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Chemistry of Carbon Compounds Properties of Carbon Properties of Carbon Properties of Carbon Properties of Carbon Allotropes Allotropes Allotropes Inorganic.

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Presentation on theme: "Chemistry of Carbon Compounds Properties of Carbon Properties of Carbon Properties of Carbon Properties of Carbon Allotropes Allotropes Allotropes Inorganic."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chemistry of Carbon Compounds Properties of Carbon Properties of Carbon Properties of Carbon Properties of Carbon Allotropes Allotropes Allotropes Inorganic Compounds of Carbon Inorganic Compounds of Carbon Inorganic Compounds of Carbon Inorganic Compounds of Carbon Organic Chemistry Organic Chemistry Organic Chemistry Organic Chemistry

2 CARBON non-metallic element of group IV-A which constitutes only about 0.009 % by mass of Earths crust. (but it is the 6 th most abundant element in the universe) non-metallic element of group IV-A which constitutes only about 0.009 % by mass of Earths crust. (but it is the 6 th most abundant element in the universe) exists in three isotopes: 12 C, 13 C, 14 C exists in three isotopes: 12 C, 13 C, 14 C has the unique ability to form long chains (consisting of more than 50 C atoms) and stable five or six-membered rings called catenation. has the unique ability to form long chains (consisting of more than 50 C atoms) and stable five or six-membered rings called catenation.

3 Some Physical Properties of Carbon Atomic number: 6 Atomic number: 6 Electron Configuration:1s 2 2s 2 2p 2 Electron Configuration:1s 2 2s 2 2p 2 Atomic mass: 12.0107 amu Atomic mass: 12.0107 amu Melting Point: 3,823 K Melting Point: 3,823 K Boiling Point: 4,098 K Boiling Point: 4,098 K Density: 2.2670 g/cm 3 Density: 2.2670 g/cm 3 Phase (room temp.): solid Phase (room temp.): solid

4 Allotropes two or more forms of the same element that differ significantly in chemical & physical properties. two or more forms of the same element that differ significantly in chemical & physical properties.

5 Allotropes of Carbon Crystalline- have highly ordered 3D structure Crystalline- have highly ordered 3D structure 1. graphite graphite 2. diamond diamond 3. fullerenes fullerenes Amorphous Amorphous 1. carbon black carbon black carbon black 2. charcoal charcoal 3. coke coke

6 Graphite graphite is derived from the Greek word graphein which means to write. It was named by the German Geologist Abraham Werner in 1789.

7 Properties & Uses of Graphite soft, greasy feel black mineral soft, greasy feel black mineral is made up of layers of carbon, the Carbon atoms arranged in rings of 6 atoms. is made up of layers of carbon, the Carbon atoms arranged in rings of 6 atoms. layers slide easily over each other because of the weak inter-layer forces (Van der Waals forces) but inter atomic bonds are strong covalent bonds layers slide easily over each other because of the weak inter-layer forces (Van der Waals forces) but inter atomic bonds are strong covalent bonds contains free electrons, which move along layers contains free electrons, which move along layers good conductor of heat & electricity good conductor of heat & electricity used as pencil lead, lubricants, electrodes & raw material for making synthetic diamonds used as pencil lead, lubricants, electrodes & raw material for making synthetic diamonds

8 Diamond transparent crystalline solid, with high density compared to other carbon allotropes hardest naturally occurring substance carbon atom is joined to 4 other Carbon atoms, forming a Tetrahedron, or 4 sided figure held together by covalent bonds used as cutting material, jewelries & for decorative purposes

9 Fullerenes a class of carbon molecules in which the carbon atoms are arranged into 12 pentagonal faces and 2 or more hexagonal faces to form a hollow sphere, cylinder, or similar figure. a class of carbon molecules in which the carbon atoms are arranged into 12 pentagonal faces and 2 or more hexagonal faces to form a hollow sphere, cylinder, or similar figure. the most prominent of the fullerenes is buckminsterfullerene, a spheroidal molecule, resembling a soccer ball, consisting of 60 carbon atoms. the most prominent of the fullerenes is buckminsterfullerene, a spheroidal molecule, resembling a soccer ball, consisting of 60 carbon atoms.

10 Fullerenes fullerene research is expected to lead to new materials, lubricants, coatings, catalysts, electro-optical devices, and medical applications. fullerene research is expected to lead to new materials, lubricants, coatings, catalysts, electro-optical devices, and medical applications. were first identified in 1985 by R. F. Curl, Jr., R. E. Smally, and H. W. Kroto (who shared the 1996 Nobel Prize in Chemistry) were first identified in 1985 by R. F. Curl, Jr., R. E. Smally, and H. W. Kroto (who shared the 1996 Nobel Prize in Chemistry)

11 STRUCTURE OF GRAPHITE

12 STRUCTURE OF DIAMOND

13 STRUCTURE OF BUCKMINSTERFULLERENE

14 Carbon Black formed when hydrocarbons such as methane are heated in a very limited supply of oxygen: formed when hydrocarbons such as methane are heated in a very limited supply of oxygen: CH 4 + O 2 C (s) + H 2 O used as pigment in black inks and making automobile tires used as pigment in black inks and making automobile tires

