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End Show Slide 1 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Biology.

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1 End Show Slide 1 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Biology

2 End Show Slide 2 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 1-1 What Is Science?

3 End Show 1-1 What Is Science? Slide 3 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall What Science Is and Is Not What is the goal of science?

4 End Show 1-1 What Is Science? Slide 4 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall What Science Is and Is Not The goal of science is to: investigate and understand the natural world. explain events in the natural world. use those explanations to make useful predictions.

5 End Show 1-1 What Is Science? Slide 5 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall What Science Is and Is Not Science is an organized way of using evidence to learn about the natural world. Body of knowledge

6 End Show 1-1 What Is Science? Slide 6 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Thinking Like a Scientist Scientific thinking begins with observation. Observation is the process of gathering information about events or processes in a careful, orderly way.

7 End Show 1-1 What Is Science? Slide 7 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Thinking Like a Scientist The information gathered from observations is called data. Quantitative data Qualitative data

8 End Show 1-1 What Is Science? Slide 8 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Thinking Like a Scientist Scientists use data to make inferences. An inference is a logical interpretation based on prior knowledge or experience.

9 End Show 1-1 What Is Science? Slide 9 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Explaining and Interpreting Evidence A hypothesis is a proposed scientific explanation for a set of observations. A hypothesis may be ruled out or confirmed.

10 End Show 1-1 What Is Science? Slide 10 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Explaining and Interpreting Evidence Hypotheses are tested by performing controlled experiments or by gathering new data.

11 End Show 1-1 What Is Science? Slide 11 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Explaining and Interpreting Evidence Researchers often work in teams to analyze, review, and critique each others data and hypotheses.

12 End Show 1-1 What Is Science? Slide 12 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Science as a Way of Knowing Science is an ongoing process that involves: asking questions observing making inferences testing hypotheses

13 End Show 1-1 What Is Science? Slide 13 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Science as a Way of Knowing Scientific understanding is always changing. Good scientists are skeptics who question both existing ideas and new hypotheses.

14 End Show 1-1 What Is Science? Slide 14 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Science and Human Values An understanding of science and the scientific approach is essential to making intelligent decisions.

15 End Show 1-1 What Is Science? Slide 15 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Science and Human Values Decisions involve many factors besides scientific information, including: the society in which we live economic considerations laws moral principles Citizens decide what to do when they vote.

16 End Show - or - Continue to: Click to Launch: Slide 16 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 1–1

17 End Show Slide 17 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 1–1 Observations involving numbers are known as a.qualitative observations. b.hypothetical observations. c.quantitative observations. d.inferred observations.

18 End Show Slide 18 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 1–1 Which of the following shows the interaction of science and human values? a.the debate over the best way to produce electricity b.investigating how a manatee behaves c.Determining what causes a disease d.using a hypothesis to test an explanation

19 End Show Slide 19 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 1–1 A scientist takes paint chips from 10 apartments in a large building. She tests for the presence of lead in the paint and finds it in all 10 samples. She then concludes that lead paint is probably present in all 120 apartments in the building. This conclusion is an example of a.a scientific fact. b.a scientific error. c.proof. d.a reasonable inference.

20 End Show Slide 20 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 1–1 A possible explanation for a set of observations is known as a.data. b.a hypothesis. c.an inference. d.a result.

21 End Show Slide 21 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 1–1 A good scientific hypothesis must be a.correct. b.able to be tested. c.obvious. d.based on common sense.

22 END OF SECTION

23 End Show Slide 23 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Biology

24 End Show Slide 24 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 1-2 How Scientists Work

25 End Show Slide 25 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Designi ng an Experi ment How do scientists test hypotheses? A hypothesis should be tested by an experiment in which only one variable is changed at a time.

