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Neuroanatomy of Cranial Nerves. CNS Brain and Spinal Cord Information processing/Interneurons Sensory/Afferent General Sensory (Somatic and Visceral)

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Presentation on theme: "Neuroanatomy of Cranial Nerves. CNS Brain and Spinal Cord Information processing/Interneurons Sensory/Afferent General Sensory (Somatic and Visceral)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Neuroanatomy of Cranial Nerves

2 CNS Brain and Spinal Cord Information processing/Interneurons Sensory/Afferent General Sensory (Somatic and Visceral) Special Sensory RECEPTORS Motor/Efferent Somatic Motor Visceral Motor (ANS) PNS Nerves EFFECTORS Overview

3 Functional Components of Nerves General sensory –Somatic sensory (GSA) –Visceral sensory (GVA) Special sensory (SSA, SVA) Somatic motor (GSE) –Branchial motor (SVE) to skeletal muscles derived from branchial arches –Somatic motor (GSE) to skeletal muscles derived from other sources Visceral motor (GVE) to smooth muscle and glands

4 Cranial Nerves Carry 1-4 functional components –General sensory –Special sensory –Somatic motor –Visceral motor

5 What to Know About Cranial Nerves Name and Number Origin from brain Functional components Location of cell bodies –Nucleus –Ganglion Foramen of exit from cranial cavity Distribution: branches, targets, and functions Testing and lesions

6 Cell Bodies of Cranial Nerves General sensory neurons – in a sensory ganglion (no synapses, pseudounipolar) Special sensory neurons – in a sensory ganglion or in the sensory organ Somatic motor neurons – in a nucleus Visceral motor neurons– –Preganglionic – in a nucleus –Postganglionic – in an autonomic ganglion (synapses)

7 General Sensory Pathways Neurons –Primary/peripheral –Secondary –Tertiary (cell body in thalamus) L 1-23

8 Voluntary Motor Pathway AKA Pyramidal system Upper motor neurons Lower motor neurons L Fig 1-23

9 I Olfactory II Optic III Oculomotor IV Trochlear V Trigeminal VI Abducens VII Facial VIII Vestibulocochlear IX Glossopharyngeal X Vagus XI Spinal accessory XII Hypoglossal

10 Special Sensory CN I – Olfactory (olfaction) CN II – Optic (vision) CN VIII – Vestibulocochlear (hearing, equilibrium) CNs VII, IX, X - taste

11 General Sensory CN V – Trigeminal –V 1 –V 2 –V 3 –Sensory neuron cell bodies in trigeminal ganglion Other cranial nerves with general sensory fibers – CNs VII, IX, and X

12 Somatic Motor CNs III, IV and VI ocular muscles CN XI SCM and trapezius CN XII tongue muscles CN V 3 (arch I) muscles of mastication, etc. CN VII (arch II) ms of facial expression, etc. CN IX (arch III) stylopharyngeus CN X (arches IV, VI) ms of soft palate, pharynx, and larynx

13 Visceral Motor (Parasympathetic) CNs III, VII, IX, X Ganglia: Targets: Postganglionic parasympathetics tend to follow branches of the trigeminal nerve. L 1-25

14 Sympathetics to the Head Origin: Ganglia: Targets: Postganglionic sympathetics follow branches of carotid arteries (in a perivascular plexus) L 1-26

15 CNs Carrying All Four Functional Components CN VII CN IX CN X

16 Branches of Cranial Nerves May Serve Different Functions V3V3 Netter Plate 42

17 References Regional anatomy – Liebgott Chapter 7 Systemic anatomy – Liebgott Chapter 8 Images – Netter Plates


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