Presentation on theme: "Dual Revolution The Industrial Revolution which began in England around 1780. The French Revolution which rocked France in 1789."— Presentation transcript:
1 Dual RevolutionThe Industrial Revolution which began in England around 1780.The French Revolution which rocked France in 1789.
2 Socialist ConcernsEarly French socialist thinkers were already aware that the political revolution in France, the rise of laissez faire economics and the emergence of modern industry in Britain were transforming society.They were disturbed because they saw these developments as promoting selfish individualism and splitting the community into isolated fragments.There was they believed, an urgent need for further reorganization of society to establish cooperation and a new sense of community.
3 Economic PlanningEarly French socialists believed in economic planning.Inspired by the emergency economic measures of 1793 and 1794 (the terror) in France.They argued that the government should rationally organize the economy and not depend on destructive competition to do the jobSocialists believed that private property should strictly regulated or that it should be abolished and replaced by state or community ownership.
4 Henri de Saint SimonThe key to progress was proper social organizationThe parasites (the court, aristocracy, churchmen) should give way to the doers- the leading scientists, engineers and industrialists.The doers would carefully plan the economy and guide it forward by undertaking vast public works projects and establishing investment banks.
5 Charles FourierSaw a socialist utopia of mathematically precise, self sufficient communities made up of 1620 people.Fourier called for the abolition of marriage.
6 Louis BlancUrged workers to organize for universal voting rights and to take control of the state peacefully.Blanc believed that the state should set up government sponsored workshops and factories to guarantee full employment.
7 Joseph Proudhon 1809-1865 What is Property? Nothing but theft. Property was profit that was stolen from the worker.The worker was the source of all wealth.
8 Karl Marx1848 Marx co-authored the communist manifesto with Friedrich EngelsEngels had previously written the condition of the working class in England in 1844.Marx argued that the interests of the middle class and the industrial working class were inevitably opposed to each other.History of all previously existing society is the history of class struggle.With the coming of modern industry, society was split more clearly than ever before; between the middle class (bourgeoisie) and the modern working class (Proletariat)
9 Bourgeoisie vs. workers Just as the middle class had triumphed over the feudal aristocracy, Marx predicted that the proletariat would conquer the bourgeoisie through a violent revolution.
10 3 Streams leading to Marxism French RevolutionAbrupt, total revolutionSuccess of BourgeoisieBritish Industrial RevolutionPosition of labor“condition of Working Class” EngelsGerman Philosophy of Hegel
11 Philosophy of Hegel Dialectics Thesis vs. Antithesis=synthesisHistoric change comes through the clash of antagonistic elements.History is a process of development through time, logical and deterministic, everything happens in sequence by cause.Hegel saw primacy of ideas that cause change, Marx focused on economic reality.
12 Marxian view of Historical Development Material conditions give rise to economic classes.Each class develops ideology suited to its needs.Prevailing religion, government, law, morals reflect the outlook of these classes
13 Class antagonism Agrarian Conditions produce landholding class Changes in trade routes, money, productive techniques, leads to rise of BourgeoisieEventually Bourgeoisie and landholding class clashEngland 1642France 1789
14 Development of Proletariat As the Bourgeoisie develops there is a corresponding development in the proletariat.According to Marx the Bourg. Is defined as those who own capitalProletariat does not own capitalUnder competitive conditions the Bourg. Devour themselvesThe Proletariat then overthrows the Bourg. In a revolution.
15 Results of Proletariat revolution Abolish private property/private ownership of capitalClassless society resultsState withersReligion disappears
16 Marxist ideas Labor theory of value Surplus value theory Value of any man-made object depended on the amount of labor put into it. Capital is the stored up labor of past times.Surplus value theoryThe worker is paid less than the value of his labor (e.g. product sells for $10 and the total worker wage is $3, according to Marx the worker has had $7 stolen from him)Capital therefore is accumulated surplus value that the prevailing system (gov’t, religion, law, education, etc.) has allowed the owner to steal from the worker.