26 End Show Slide 26 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Designi ng an Experi ment The process of testing a hypothesis includes: –Asking a question –Forming a hypothesis –Setting up a controlled experiment –Recording and analyzing results –Drawing a conclusion

27 End Show Slide 27 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Designi ng an Experi ment Asking a Question Many years ago, people wanted to know how living things came into existence. They asked: How do organisms come into being?

28 End Show Slide 28 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Designi ng an Experi ment Forming a Hypothesis One early hypothesis was spontaneous generation. For example, most people thought that maggots spontaneously appeared on meat. In 1668, Redi proposed a different hypothesis: that maggots came from eggs that flies laid on meat.

29 End Show Slide 29 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Designi ng an Experi ment Setting Up a Controlled Experiment manipulated variable responding variable

30 End Show Slide 30 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Designi ng an Experi ment Redis Experiment Controlled Variables: jars, type of meat, Location, temperature, time Covered jars Uncovered jars

31 End Show Slide 31 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Designi ng an Experi ment Redis Experiment Manipulated Variable: Gauze covering that keeps flies away from meat Responding Variable: whether maggots appear Maggots appear. Several days pass. No maggots appear.

32 End Show Slide 32 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Designi ng an Experi ment Drawing a Conclusion Scientists use the data from an experiment to evaluate a hypothesis and draw a valid conclusion.

33 End Show Slide 33 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Repeati ng Investig ations Spallanzani's Test of Redi's Findings Gravy is boiled.

34 End Show Slide 34 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Repeati ng Investig ations Spallanzani's Test of Redi's Findings Flask is open. Flask is sealed.

35 End Show Slide 35 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Repeati ng Investig ations Spallanzani's Test of Redi's Findings Gravy is teeming with microorganisms. Gravy is free of microorganisms.

36 End Show Slide 36 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Repeati ng Investig ations Pasteur's Test of Spontaneous Generation –Louis Pasteur conclusively disproved the hypothesis of spontaneous generation. –Pasteur showed that all living things come from other living things.

37 End Show Slide 37 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Repeati ng Investig ations Pasteurs Experiment Broth is boiled Broth is free of microorganisms for a year. Curved neck is removed. Broth is teeming with microorganisms.

38 End Show Slide 38 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Repeati ng Investig ations The Impact of Pasteurs Work Pasteur saved the French wine industry, which was troubled by unexplained souring of wine. He began to uncover the nature of infectious diseases, showing that they were the result of microorganisms.

39 End Show Slide 39 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall How a Theory Develops How does a scientific theory develop?

40 End Show Slide 40 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall How a Theory Develo ps As evidence from numerous investigations builds up, a hypothesis may become so well supported that scientists consider it a theory. In science, the word theory applies to a well- tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations.

41 End Show Slide 41 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Major Theories in Biology Germ Theory Evolutionary Theory Cell Theory Gene Theory

42 End Show Slide 42 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 1–2

43 End Show Slide 43 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 1–2 In an experiment, the variable that is deliberately changed is called the a.control. b.manipulated variable. c.responding variable. d.constant control

44 End Show Slide 44 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 1–2 The mistaken belief that living organisms can arise from nonliving matter is called a.biogenesis. b.Pasteur's theory. c.spontaneous generation. d.Spallanzanis hypothesis.

45 End Show Slide 45 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 1–2 Which of the following was the manipulated variable in Redis experiment? a.the kind of meat used b.the temperature the jars were kept at c.the gauze covering on some jars d.the kind of fly that visited the jars

46 End Show Slide 46 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 1–2 A well-tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations is a a.hypothesis. b.variable. c.control. d.theory.

47 End Show Slide 47 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 1–2 A scientific explanation does not become a theory until a.a majority of scientists agree with it. b.it has been supported by evidence from numerous investigations and observations. c.it is first proposed as an explanation. d.it is published in a textbook.

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49 End Show Slide 49 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Biology

50 End Show Slide 50 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 1-4 Tools and Procedures

51 End Show Slide 51 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall A Commo n Measur ement System What measurement system do most scientists use?

