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ZIMBABWE STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE

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1 ZIMBABWE STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE
BY Mabasa Temba HAWADI DIRECTOR, ZIMBABWE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY MINISTRY OF MINES AND MINING DEVELOPMENT ZIMBABWE

2 CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION 2. EXPLORATION 3. LICENSING 4. CONCLUSION
6th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE

3 1. INTRODUCTION 6th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE

4 1. INTRODUCTION Location of ZIMBABWE
6th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE

5 COUNTRY PROFILE TOTAL AREA 390 757 Square Kilometers 1. INTRODUCTION
LAND SIZE Square kilometers WATER AREA 4 087 Square Kilometers CAPITAL CITY HARARE MAJOR LANGUAGES English, Shona, Ndebele [16 Official languages] CURRENCY Multicurrency System CLIMATE Subtropical Climate. Rain season from November to March POPULATION 13 Million 6th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE

6 ECONOMY Zimbabwe is well endowed with significant quantities of
1. INTRODUCTION ECONOMY Zimbabwe is well endowed with significant quantities of MINERAL AGRICULTURAL and HUMAN resources. MINING IS A LEADER IN THE ECONOMIC DRIVERS THAT INCLUDE AGRICULTURE AND MANUFACTURING . 6th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE

7 Zimbabwe has a long history of mineral exploration and mining
1. INTRODUCTION Zimbabwe has a long history of mineral exploration and mining The Geological environment spanning more than 3000 Ma is highly conducive to mineral occurrence There are more than 60 different minerals of which about 40 have been mined at one time or another Colonization by Europeans in 1890 was a direct result of perceived mineral riches Full mineral potential has not yet been fully realized 6th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE

8 index of mapping 2. EXPLORATION INDEX of detailed geological mapping
About % of the country has been mapped in detail. Each block has a 1: map & a descriptive text called Bulletin or Short Report all available at the Geological Survey Department 6th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE

9 2. EXPLORATION GEOLOGICAL MAPPING 1 : 100 000 map
6th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE

10 GEOPHYSICAL MAPPING 2. EXPLORATION Gravity
that shows rock density contrasts Ground stations from 1 per km2 to one per 100 km2 6th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE

11 GEOPHYSICAL MAPPING 2. EXPLORATION Aero-Magnetics At height of 300 m
Line spacing of 1 km 6th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE

12 REGIONAL AEROMAG MAPPING
2. EXPLORATION REGIONAL AEROMAG MAPPING 6th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE

13 OUTLINE OF GEOLOGY 1 : 1 000 000 map 2. EXPLORATION
6th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE

14 2. EXPLORATION 6th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE

15 2. EXPLORATION HYROCARBONS a HYDROCARBON is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.[ The majority of hydrocarbons found on earth naturally occur in crude oil, where decomposed organic matter provides an abundance of carbon and hydrogen Hydrocarbons are a primary energy source for current civilizations. The predominant use of hydrocarbons is as a combustible fuel source. In their solid form, hydrocarbons take the form of asphalt (bitumen) 6th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE

16 CRUDE OIL 2. EXPLORATION A barrel of oil contains 42 gallons.
© Department of Energy 6th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE

17 Karoo (150-300 million years),
2. EXPLORATION All known hydrocarbon occurrences in the world occur in sedimentary basins younger than 300 million years. There are three sedimentary basins younger than this age in Zimbabwe. These are the: Karoo ( million years), Cretaceous basins ( million years), Kalahari basin (4-50 million years). The Karoo and the Cretaceous basins have received much interest in respect of potential for hydrocarbons at different stages in the history of this country. 6th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE

18 2. EXPLORATION The oil we drill today began forming hundreds of millions of years ago. Source: NASA 6th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE

19 2. EXPLORATION There is everlasting need of energy demand in the
light of prosperity and industrialism. The oil and gas follows a Petroleum System where the oil is generated from organic matter, migrates to the structure where is trapped inside a reservoir. 6th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE

20 2. EXPLORATION Areas thought to contain hydrocarbons are initially subjected to a gravity survey, magnetic survey, seismic reflection surveys to detect large-scale features of the sub-surface geology 6th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE

21 2. EXPLORATION 6th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE

22 2. EXPLORATION SAVE-LIMPOPO BASINS Following the late 1940s publication of a Geological Survey Bulletin describing some coalfields in the southern part of the country, several companies acquired Exclusive Prospecting Orders (EPOs) to carry out exploration for the coal. EPOs 25, 30, 50, 112, 228, 393 and 492 gave exploration companies the rights to explore for hydrocarbons in addition to coal in the Save-Limpopo basin. However no reports of oil and gas encounters were reported although there were several drill holes sunk to explore for coal. 6th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE

23 PROJECT X, GONAREZHOU NATIONAL PARK
2. MINERAL RESOURCES PROJECT X, GONAREZHOU NATIONAL PARK Following the imposition of economic sanctions on the Rhodesian government by the United Nations, the government embarked on a secret oil exploration programme code named Project X in the Cretaceous sediments of the Gonarezhou National Park from 1967 to The Geological Survey was tasked to carry out the surveys. Five hundred samples were collected for biochemical analysis, which purportedly indicated the presence of hydrocarbon micro-seeps in six areas. Of the six suspected seepages, one was considered to be positive. Following this, gravity, radiometric and seismic surveys were conducted. The seismic surveys indicated that the basin was neither folded nor faulted, which precluded the possibility of oil traps. However the seismic profiles indicated an undefined rock formation at the bottom of the Cretaceous basin. Drilling was recommended. A 1 100m hole was drilled to below the Cretaceous. Information from the drill hole was destroyed, although data available indicates that the results were considered insufficiently encouraging, and the project was abandoned. 6th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE

