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From Placement Testing to Exit Testing and Assessments in Between

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1 From Placement Testing to Exit Testing and Assessments in Between
Stanford Language Center Elizabeth Bernhardt, Joan Molitoris, Alice Miano, Sara Gelmetti, Kenric Tsethlikai, Ken Romeo Stanford University Language Center

2 Stanford University Language Center
Objectives Outline assessment program Provide organizational details Highlight speaking & writing Relevant across all languages Refer to both first & second-year Stanford University Language Center

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The ‘Why’ Improve student performance Enhance credibility (w/ public) Programmatic consistency Stanford University Language Center

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Results More highly trained staff Professional conversation 20% first-year/24% second-year increase Highly positive student reaction Increased interest in proficiency notation Stanford University Language Center

5 Stanford University Language Center
Organization Placement testing (Bernhardt) Oral assessments SOPIs (Molitoris) Presentational speech (Miano) ODAs (Gelmetti) Writing assessments WDAs (Gelmetti) Presentational Writing (Tsethlikai) Stanford University Language Center

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Placement Testing Approaching Stanford Online during the summer Preliminary placement based on score Oral assessment on campus Placement Testing – Elizabeth Bernhardt Stanford University Language Center

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SOPI definition SHORT FORM 20 minutes Warm-up Picture-based tasks Topics Wind-down Task levels: Intermediate, Advanced LONG FORM 45 minutes Warm-up Picture-based tasks Topics Situations Wind-down Task levels: Intermediate, Advanced, Superior SOPIs – Joan Molitoris Stanford University Language Center

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Stanford Uses of SOPIs Placement Testing 3rd Quarter Exit Testing Overseas Studies Testing Occasional/External Testing Proficiency Notation Guidance SOPIs – Joan Molitoris Stanford University Language Center

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SOPI Development Objective: develop multiple prompts leading to unique tests SOPI “Task Force”: task and prompt creation Logistics: artwork, test booklet, recording of instructions and prompts Load into course management system SOPIs – Joan Molitoris Stanford University Language Center

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SOPI Delivery Digital Language Lab scheduling Upload/download Variable class purpose Results assessed over the summer by internal OPI testers Results published in Annual Report SOPIs – Joan Molitoris Stanford University Language Center

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Future Directions Develop SOPIs for languages with increasing enrollments Compile unique tests for specific purposes Create “item bank” to allow for randomized delivery of questions within test format SOPIs – Joan Molitoris Stanford University Language Center

12 Oral Presentational Language
Stanford Objectives for Spanish and Portuguese (1997) based on National Standards Tri-modal nature of communication Emphasis on interpersonal communication in first-year courses Emphasis on presentational communication in second-year courses Presentational Speech – Alice Miano Stanford University Language Center

13 Emphases in Communicative Modes through the two-year program
Modes of Communication Presentational Mode Interpersonal Use of notes Interpretive Length Presentational Sophistication / Extemporaneousness First Year | Second Year Second Year Presentational Speech – Alice Miano Stanford University Language Center

14 How to evaluate oral presentational language?
Organization/Structure Critical Thinking: Content Analysis and Use of Evidence Fluency: Length, Level of Rehearsal or Reading vs. Spontaneity/Extemporaneousness Vocabulary: Use of Academic, Presentational Language Accuracy Presentational Speech – Alice Miano Stanford University Language Center

15 Without Assessment Tool
Assessments varied widely amongst instructors Student performances tended to fall below expectations Presentational Speech – Alice Miano Stanford University Language Center

16 Initial Findings Using Assessment Tool
Students and instructors more cognizant of expectations Student performances improved and objectives more frequently met Greatly increased inter-rater reliability Instructors excited and motivated to continue the project, collaborate further Presentational Speech – Alice Miano Stanford University Language Center

17 OnDAs Online Diagnostic Assignments
Computer-assisted diagnostic assignments Based upon the ACTFL proficiency guidelines 2 types: Oral (ODA) and Written (WDA) Oral (ODAs): 4 times / quarter, 1st and 2nd year Written (WDAs): pilot project Communication mode: Interpersonal Limited-time assignments OnDA is only a proposal of an alternate acronym to avoid confusion between general ODAs and oral DAs OnDAs – Sara Gelmetti Stanford University Language Center

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Structure of the OnDAs Prompts are tailored according to the proficiency level that is being assessed First part: warm-up and level check Second part: probes more challenging functions  spirals up the assignment Last part: “wind-down” question  returns the student to a comfort level Prompts are tailored according to the proficiency level that is being assessed First question is formulated to first provide the student a warm-up and then check the student’s level of competences (the “floor”) Second question is formulated to probe more challenging functions that spiral up the assessment to the next level Last part is a “wind-down” question, meant to return the student to a comfort level OnDAs – Sara Gelmetti Stanford University Language Center

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Example 1: LA STANZA DELLO STUDENTE ODA ITALIAN 1 - 1st YEAR, 1st quarter Prompt: audio Visual input: static TARGET: Novice Mid > High FUNCTIONS: communicate minimally with lists and formulaic utterances CONTEXT / CONTENT: common informal setting / autobiographical information, personal experience TEXT TYPE: individual words and phrases, some discrete sentences in the present OnDAs – Sara Gelmetti Stanford University Language Center

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Example 2: FLORENCE HOSTING FAMILY WDA ITALIAN 2 - 1st year, 2nd quarter Prompt: written TARGET: Novice High > Intermediate Low TASKS: simple description on a familiar topic, requests for information, formulate basic questions FUNCTIONS: communicate simple facts and ideas; begin to create with the language CONTEXT / CONTENT: common informal setting / autobiographical information, personal experience TEXT TYPE: discrete sentences in the present Prompt given in English to avoid giving away too much vocab OnDAs – Sara Gelmetti Stanford University Language Center