52 End Show Slide 52 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall A Commo n Measur ement System Most scientists use the metric system when collecting data and performing experiments.

53 End Show Slide 53 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall A Commo n Measur ement System Because the metric system is based on multiples of 10, it is easy to use.

54 End Show Slide 54 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall A Commo n Measur ement System 1 meter (m) = 100 centimeters (cm) 1 meter = 1000 millimeters (mm) 1000 meters = 1 kilometer (km) 1 kilogram (kg) = 1000 grams (g) 1 gram = 1000 milligrams (mg) 1000 kilograms = 1 metric ton (t) 0 0 C = freezing point of water C = boiling point of water 1 liter (L) = 1000 milliliters (mL) 1 liter = 1000 cubic centimeters (cm 3 )

55 End Show Slide 55 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Microsc opes How are light microscopes and electron microscopes similar? How are they different?

56 End Show Slide 56 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Microsc opes Microscopes are devices that produce magnified images of structures that are too small to see with the unaided eye.

57 End Show Slide 57 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Microsc opes Light Microscopes The most commonly used microscope is the light microscope. Light microscopes produce clear images of objects at a magnification of about 1000 times.

58 End Show Slide 58 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Microsc opes Compound light microscopes allow light to pass through the specimen and use two lenses to form an image.

59 End Show Slide 59 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Microsc opes Electron Microscopes To study even smaller objects, scientists use electron microscopes.

60 End Show Slide 60 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Laborat ory Techniq ues Cell Cultures A single cell is able to reproduce so that a group of cells, called a cell culture, develops from the single original cell.

61 End Show Slide 61 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Laborat ory Techniq ues Cell Fractionation Biologists often use a technique known as cell fractionation to separate the different cell parts.

62 End Show Slide 62 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Workin g Safely in Biology Follow safe practices. a.Study the safety rules. b.Read all the steps and safety precautions. c.Follow your teachers instructions and textbook directions exactly. d.If in doubt, ask your teacher for an explanation. e.Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and warm water after every scientific activity.

63 End Show Slide 63 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 1-4

64 End Show Slide 64 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 1-4 A single measurement system is commonly used in science because a.it allows scientists to easily replicate one anothers experiments. b.basic units of mass, length, and volume are unrelated to one another. c.more kinds of measurements can be made. d.computers can store large amounts of scientific data.

65 End Show Slide 65 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 1-4 Compared to a light microscope, an electron microscope is used to observe a.larger objects with less detail. b.larger objects with more detail. c.smaller objects with more detail. d.smaller objects with less detail.

66 End Show Slide 66 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 1-4 A device that separates cell parts is a a.centrifuge. b.cell culture. c.light microscope. d.electron microscope.

67 End Show Slide 67 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 1-4 A technique in which cells are grown in a nutrient solution is known as a.staining. b.cell fractionation. c.cell culturing. d.cell fertilizing.

68 End Show Slide 68 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 1-4 When you work in a biology laboratory situation, your first priority should be to a.make sure all materials are available. b.modify any instructions that do not make sense. c.familiarize yourself with all safety rules before beginning to work. d.know ahead of time what kinds of results to expect.

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70 End Show Slide 70 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Biology

71 End Show Slide 71 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 1-3 Studying Life

72 End Show Slide 72 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Charact eristics of Living Things What are some characteristics of living things?

73 End Show Slide 73 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Charact eristics of Living Things Living things share the following characteristics: a.made up of units called cells b.reproduce c.based on a universal genetic code d.grow and develop e.obtain and use materials and energy f.respond to their environment g.maintain a stable internal environment h.change over time

74 End Show Slide 74 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Big Ideas in Biology Science as a Way of Knowing Science is not just a list of facts. The job of science is to use observations, questions, and experiments to explain the natural world.

75 End Show Slide 75 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Big Ideas in Biology Interdependence in Nature All forms of life on Earth are connected together into a biosphere, which literally means living planet.

