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Global Positioning System

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Department of Defense developed for navigation Standard positioning service (public uses) Precise positioning service Launches began in 1970s Full operational capability in mid 1990s ‘Selective Availability’ turned off 2000 Degraded accuracy to ~100m

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Space segment – (satellite life = 10 years) Several generations of satellites in use now Control segment User segment US spends $400,000,000 yearly Free to you – tax dollars at work again Other countries operate their own systems too

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24 satellites with spares in 6 orbital planes (4 in each) ~12,500 miles elevation 55 degree inclination Each one circles Earth every 12 hours (7000 mph) At least 4 visible at every point on the earth at all times

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Master Control Station (MCS) in Colorado 5 Monitoring stations Ground control stations (Ground Antennas) Unmanned Enable MCS to control the satellites

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Antenna Receiver Base map Record tracks, waypoints, distance

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Triangulation Triangulation Need D+1 satellites to determine position = 2D needs 3 satellites, etc

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Dual frequency mode of more advanced receivers corrects

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Geometric Dilution of Precision (GDOP) – the higher the value, the poorer the measurement (very good = 6)

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HDOP VDOP PDOP The geometry of the satellite constellation can affect the accuracy of the GPS positions. DOP is an indicator of quality of the constellation at any given time. Lower the DOP, the better the geometry of the constellation and the more accurate the GPS positions.

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Recreation grade = ~8m Mapping grade = <1m Survey grade = several cm Accuracy versus Precision Accurate measurement versus true location Precise measurements close to each other

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Most GPS in cell phones do not use satellites. They triangulate via cell towers whose locations are precisely known. The signal is not line-of-sight so they can work indoors. Does not work where limited cell service exists (like many forests). Accuracy varies (< 10 m to ~100 m).

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Geodetic surveying (magnetic) (Benchmarks)

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Declination Calculating Software Declination Calculating Software Online Calculators Online Calculators

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A datum defines an ellipsoid (a three-dimensional ellipse), which is the currently accepted `best fit' for the overall shape of the Earth. When an ellipsoid is fixed at a particular orientation and position with respect to the Earth, it constitutes a so-called `Geodetic Datum'. In other words, a datum describes the model (including the size and shape of the earth as well as the origin and orientation of the coordinate system) that was used to match the location of features on the ground to coordinates and locations on the map. WGS 84, NAD27, and NAD83 are examples of Horizontal Datum. NAV88 is an example of Vertical Datum.

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Define the size and shape of the earth Used as basis for coordinate systems Variety of models: Flat earth Spherical Ellipsoidal WGS 84 defines geoid heights for the entire earth

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Because coordinate systems were designed for detailed calculations and positioning, they are usually divided into different zones to preserve accuracy. The boundaries of UTM zones follow lines of latitude and longitude while State Plane zones generally follow political boundaries.

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The Earth is divided into 60 UTM Zones following lines of Longitude. The continental US is covered by Zones 10 – 19 with each zone representing 6 degrees of longitude.

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Generally, the boundaries between state plane zones follow county lines. Depending on its size each state is represented by anywhere from one to ten zones.

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Latitude/Longitude Lambert Conformal Conic UTM/State Plane

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Geographic Coordinate Systems (based on Datums) Latitude, Longitude of curved surface Projections make math easier Projected Coordinate Systems Cartesian (X, Y) with designated origin and distance from origin

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Datum used effects positional errors

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UTM is still not accurate enough for small area surveying. During 1930s, each US state adopt its own projection and coordinate system, generally known as State Plane Coordinates (SPC). Each state chose its own projection based on its shape to minimize distortion over the area of the state. Some states have more than one internal zone. The North American Datum 1983 (NAD83) is commonly used for SPC.

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