17 Marxist ideas, cont. Workers must remain angry. Union gains of higher wages were just more crumbs from the owners table. Even if the worker is paid $5 (referring to the previous example) he is still being robbed of $5.No Unions, No gov’t legislation (could the worker make real gains through a gov’t committed to protecting the ruling classes interests?)
18 Ideas from Communist Manifesto The worker is deprived of the wealth he himself has createdThe state is a committee of the bourgeoisie for the exploitation of the workerReligion is a drug to keep the workingman quietly dreaming of his heavenly reward. “Opiate of the Masses”The working family has been prostituted and brutalized by the bourgeoisieThe proletariat have no country
19 Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review Who painted Liberty Leading the people?Delacroix
20 Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review Liberty Leading the people was painted after which revolution?French Revolution of 1830
21 b. the “battle of Peterloo” 1819 In which of the following situations did the normally flexible English government behave in a most reactionary manner?a. the Reform Bill of 1832b. the “battle of Peterloo” 1819c. the repeal of the Corn Laws in 1846d. All of the above were decisions by the British government that shifted the country to the political right.b
22 Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review With whom did the Greeks fight against to win their independence in the Greek Revolution?Ottoman Turks
23 Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review At What battle did England, France, and Russia defeat a Turco-Egyptian navy?Navarino Bay (1829)What treaty ended the Greek Revolution?Treaty of Adrianople
24 Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review Why did many Europeans support the Greeks?Saw it as home of democracy, were in love with classical Greek culture, birthplace of democracy, Russians – stirred by piety of their Orthodox brethren
25 Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review What Romantic poet fought and died in the Greek Revolution?Lord Byron
26 Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review What six points did the Chartists demand from parliament?Annual elections held for the House of CommonsUniversal male suffrageEqual electoral districtsSecret ballotsAbolition of property qualifications for membership to the House of CommonsPay members of the House of Commons a salary so poor people can serve
27 Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review Was the Chartist movement successful?No.
28 Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review What was the right of legitimacy?Restoration of pre-revolutionary absolutist monarchieslouis XVIII
29 Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review Who crushed the June Days Revolt?CavaignacWhat was his nickname?The Butcher
30 Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review Which countries made up the holy alliance?Russia, Austria, Prussia
31 Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review After 1815, what happened to Poland?It was annexed by Russia.
32 Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review Who was an influential French Utopian Socialist?Count de Saint Simon
33 Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review Which movement emphasized emotion, spontaneity, and braking from classical ideas?RomanticismRaft of MedusaGeorges Clairin, The Guard
34 Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review What were Charles X’s 4 ordinances?Chamber of Deputies was disbandedPress was censoredThe amount of people who could vote was reducedAn election was to be held for the new Chamber of Deputies
35 Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review Who was Louis Blanc, what did he want and was he successful?He was an utopian socialist that wanted social workshops in the new French government. He failed.
36 Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review Who headed the “Second Republic in France”?Louis Napoleon Bonaparte
37 Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review In which 3 countries were the major revolutions of 1848?Austria, France, PrussiaAustrian RevolutionFrench RevolutionRiots in Berlin
38 Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review Who led the Revolution in Austria?Louis Kossuth
39 Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review Who was Lamartine?A political republican in France who opposed Louis Blanc
40 Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review Name 3 Romantic composers?Franz List, Chopin, BeethovenChopin
41 Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review Which romantic composer is also considered by some to be classical?Beethoven
42 Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review Who was the “Greatest Pianist” of the Romantic Era?Franz Liszt
43 Revolutions of 1830 Review Who replaced Charles X? Louis Phillippe Right:Charles XLeft: Louis Phillippe
44 Revolutions of 1848 Who was overthrown in France in 1848? Louis Phillippe
45 Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review Who painted “The raft of the Medusa”?Gericault
46 Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review Which revolution of 1830 was not successful?PolandWho crushed it?Nicholas I of Russia
47 Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review Guizot was the foreign minister of which French KingLouis Phillipe
48 Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review He wrote “beauty is truth, truth is beauty, that is all ye know on earth and all ye need to know.John Keats
49 Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review What was the title of the previous poem?Ode on a Grecian Urn
50 Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review The Provisional French government of 1848 was made up of these two types of RepublicansPolitical, Social
51 Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review This Event was to take place in Paris on February 22, 1848.BanquetWhat also happened that day?Barricades went upWhy did this happen?The government refused to consider electoral reform.
