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1 BY Mabasa Temba HAWADI DIRECTOR, ZIMBABWE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY MINISTRY OF MINES AND MINING DEVELOPMENT ZIMBABWE.

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Presentation on theme: "1 BY Mabasa Temba HAWADI DIRECTOR, ZIMBABWE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY MINISTRY OF MINES AND MINING DEVELOPMENT ZIMBABWE."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 BY Mabasa Temba HAWADI DIRECTOR, ZIMBABWE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY MINISTRY OF MINES AND MINING DEVELOPMENT ZIMBABWE

2 2 1. INTRODUCTION 2. EXPLORATION CONTENTS 4. CONCLUSION 3. LICENSING 6 th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE

3 3 1. INTRODUCTION 6 th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE

4 4 1. INTRODUCTION Location of ZIMBABWE 6 th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE

5 5 1. INTRODUCTION TOTAL AREA Square Kilometers LAND SIZE Square kilometers WATER AREA4 087 Square Kilometers CAPITAL CITYHARARE MAJOR LANGUAGESEnglish, Shona, Ndebele [16 Official languages] CURRENCYMulticurrency System CLIMATESubtropical Climate. Rain season from November to March POPULATION13 Million 6 th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE

6 6 1. INTRODUCTION ECONOMY Zimbabwe is well endowed with significant quantities of MINERAL AGRICULTURAL and HUMAN resources. MINING IS A LEADER IN THE ECONOMIC DRIVERS THAT INCLUDE AGRICULTURE AND MANUFACTURING. 6 th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE

7 7 1. INTRODUCTION  Zimbabwe has a long history of mineral exploration and mining  The Geological environment spanning more than 3000 Ma is highly conducive to mineral occurrence  There are more than 60 different minerals of which about 40 have been mined at one time or another  Colonization by Europeans in 1890 was a direct result of perceived mineral riches  Full mineral potential has not yet been fully realized 6 th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE

8 8 2. EXPLORATION INDEX of detailed geological mapping About % of the country has been mapped in detail. Each block has a 1: map & a descriptive text called Bulletin or Short Report all available at the Geological Survey Department index of mapping 6 th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE

9 9 2. EXPLORATION 6 th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE GEOLOGICAL MAPPING 1 : map

10 10 2. EXPLORATION 6 th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE GEOPHYSICAL MAPPING Gravity that shows rock density contrasts Ground stations from 1 per km 2 to one per 100 km 2

11 11 2. EXPLORATION 6 th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE GEOPHYSICAL MAPPING Aero-Magnetics At height of 300 m Line spacing of 1 km

12 12 2. EXPLORATION 6 th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE REGIONAL AEROMAG MAPPING

13 13 2. EXPLORATION OUTLINE OF GEOLOGY 1 : map 6 th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE

14 14 2. EXPLORATION 6 th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE

15 15 2. EXPLORATION HYROCARBONS a HYDROCARBON is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon. [ [ The majority of hydrocarbons found on earth naturally occur in crude oil, where decomposed organic matter provides an abundance of carbon and hydrogen Hydrocarbons are a primary energy source for current civilizations. The predominant use of hydrocarbons is as a combustible fuel source. In their solid form, hydrocarbons take the form of asphalt (bitumen) 6 th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE

16 2. EXPLORATION CRUDE OIL A barrel of oil contains 42 gallons. © Department of Energy 6 th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE

17 17 2. EXPLORATION All known hydrocarbon occurrences in the world occur in sedimentary basins younger than 300 million years. There are three sedimentary basins younger than this age in Zimbabwe. These are the:  Karoo ( million years),  Cretaceous basins ( million years),  Kalahari basin (4-50 million years). The Karoo and the Cretaceous basins have received much interest in respect of potential for hydrocarbons at different stages in the history of this country. 6 th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE

18 18 2. EXPLORATION The oil we drill today began forming hundreds of millions of years ago. Source: NASANASA 6 th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE

19 19 2. EXPLORATION There is everlasting need of energy demand in the light of prosperity and industrialism. The oil and gas follows a Petroleum System where the oil is generated from organic matter, migrates to the structure where is trapped inside a reservoir. 6 th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE

20 20 2. EXPLORATION Areas thought to contain hydrocarbons are initially subjected to a gravity survey, magnetic survey, seismic reflection surveys to detect large-scale features of the sub- surface geology 6 th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE

21 21 2. EXPLORATION 6 th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE

22 22 2. EXPLORATION SAVE-LIMPOPO BASINS Following the late 1940s publication of a Geological Survey Bulletin describing some coalfields in the southern part of the country, several companies acquired Exclusive Prospecting Orders (EPOs) to carry out exploration for the coal. EPOs 25, 30, 50, 112, 228, 393 and 492 gave exploration companies the rights to explore for hydrocarbons in addition to coal in the Save-Limpopo basin. However no reports of oil and gas encounters were reported although there were several drill holes sunk to explore for coal. 6 th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE

23 23 2. MINERAL RESOURCES PROJECT X, GONAREZHOU NATIONAL PARK Following the imposition of economic sanctions on the Rhodesian government by the United Nations, the government embarked on a secret oil exploration programme code named Project X in the Cretaceous sediments of the Gonarezhou National Park from 1967 to The Geological Survey was tasked to carry out the surveys. Five hundred samples were collected for biochemical analysis, which purportedly indicated the presence of hydrocarbon micro-seeps in six areas. Of the six suspected seepages, one was considered to be positive. Following this, gravity, radiometric and seismic surveys were conducted. The seismic surveys indicated that the basin was neither folded nor faulted, which precluded the possibility of oil traps. However the seismic profiles indicated an undefined rock formation at the bottom of the Cretaceous basin. Drilling was recommended. A 1 100m hole was drilled to below the Cretaceous. Information from the drill hole was destroyed, although data available indicates that the results were considered insufficiently encouraging, and the project was abandoned. 6 th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE

