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Types of Chromosomes a. Autosomes Any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome. 1 to 22 b. Sex Chromosomes A chromosome involved with determining the sex.

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Presentation on theme: "Types of Chromosomes a. Autosomes Any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome. 1 to 22 b. Sex Chromosomes A chromosome involved with determining the sex."— Presentation transcript:

1 Types of Chromosomes a. Autosomes Any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome. 1 to 22 b. Sex Chromosomes A chromosome involved with determining the sex of an organism. X and Y chromosomes

2 2 Types of Cells a. Somatic cells Any cell of a living organism other than the reproductive cells. b. Gametes (sex cells) A reproductive cell having the haploid number of chromosomes. 2

3 3 Mitosis: Somatic Cell Division Parent cell (2n) Daughter cells (2n) Meiosis: Parent cell (2n) Gametes (n) Offspring (2n) 3

4 Mitosis Somatic Cell Division

5 5 Science of Inheritance Genes Alleles: Different forms of a gene. Dominant: If the dominant allele (gene) is present, the organism will show that trait. Recessive: Trait will be exhibited only if organism does not have dominant allele or is pure for recessive trait.

6 6 Science of Inheritance Genes Genotype: The Allele combination, heterozygous (hybrid) or homozygous (gg, GG, or Gg). Phenotype: The physical characteristic displayed (green or yellow). 6

7 TraitDominant Allele Recessive Allele Possible Genotype Possible Phenotypes Seed ColorG (green)g (yellow)GG Homozygous Gg Heterozygous gg Green Yellow Flower Color P (purple) p (white) PP Homozygous Pp Heterozygous pp Purple white Science of Inheritance Genes

8 Homozygous: 2 copies of the same alleles (ex. TT and tt) homozygous dominant- TT homozygous recessive- tt Heterozygous: different copies of alleles (ex. Tt)

9 Sex Linked Genes Traits located on the X chromosome Genotype Phenotype X C X C Normal Female X C X c Carrier Female X c X c Colorblind Female X C YNormal Male X c YColorblind Male Cross: A normal male with a carrier female. X C Y x X C Xc X C Normal Female X C Y Normal Male X C X c Carrier Female X c Y Colorblind Male X C Y XCXcXCXc

10 Sex Linked Genes Traits located on the X chromosome Genotype Phenotype X C X C Normal Female X C X c Carrier Female X c X c Colorblind Female X C YNormal Male X c YColorblind Male X c Y XCXcXCXc Cross: A colorblind male with a carrier female. X C Y x X C X c X c Colorblind Female X c Y Normal male X C X c Carrier Female X C Y Colorblind Male

11 Sex Linked Genes Traits located on the X chromosome Genotype Phenotype X C X C Normal Female X C X c Carrier Female X c X c Colorblind Female X C YNormal Male X c YColorblind Male Cross: A normal male with a carrier female. X C Y x X C Xc X C Normal Female X C Y Normal Male X C X c Carrier Female X c Y Colorblind Male X C Y XCXcXCXc Cross: A colorblind male with a carrier female. X C Y x X C X c X c Colorblind Female X c Y Normal male X C X c Carrier Female X C Y Colorblind Male X c Y XCXcXCXc

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13 II. Practice with Punnett Squares- Mendelian Genetics (autosomes!) A. homozygous recessive x homozygous dominant B. heterozygous x heterozygous C. homozygous recessive x heterozygous D. homozygous dominant x heterozygous

14 III. Crosses that involve sex-linked (X- linked) genes Carrier- Examples of X-linked diseases-


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