Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8 – Compounds of Carbon. Why is Carbon Important? Carbon compounds make up over 90% of all chemical compounds. They also form the basis of living."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 8 – Compounds of Carbon
Why is Carbon Important? Carbon compounds make up over 90% of all chemical compounds. They also form the basis of living systems. The study of carbon compounds is now called Organic Chemistry. In its many millions of organic compounds, carbon is associated with hydrogen and commonly oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen and chlorine. Week 4, Lesson 1
Why is Carbon Important? Cont… If 200 atoms were selected from the human body you would find that 126 atoms were hydrogen, 51 atoms were oxygen, 19 atoms were carbon, 3 atoms were nitrogen and 1 atom of all other elements. These proportions are the same when we are born and are maintained throughout life. Food that we eat also contain these elements. Protein, CHOs and fats all contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Proteins are also a source of nitrogen and sulfur and some contain other elements. Vitamins and minerals are distributed across a number of food and introduce traces of other elements that we need in our diets.
How does Carbon form so many Compounds? The electronic configuration of carbon is 1s 2 2s 2 2p 2. It can form a variety of different compounds because: – Each carbon atom has four valence electrons, all available for bonding with other atoms – A carbon atom can form strong covalent bonds with other carbon atoms – Bonds between carbon atoms can be single or multiple.
Natural Gas Is a widely used, clean-burning, efficient and economical fuel. It is vital for out everyday lives. Natural gas is used for cooking and heating in homes. It is also used in the industry for gas-fired kilns and gas-fired furnaces. Some vehicles are powered by compressed natural gas.
Natural Gas cont… Natural gas is often found with deposits of petroleum. It is thought that natural gas and petroleum are formed by the chemical degradation of organic matter from the remains of land and aquatic plants lying in swampy water. With a lack of oxygen and, over time, with the build-up of heat and pressure, this material is converted into many different compounds of carbon and hydrogen. These compounds, which include molecules of different sizes, are known as hydrocarbons. Natural gas is a mixture of many different compounds, mostly small hydrocarbon molecules along with some other chemicals.
Hydrocarbons Hydrocarbons can be classified into several series or families. The simplest hydrocarbon, CH 4, methane is the first in the alkane series.
Alkanes Compounds which consist of carbon and hydrogen only. They only contain single bonds. Each compound in the alkane series differs by CH 2. This series is known as a homologous series. Members of the same homologous series tend to have very similar chemical properties. Alkanes have the molecular formula C n H 2n+2.
Representing Alkane Molecules In structural formulas, the focus is on the location of the atoms relative to one another in the molecule as well as the number and location of chemical bonds. Lone pairs are not included in a structural formula. In each of the alkanes; – Each carbon atom forms a single bond to four other atoms. – Each hydrogen atom forms a single bond to one carbon atom – The four atoms bonded to each carbon atom are arranged in a tetrahedral manner, around the carbon.
Isomers When it comes to drawing the structural formula for C 4 H 10, there are two possible arrangements that satisfy these requirements.
Isomers cont… You can see in the first structure the four carbon atoms are bonded in a continuous chain. The overall molecule is linear and such are sometimes called straight-chain molecules. The second structure has the four carbon atoms bonded in a branched chain. These two molecules are known as isomers – as the have the same molecular formula but a different arrangement of the atoms. Structural isomers have similar chemical properties but differ in some physical properties such as melting and boiling temperature.
Hydrocarbons In the alkanes there are single covalent bonds between the carbons. Because of these bonds, alkanes are said to be saturated. Because there are only single bonded carbons, each C atom is saturated by hydrogen atoms.
Alkenes Ethene is the molecular formula C 2 H 4 and is the first member of the alkenes. In alkenes there is one double bond between two carbon atoms. Alkenes, like alkanes, differ by CH 2, and as such are also known as homologous series. They have the general formula of C n H 2n.
Alkenes cont… FORMULANAME C2H4C2H4 Ethene C3H6C3H6 Propene C4H8C4H8 Butene C 5 H 10 Pentene C 6 H 12 Hexene C 7 H 14 Heptene C 8 H 16 Octene C 9 H 18 Nonene C 10 H 20 Decene
Representing Alkene Molecules Like the alkane, butene has more than one isomer. The four carbon atoms and eight hydrogen atoms can be arranged in more than one way with each carbon atom forming four bonds and each hydrogen atom forming one Two of the isomers are straight chained, with the only difference being the position of the double bond. The third isomer has a branched chain. The alkenes are classified as unsaturated hydrocarbons. The double bond between two of the carbon atoms mean that alkenes contain less hydrogen that the maximum amount possible.
Semistructural Formulas When we want the structural formula to be summarised without indicating the 3D arrangement of the atoms we use the semistructural formula. In a semistructural formula, the carbon atoms and the attached hydrogen atoms, are listed in the order in which they appear in the structural formula. Single bonds are not indicated, but any double or triple bonds are shown.
Naming Carbon Compounds A naming system was developed in 1960s to make it easier to name and recognise carbon compounds. This naming system was developed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). This system provides a set of rules by which chemists can derive the systematic name for a given compound. Week 4, Lesson 2
The Prefixes Number of Carbon AtomsPrefix 1Meth- 2Eth- 3Prop- 4But- 5Pent- 6Hex- 7Hept- 8Oct- 9Non- 10Dec- The first part of the name refers to the number of carbons in one molecule (in straight chain hydrocarbons).
Straight Chain Hydrocarbons The end of the name is dependent on the type of carbon bonds. The name of the the hydrocarbon ends in: – ane: if all carbon-carbon bonds are single bonds – ene: if one of the carbon-carbon bonds is a double bond – yne: if one of the carbon-carbon bonds is a triple bond.
Unsaturated Compounds To name unsaturated straight chain hydrocarbons: 1.Number the carbon atoms in the chain, starting at the end that will give the first carbon involved in a double bond, the smallest number possible. 2.Distinguish which prefix and ending should be used. 3.Name the hydrocarbon with the prefix, then the number of the carbon that has the double bond, then the ending.
Example… But-1-ene But-2-ene
Branched Hydrocarbons An alkyl group often forms a branch in a branched-chain hydrocarbon. An alkyl group is an alkane molecule less one hydrogen atom and is named based on the alkane it is derived from. Eg –CH 3 is a methyl group.
Naming Branched Hydrocarbons Systematic naming requires us to: – Identify the longest chain of carbon atoms in the molecule. – Identify the side group that forms the branch in the chain – Number the carbon atoms from one of the ends of the longest chain so that the side group is attached to the carbon with the smallest number possible.