21 Example 3: DAL DOTTORE ODA ITALIAN 3 - 1st year, 3rd quarter
Prompt: audio Visual input: static TARGET: Intermediate Low > Mid FUNCTIONS: create with the language, initiate & maintain a simple conversation, ask and answer simple questions, begin to narrate in the past CONTEXT / CONTENT: informal settings / familiar topics related to daily and/or personal activities TEXT TYPE: discrete sentences OnDAs – Sara Gelmetti Stanford University Language Center

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Example 4: WINTER HOLIDAY CELEBRATION WDA ITALIAN 21 – 2nd year, 1st quarter Prompt: written TARGET: Intermediate Mid > High TASK: paragraph length narration of factual nature using appropriate time frame FUNCTIONS: uncomplicated communication, description with elaboration, narration in the past CONTEXT / CONTENT: informal settings / topics of general and personal interest TEXT TYPE: paragraphs with some connectors ODnAs – Sara Gelmetti Stanford University Language Center

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How to Evaluate OnDAs on a credit/no credit basis individual feedback after every OnDA rated according to how the task is performed or, instead, how severely the communication is impeded assessment criteria: a series of questions, based upon the ACTFL guidelines for speaking and writing Assignments are on a credit/no credit basis Individual feedback is being provided to the students after every single ODA Assessment criteria consist of a series of questions, based upon the ACTFL OPI 4 major categories, that rate the sample according to how the task is performed or, instead, how severely the communication is impeded OnDAs – Sara Gelmetti Stanford University Language Center

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Preliminary findings OnDAs can be taken at home individually Class time can be maximized and optimized for useful practice Pressure is reduced and affective filter is lowered Both students and instructors need to be familiar and comfortable on how to use new technologies Social-affective and psychological aspect: No direct face-to-face interaction  stress reduced atmosphere  lowered affective filter (Krashen, 1982) The affective filter hypothesis elaborated by Krashen claims that learners need to be affectively disposed to “let in” the input they comprehend, which means that comprehensible input can be effective in SLA only when certain affective conditions are applicable: firstly learners must be motivated; secondly learners must possess a certain degree of self-confidence and a good self-image, as a factor such as low self-esteem can “raise the filter”; lastly, the level of anxiety must be low, as a debilitating anxiety can contribute to form a mental block which prevents the input from being acquired. OnDAs – Sara Gelmetti Stanford University Language Center

25 Presentational Writing in Second-Year Programs
Entrance Level of Students Preparation for major/minor, WIM courses, courses in other academic disciplines Exit Objectives Written communication for increasingly formal settings Make Connections to areas of academic interest Presentational Writing – Kenric Tsethlikai Stanford University Language Center

26 Targets for Presentational Writing
Level Models Characteristics Presentational Writing – Kenric Tsethlikai Stanford University Language Center

27 Interpretive to Presentational
Targets for Interpretive Skills in Second-Year Language Instruction  Practice and gain greater control over interpretive tasks of previous quarter  1st Quarter 2nd Quarter 3rd Quarter + Summarize the main and supporting ideas in expository prose, such as: informal correspondence, literary excerpts, short stories, book and film reviews, newspaper and magazine articles and editorials + Synthesize ideas in formal correspondence, essays and critical articles; develop a more complete understanding, beyond main ideas + Analyze ideas in essays and critical articles, short stories and novels, in addition to texts similar to the previous quarter + Justify personal interpretations of texts by citing textual evidence Targets for Presentational Writing in Second-Year Language Instruction  Practice and gain greater control over advanced-level presentational writing tasks  + Write expository prose with good control of high frequency structures and appropriate vocabulary in critical summaries, descriptions and narrations (3-5 page essays) + Demonstrate increasing control of advanced-level writing with increasing accuracy and breadth in descriptions, narrations and syntheses of readings (5-6 page essays) + Write on a researched topic (with cited sources) that demonstrates strong control of high frequency structures with clear evidence of tone, register and stance (8-10 page essay) + Express personal reactions to literary excerpts, short stories, book and film reviews, newspaper and magazine articles and editorials, by citing and describing main and supporting ideas in texts + Demonstrate critical thinking and analysis in argumentative /persuasive essay with clear structure (e.g. thesis/anti-thesis/synthesis/hypothesis) + Demonstrate critical thinking and analysis with use of cohesive devices and greater lexical sophistication in literary analyses as well as abstract topics such as globalization, immigration and community service + State position and opinions + Support opinions and positions through citations and examples Develop tone and stance in appropriate register + Support opinions through hypothetical outcomes about abstract issues + Actively incorporate new structures and appropriate vocabulary + Use more accurate and structures and idiomatic expressions + Use more specialized vocabulary and idiomatic expressions + Continue writing functional-based messages for likely situations in a study abroad program + Engage in correspondence for formal contexts (i.e. requesting information about an internship in a francophone country) + Continue writing formal correspondence for requests and inquiries Presentational Writing – Kenric Tsethlikai Stanford University Language Center

28 Learning Goals: Writing-as-Process
Cultivate attention to register, style and cohesion Develop socio-cultural awareness and appropriateness Highlight conventions for appropriate citations and bibliography Prepare Students for Academic and Professional Writing Needs Presentational Writing – Kenric Tsethlikai Stanford University Language Center

29 Stanford University Language Center
Future Directions Assessment Rubric for Presentational Writing Presentational Writing – Kenric Tsethlikai Stanford University Language Center

30 Stanford University Language Center
Thank You! Philosophy An invitation Please us Please visit us Open for questions Stanford University Language Center


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