24 24 2. EXPLORATION BENDEZI FOREST PROSPECT The Bendezi Forest area in Nyamandlovu was investigated for hydrocarbons following prognostications by a Mr. A. Hill. A drilling site was selected where presence of oil beneath the ground was forecast. An area of ha was reserved under S.G. 555 in 1974 for the purpose of prospecting for hydrocarbons. Despite advice on the unlikelihood of oil being found in the area, at least in economic quantities, the company commenced drilling in No oil was discovered. 6 th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE

25 25 2. EXPLORATION ZAMBEZI VALLEY MOBIL EXPLORATION After realization that the thickness of the Zambezi basin could be attractive for hydrocarbon occurrences, Mobil Exploration acquired a licence over an area of km 2 to explore for hydrocarbons from 1989 to The work included aeromagnetic, gravity and seismic surveys combined with field geology and extensive laboratory work 6 th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE

26 26 2. EXPLORATION 6 th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE SPECIAL GRANT 1100

27 27 2. EXPLORATION 6 th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE AEROMAGNETIC SURVEY BY KENTING REGIONAL GRAVITY SURVEY (1 099 STATIONS) SEISMIC RECONNAISSANCE SURVEYS – LINE KM GEOLOGICAL FIELD DATA TECTONIC AND STRATIGRAPHIC LANDSAT INTERPRETATION LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS MOBIL WORK GENERATED A WEALTH OF INFORMATION FROM:

28 28 2. EXPLORATION 6 th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE Evaluating the data, Mobil concluded that the region could be characterised as high-risk, gas prone. The company sought to extend its licence to enable test drilling, but attempted without success to attract partners for sharing the risk. Mobil Exploration relinquished the licence without conducting any drilling.

29 29 2. EXPLORATION 6 th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE The Ministry of Mines sought the assistance of a specialist on hydrocarbons to advise on the significance of the Mobil exploration data. The expert who was seconded by the Germany Geological Survey (BGR) analysed Mobil data and carried out extensive field surveys including geochemical sampling of potential source rocks and interpretations. The expert also concluded that the region is high risk gas prone.

30 30 2. EXPLORATION 6 th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE Within the surveyed area, the eastern part of the Zambezi basin was considered to have the highest potential. The basin reaches a thickness of 10.6 km in the Cabora Bassa Basin. The area was considered to have a capacity 226 x 10 9 m 3 recoverable gas and 95.4 x 10 6 m 3 recoverable condensate. In total, a conservative estimate of 614 x 10 9 m 3 of recoverable gas was given for the whole of the Zambezi Basin.

31 31 2. EXPLORATION 6 th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE MOBIL EXPLORATION DATA  HARD COPY  DIGITAL ON TAPES

32 32 2. EXPLORATION Coalbed methane (CBM or coal-bed methane), coalbed gas, coal seam gas (CSG), or coal-mine methane (CMM) is a form of natural gas extracted from coal beds. 6 th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE

33 2. EXPLORATION COAL BED METHANE GAS (CBM) The term refers to methane adsorbed into the solid matrix of the coal. The presence of this gas is well known from its occurrence in underground coal mining, where it presents a serious safety risk. Coal bed methane is distinct from a typical sandstone or other conventional gas reservoir, as the methane is stored within the coal by a process called adsorption. 6 th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE

34 34 2. EXPLORATION Zimbabwe has a huge resource of untapped CBM gas in the Hwange, Lupane and Gwayi areas. Over the years drilling and desorption tests have been conducted and resources that run into trillions of cubic feet have been discovered. The coals have proved to have good permeability which simply means that the gas is released without the need to induce it (Fracking). COAL BED METHANE GAS (CBM) 6 th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE

35 35 2. EXPLORATION 6 th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE

36 36 Exploration, Development and Production of all energy minerals including Coal and CBM resources is administered under Part XX of the Mines and Minerals Act (Chapter 21:05). The law stipulates the information to be included in an application for a special grant such as:  Financial Status of the applicant  Technical Capacity to conduct exploration  Work Programme  The full names and directors of the company and the full names by which those directors have at any time been known in any part of the world. The issuing authority is the President who may refuse the application or authorize the Minister responsible for Mines to issue a special grant on such terms and conditions as he may fix. 3. LICENSING 6 th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE

37 37  The rights granted under a special grant shall be personal to the grantee, who may not cede or assign any such rights to any other person unless authorized to do so by the President.  The President may, on application by a grantee, extend or reduce the area covered by his special grant or may alter the boundaries thereof.  If the grantee contravenes the terms and conditions attached to his grant, the President may cancel such grant. However, a twelve months written cancellation notice is issued before such cancellation. 3. LICENSING 6 th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE

38 38 3. LICENSING 6 th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE

39 39 3. LICENSING 6 th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE

40 40 4. CONCLUSION NOW IS THE RIGHT TIME TO COME AND CONDUCT HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE 6 th ZIMBABWE MINING & INFRASTRUCTURE INDABA 2014: STATUS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION IN ZIMBABWE THANK YOU TATENDA SIYABONGA


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