15 Charcoal formed when wood is heated strongly in the absence of air formed when wood is heated strongly in the absence of air used in filters to remove offensive odors from air and colored or bad-tasting impurities form water used in filters to remove offensive odors from air and colored or bad-tasting impurities form water

16 Coke impure form of carbon formed when coal (coal- a fuel substance of plant origin, largely or almost entirely composed of carbon with varying amounts of mineral matter) is heated strongly in the absence of air. impure form of carbon formed when coal (coal- a fuel substance of plant origin, largely or almost entirely composed of carbon with varying amounts of mineral matter) is heated strongly in the absence of air. used as a reducing agent in metallurgical process. used as a reducing agent in metallurgical process.

17 Inorganic Compounds of Carbon Oxides (carbon monoxide & carbon dioxide)carbon monoxide carbon dioxide Carbonates Bicarbonates Carbides Cyanides

18 Carbon Monoxide a colorless, odorless, toxic gas formed by the incomplete combustion of carbon- containing compounds. a colorless, odorless, toxic gas formed by the incomplete combustion of carbon- containing compounds. They are used for extracting nickels, organic synthesis and production of hydrocarbon fuels with hydrogen They are used for extracting nickels, organic synthesis and production of hydrocarbon fuels with hydrogen

19 Carbon Dioxide a colorless, odorless, non-toxic gas. a colorless, odorless, non-toxic gas. it is an acidic oxide & used in beverages, fire extinguishers, manufacture of baking soda, NaHCO 3, and soda ash, Na 2 CO 3. it is an acidic oxide & used in beverages, fire extinguishers, manufacture of baking soda, NaHCO 3, and soda ash, Na 2 CO 3. CO 2 can also exist in solid form, called dry ice, which is used as a refrigerant. CO 2 can also exist in solid form, called dry ice, which is used as a refrigerant.

20 Carbonates are compounds containing the anion CO 3 2- are compounds containing the anion CO 3 2- examples are calcium carbonate which can be found in egg shells, shells of marine organisms & in both limestone & marble examples are calcium carbonate which can be found in egg shells, shells of marine organisms & in both limestone & marble

21 Carbonates Calcium carbonate is normally water- insoluble. It will only dissolve in water saturated with CO 2 because carbonated water (or carbonic acid) reacts with calcium carbonate to form calcium bicarbonate, which is water-soluble: Calcium carbonate is normally water- insoluble. It will only dissolve in water saturated with CO 2 because carbonated water (or carbonic acid) reacts with calcium carbonate to form calcium bicarbonate, which is water-soluble: CaCO 3(s) + H 2 CO 3(aq) Ca 2+ (aq) + 2HCO 3 - (aq)

22 Bicarbonates are compounds containing the anion HCO 3 - are compounds containing the anion HCO 3 - example is sodium bicarbonate or baking soda NaHCO 3, a weak base added to recipes to neutralize the acidity of other ingredients. Baking soda is a mixture of baking soda and a weak acid, like tartaric acid, that when mixed with water, the acid reacts with the HCO 3 - ion to form CO 2 gas, which causes the dough or batter to rise. example is sodium bicarbonate or baking soda NaHCO 3, a weak base added to recipes to neutralize the acidity of other ingredients. Baking soda is a mixture of baking soda and a weak acid, like tartaric acid, that when mixed with water, the acid reacts with the HCO 3 - ion to form CO 2 gas, which causes the dough or batter to rise. HCO 3 - (aq) H + (aq) H 2 CO 3(aq) H 2 O (l) + CO 2(g)

23 Carbides ionic compounds formed from the combination of carbon & metals ionic compounds formed from the combination of carbon & metals examples are CaC 2 (carburo) and Be 2 C in which carbon is in the form of C 2 2- or C 4- ions which are strong Bronsted bases & reacts with water as: examples are CaC 2 (carburo) and Be 2 C in which carbon is in the form of C 2 2- or C 4- ions which are strong Bronsted bases & reacts with water as: C 2 2- (aq) + 2H 2 O (l) 2OH - (aq) + C 2 H 2(g) C 4- (aq) + 4H 2 O (l) 4OH - (aq) + CH 4(g)

24 Carbides another example is the covalent compound of carbon with silicon called carborundum or silicon carbide, SiC. another example is the covalent compound of carbon with silicon called carborundum or silicon carbide, SiC. it is almost as hard as diamond & it has the diamond structure which can be prepared from the reaction: it is almost as hard as diamond & it has the diamond structure which can be prepared from the reaction: SiO 2(s) + 3C (s) SiC (s) + 2CO (g)

25 Cyanides a carbon compound containing the anion group :CN N: - a carbon compound containing the anion group :CN N: - cyanide ions are extremely toxic cyanide ions are extremely toxic used in the metallurgy of gold in the form of NaCN used in the metallurgy of gold in the form of NaCN


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