76 End Show Slide 76 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Big Ideas in Biology Matter and Energy Matter serves as nutrients to build body structure and energy to fuel the processes of life.

77 End Show Slide 77 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Big Ideas in Biology Cellular Basis of Life Organisms are composed of one or more cells, which are the smallest units that can be considered fully alive.

78 End Show Slide 78 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Big Ideas in Biology Information and Heredity Genetic code is common, with minor variations, to every organism on Earth. That information, carried in DNA, is copied and passed from parents to offspring.

79 End Show Slide 79 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Big Ideas in Biology Unity and Diversity of Life All living things are fundamentally alike at the molecular level, even though life takes an almost unbelievable variety of forms.

80 End Show Slide 80 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Big Ideas in Biology Evolution In biology, evolution, or the change in living things through time, explains inherited similarities as well as the diversity of life.

81 End Show Slide 81 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Big Ideas in Biology Structure and Function Structures evolve in ways that make particular functions possible, allowing organisms to adapt to a wide range of environments.

82 End Show Slide 82 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Big Ideas in Biology Homeostasis An organisms ability to maintain a relatively stable internal environment.

83 End Show Slide 83 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Big Ideas in Biology Science, Technology, and Society Science seeks to provide useful information, but only a public that truly understands science and how it works can determine how that information should be applied.

84 End Show Slide 84 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Branch es of Biology A Few Branches of Biology –Zoologists –Botanists –Paleontologists –Cell Biologists –Geneticists –Microbiologists –Ecologists

85 End Show Slide 85 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Branch es of Biology How can life be studied at different levels?

86 End Show Slide 86 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Branch es of Biology Some of the levels at which life can be studied include: a.molecules b.cells c.organisms d.populations e.communities f.biomes g.the biosphere

87 End Show Slide 87 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Branch es of Biology Biosphere The part of Earth that contains all ecosystems

88 End Show Slide 88 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Branch es of Biology Ecosystem Community and its nonliving surroundings Hawk, snake, bison, prairie dog, grass, stream, rocks, air

89 End Show Slide 89 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Branch es of Biology Community Populations that live together in a defined area Hawk, snake, bison, prairie dog, grass

90 End Show Slide 90 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Branch es of Biology Population Group of organisms of one type that live in the same area Bison herd

91 End Show Slide 91 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Branch es of Biology Organism Individual living thing Bison

92 End Show Slide 92 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Branch es of Biology Groups of Cells Tissues, organs, and organ systems Nervous tissue Brain Nervous system

93 End Show Slide 93 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Branch es of Biology Cells Smallest functional unit of life Nerve cell

94 End Show Slide 94 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Branch es of Biology Molecules Groups of atoms; smallest unit of most chemical compounds Water DNA

95 End Show Slide 95 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Biology in Everyd ay Life More than any other area of study, biology touches your life every day. How?

96 End Show Slide 96 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 1-3

97 End Show Slide 97 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 1-3 An increase in size is known as a.growth. b.metabolism. c.development. d.differentiation.

98 End Show Slide 98 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 1-3 Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of all living things? a.use of energy b.made of cells c.stable internal environment d.need for oxygen

99 End Show Slide 99 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 1-3 Which of the following are branches in the study of biology? a.cells, tissues, organs, and organisms b.botany, cell biology, ecology, and zoology c.populations, communities, and ecosystems d.the genetic code, evolution, and the biosphere

100 End Show Slide 100 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 1-3 The genetic code is carried in a.Water. b.DNA. c.proteins. d.soil.

101 End Show Slide 101 of 21 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 1-3 Which of the following shows the levels of organization in correct order from the simplest to the most complex? a.organisms, cells, populations, molecules, ecosystems b.ecosystems, populations, organisms, cells, molecules c.molecules, cells, organisms, populations, ecosystems d.molecules, organisms, cells, populations, ecosystems

102 END OF SECTION


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