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Polarity of Solvents. A Hydrocarbon Typical petroleum product Non-polar CH 2 CH 3 CH 2 CH 3 C 18 H 38.

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Presentation on theme: "Polarity of Solvents. A Hydrocarbon Typical petroleum product Non-polar CH 2 CH 3 CH 2 CH 3 C 18 H 38."— Presentation transcript:

1 Polarity of Solvents

2 A Hydrocarbon Typical petroleum product Non-polar CH 2 CH 3 CH 2 CH 3 C 18 H 38

3 Oil and Water Dont Mix Oil is nonpolar Water is polar Like dissolves like Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry 2002, page 470

4 Hydrogenation Timberlake, Chemistry 7 th Edition, page H 2 vegetable oils shortening stick margarine tub (soft) margarine heat, nickel catalyst

5 Molecular Polarity H–C–H H H HH O nonpolar molecules:-- e – are shared equally -- tend to be symmetric e.g., fats and oils polar molecules:-- e – NOT shared equally e.g., water Like dissolves likeLike dissolves like. polar + polar = solution nonpolar + nonpolar = solution polar + nonpolar = suspension (wont mix evenly)

6 Using Solubility Principles C=C Cl Chemicals used by body obey solubility principles. -- fat-soluble vitamins:e.g., vits. A, D Dry cleaning employs nonpolar liquids. -- polar liquids damage wool, silk -- also, dry clean for stubborn stains (ink, rust, grease) -- (tetra) perchloroethylene is in common use -- water-soluble vitamins: e.g., vit. C

7 Used, Filtered Perc Perc Storage/ Collection Distiller Pressing Water Discharge Air to Atmosphere Dirty Clothes Finished Clothes Dirty Perc Warm Vapor From Dryer Condensed Liquid Perc Clean Perc Collected Used Perc Hazardous Waste* *Soil, dirt, unrecovered Perc New Perchloro- ethylene (PERC) Filter Separator Condenser Dry Cleaning Unit- One unit washes and dries Washing Process Drying Process Process used for Wash and dry

8 MODEL OF A SOAP MOLECULE NONPOLAR HYDROCARBON TAIL POLAR HEAD Na 1+ emulsifying agent (emulsifier): -- molecules w/both a polar AND a nonpolar end -- allows polar and nonpolar substances to mix detergentlecithineggse.g., soap


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