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**Molecular Composition of Gases**

Chapter 12 Molecular Composition of Gases

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Molar Volume of a Gas One mole of a gas has the same volume at STP as any other gas 22.4 L / mole at STP

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Practice Problem What volume would mol of oxygen gas occupy at STP? What about mol of nitrogen gas at STP?

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**Ideal Gas Law PV = nRT n = Number of Moles R = Ideal Gas Constant**

L . atm/ mol . K V = Volume (must be in liters) P = Pressure (must be in atmospheres) T = Temperature (must be in Kelvin)

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Practice Problem What is the P (in atm) exerted by a mol sample of nitrogen gas in a 10.0 L container at 298 K? PV = nRT rearranges to P= nRT/ V (0.500 mol)( L .atm/mol .K)(298K) 10.0 L Pressure = atm

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**Gas Stoichiometry Uses volume-volume calculations (e.g. L L)**

Liters can be used just like mole to mole ratios in a factor label problem

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**C3H8(g) + 5O2(g) 3CO2(g) + 4H2O(g)**

Practice Problem How many L of oxygen are required for the complete combustion of L of propane? C3H8(g) + 5O2(g) 3CO2(g) + 4H2O(g) Ratio: 5 L O2 makes 1 L C3H8 0.250 L C3H8 x 5 L O2 1 L C3H8 = 1.25 L O2

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**CaCO3(s) CaO(s) + CO2(g)**

Practice Problem How many grams of calcium carbonate must be decomposed to produce 2.00 L of CO2 at STP? CaCO3(s) CaO(s) + CO2(g) 2.00 L CO2 x 1 mol CO2 x 1 mol CaCO3 22.4 L CO mol CO2 x g CaCO3 1 mol CaCO3 8.94 g CaCO3

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Graham’s Law Diffusion Effusion

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**Graham’s Law of Effusion or Diffusion**

The rate of effusion or diffusion is inversely proportional to the square roots of their molar masses Rate A = MB Rate B MA

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Practice Problem Compare the rate of effusion of hydrogen and nitrogen gas rate H2 = = = 3.7 rate N Hydrogen effuses 3.7 times faster than nitrogen

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Gas Laws and Gas Stoichiometry. Kinetic –Molecular Theory Particles of matter (solid, liquid, or gas) are always in motion. This motion has consequences.

Gas Laws and Gas Stoichiometry. Kinetic –Molecular Theory Particles of matter (solid, liquid, or gas) are always in motion. This motion has consequences.

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