Behavior Increases (Keeping fire decreases being cold) PunishmentBehavior Decreases (Spanking decreases fighting) Behavior Decreases (Lost video game time decreases fighting) R EINFORCEMENT AND P UNISHMENT

14 S KINNER ON P UNISHMENT 1. It causes unfortunate emotional by-products (fear and avoidance/escape in particular). 2. It informs organisms what not to do, not what to do. 3. It justifies inflicting pain on others. 4. Being in a situation where previously punished behavior could be engaged in without being punished may excuse a child to do so. 5. Punishment elicits aggression toward the punishing agent and others. 6. Punishment often replaces on undesirable response with another undesirable response.

15 P IGEON P OWER ! Researchers reinforced pigeons pecking on a disk when they saw orange. They then put an international orange float about the size of a man in the water and put the pigeons and people in the air. How often do you think that the pigeons correctly detected the float? How often do you think humans in the air detected the float? Answer: In 89 trials (tries), the pigeons spotted the float 90 percent of the time. Humans: 38 percent of the time

16 W HAT I S W RONG WITH D AILY L IFE IN THE W ESTERN W ORLD S KINNER S P LEA Skinner asserted that five cultural practices are undermining the effects of reinforcement on humans: a) alienating workers from the consequences of their work; b) helping those who could help themselves; c) guiding behavior with rules rather than supplying reinforcing consequences; d) maintaining aversive sanctions of government and religions with long-deferred benefits for the individual; and e) reinforcing looking, listening, reading, gambling, and so on, while strengthening few other behaviors.

17 T HE P REMACK P RINCIPLE Use a high probability behavior to reinforce a low probability one Example: Desert for eating your vegetables

18 S KINNER ON E DUCATION Principles: Information should be presented in small steps Feedback is rapid Learners learn at their own pace Skinners Teaching Machine h?v=EXR9Ft8rzhk h?v=EXR9Ft8rzhk


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