24 BENDEZI FOREST PROSPECT
2. EXPLORATION BENDEZI FOREST PROSPECT The Bendezi Forest area in Nyamandlovu was investigated for hydrocarbons following prognostications by a Mr. A. Hill. A drilling site was selected where presence of oil beneath the ground was forecast. An area of ha was reserved under S.G. 555 in 1974 for the purpose of prospecting for hydrocarbons. Despite advice on the unlikelihood of oil being found in the area, at least in economic quantities, the company commenced drilling in No oil was discovered. 6th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE

25 ZAMBEZI VALLEY MOBIL EXPLORATION
After realization that the thickness of the Zambezi basin could be attractive for hydrocarbon occurrences, Mobil Exploration acquired a licence over an area of km2 to explore for hydrocarbons from 1989 to 1993. The work included aeromagnetic, gravity and seismic surveys combined with field geology and extensive laboratory work 6th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE

26 2. EXPLORATION SPECIAL GRANT 1100
6th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE

27 2. EXPLORATION MOBIL WORK GENERATED A WEALTH OF INFORMATION FROM:
AEROMAGNETIC SURVEY BY KENTING REGIONAL GRAVITY SURVEY (1 099 STATIONS) SEISMIC RECONNAISSANCE SURVEYS – LINE KM GEOLOGICAL FIELD DATA TECTONIC AND STRATIGRAPHIC LANDSAT INTERPRETATION LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS 6th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE

28 2. EXPLORATION Evaluating the data, Mobil concluded that the region could be characterised as high-risk, gas prone. The company sought to extend its licence to enable test drilling, but attempted without success to attract partners for sharing the risk. Mobil Exploration relinquished the licence without conducting any drilling. 6th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE

29 2. EXPLORATION The Ministry of Mines sought the assistance of a specialist on hydrocarbons to advise on the significance of the Mobil exploration data. The expert who was seconded by the Germany Geological Survey (BGR) analysed Mobil data and carried out extensive field surveys including geochemical sampling of potential source rocks and interpretations. The expert also concluded that the region is high risk gas prone. 6th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE

30 2. EXPLORATION Within the surveyed area, the eastern part of the Zambezi basin was considered to have the highest potential. The basin reaches a thickness of 10.6 km in the Cabora Bassa Basin. The area was considered to have a capacity 226 x 109 m3 recoverable gas and 95.4 x 106 m3 recoverable condensate. In total, a conservative estimate of 614 x 109 m3 of recoverable gas was given for the whole of the Zambezi Basin. 6th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE

31 2. EXPLORATION MOBIL EXPLORATION DATA HARD COPY DIGITAL ON TAPES
6th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE

32 2. EXPLORATION Coalbed methane (CBM or coal-bed methane), coalbed gas, coal seam gas (CSG), or coal-mine methane (CMM) is a form of natural gas extracted from coal beds. 6th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE

33 COAL BED METHANE GAS (CBM)
2. EXPLORATION COAL BED METHANE GAS (CBM) The term refers to methane adsorbed into the solid matrix of the coal. The presence of this gas is well known from its occurrence in underground coal mining, where it presents a serious safety risk. Coal bed methane is distinct from a typical sandstone or other conventional gas reservoir, as the methane is stored within the coal by a process called adsorption. 6th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE

34 COAL BED METHANE GAS (CBM)
2. EXPLORATION COAL BED METHANE GAS (CBM) Zimbabwe has a huge resource of untapped CBM gas in the Hwange, Lupane and Gwayi areas. Over the years drilling and desorption tests have been conducted and resources that run into trillions of cubic feet have been discovered. The coals have proved to have good permeability which simply means that the gas is released without the need to induce it (Fracking). 6th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE

35 2. EXPLORATION 6th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE

36 Financial Status of the applicant
3. LICENSING Exploration, Development and Production of all energy minerals including Coal and CBM resources is administered under Part XX of the Mines and Minerals Act (Chapter 21:05). The law stipulates the information to be included in an application for a special grant such as: Financial Status of the applicant Technical Capacity to conduct exploration Work Programme The full names and directors of the company and the full names by which those directors have at any time been known in any part of the world. The issuing authority is the President who may refuse the application or authorize the Minister responsible for Mines to issue a special grant on such terms and conditions as he may fix. 6th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE

37 3. LICENSING The rights granted under a special grant shall be personal to the grantee, who may not cede or assign any such rights to any other person unless authorized to do so by the President. The President may, on application by a grantee, extend or reduce the area covered by his special grant or may alter the boundaries thereof. If the grantee contravenes the terms and conditions attached to his grant, the President may cancel such grant. However, a twelve months written cancellation notice is issued before such cancellation. 6th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE

38 3. LICENSING 6th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE

39 3. LICENSING 6th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE

40 THANK YOU TATENDA SIYABONGA
4. CONCLUSION NOW IS THE RIGHT TIME TO COME AND CONDUCT HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE THANK YOU TATENDA SIYABONGA 6th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE


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