52 Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review Karl Marx co-authored Communist Manifesto with him:Engels
53 Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review The word to describe what Marx called the working classProletariatWhose ideas were Marx’s theory of historical evolution based on?Georg Hegel
54 Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review The meeting of German liberals to discuss a future United German StateFrankfurt Assembly
55 Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review Who repealed the Corn Laws in 1846?Robert PeelWhat party did he belong to?Tory
56 Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review He became the Emperor of Austria in 1848 at the age of 18.Franz Joseph
57 Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review Who did Franz Joseph replace?Emperor Ferdinand I
58 Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review Who was in the conspiracy to overthrow Emperor Ferdinand I?Archduchess Sophia, the church, powerful nobles
59 Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review Who wrote a poem about Daffodils?Wordsworth
60 Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review They insisted on the value of feelings and love for the unclassifiable.Romanticism
61 Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review He was the most famous French romantic WriterVictor Hugo
62 Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review What countries formed the Quadruple Alliance?Austria, Russia, Prussia, EnglandWhat was the Quadruple Alliance’s new spirit of cooperation and consultation called?The Concert of Europe
63 Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review The Final outcome of the Congress of Vienna is known as the:Metternich SystemMetternich
64 Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review The Participants of the Congress of Vienna almost came to war as a result of this “question”Polish-Saxon Question
65 Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review What territory created by the Congress of Vienna replaced the Confederation of the RhineGermanic Confederation
66 Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review What newly created Kingdom was created as a buffer against France?Kingdom of the Netherlands
67 Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review They insisted on the value of feelings and love for the unclassifiable.Romanticism
68 Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review This country stopped the revolution in Poland in 1831.Russia
69 Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review This law reallocated electorate seats to the urban north of England, It also increased the number of people who could vote.Reform Bill of 1832
70 Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review Which prime minister was in office when The Reform Bill of 1832 was passed?Lord Earl GreyWhat king was in power?William IV
71 Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review How did Earl Grey get the House of Lords to vote for the Reform Bill of 1832?He threatened to introduce a large number of Whigs into the House of Lords.
72 Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review These laws placed a high tariff on the imports of grain into England.Corn Laws 1815What groups supported these laws?Large agricultural producers (Tories)What groups opposed them?Workers, Industrialists
73 Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review The July revolution in France (1830) followed the issuance of this.The four OrdinancesWho issued these?Charles X
74 Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review This event in England in 1819 demonstrated the division between the government and the working class.Peterloo massacre
75 Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review What acts were issued in response to the Peterloo Massacre?Six Acts of ParliamentWhat did they attempt to?Repressive measures that attempted to remove the instruments of agitation from the hands of radical leaders and to provide authorities with new powers
76 Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review Which came first, the great English reform bill or the repeal of the corn laws.Reform Bill of 1832
77 Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review He refused the “crown from the gutter”Frederick William IV
78 Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review He called for a Holy Alliance of European nationsCzar Alexander I
79 Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review List the rulers of France in order from Napoleon I to Napoleon III.Louis XVIIICharles XLouis PhillipeLouis Napoleon Bonaparte
80 Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review He wrote “On this day I complete my 36th year”Lord Byron
81 Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review He painted “landscape with a distant river and bay”Joseph M.W. Turner
82 Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review Who wrote “The Chimney Sweeper?”William Blake
83 Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review After what revolution did Metternich flee Austria?Revolution of 1848 in AustriaWhat groups led that revolution?Students and workers
84 Congress of Vienna to 1848 Review What happened in 1846, 1848, and 1851 that brought much trouble to Ireland?Potato crops failed – “The Great Famine”