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Organizational Behavior, 8e Schermerhorn, Hunt, and Osborn Prepared by Michael K. McCuddy Valparaiso University John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Presentation on theme: "Organizational Behavior, 8e Schermerhorn, Hunt, and Osborn Prepared by Michael K. McCuddy Valparaiso University John Wiley & Sons, Inc."— Presentation transcript:

1 Organizational Behavior, 8e Schermerhorn, Hunt, and Osborn Prepared by Michael K. McCuddy Valparaiso University John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

2 Organizational Behavior: Chapter 52 COPYRIGHT Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in Section 117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the express written permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages, caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information contained herein.

3 Organizational Behavior: Chapter 53 Chapter 5 Perception and Attribution  Study questions. – What is the perceptual process? – What are common perceptual distortions? – How can the perceptual process be managed? – What is attribution theory?

4 Organizational Behavior: Chapter 54 What is the perceptual process?  Perception. – The process by which people select, organize, interpret, retrieve, and respond to information. – Perceptual information is gathered from: Sight. Hearing. Touch. Taste. Smell.

5 Organizational Behavior: Chapter 55 What is the perceptual process?  Factors influencing the perceptual process. – Characteristics of the perceiver. – Characteristics of the setting. – Characteristics of the perceived.

6 Organizational Behavior: Chapter 56 What is the perceptual process?  Characteristics of the perceiver. – The perceptual process is influenced by the perceiver’s: Past experiences. Needs or motives. Personality. Values and attitudes.

7 Organizational Behavior: Chapter 57 What is the perceptual process?  Characteristics of the setting. – The perceptual process is influenced by the setting’s: Physical context. Social context. Organizational context.

8 Organizational Behavior: Chapter 58 What is the perceptual process?  Characteristics of the perceived. – The perceptual process is influenced by characteristics of the perceived person, object, or event, such as: Contrast. Intensity. Figure-ground separation. Size. Motion. Repetition or novelty.

9 Organizational Behavior: Chapter 59 What is the perceptual process?  Stages of the perceptual process. – Information attention and selection. – Organization of information. – Information interpretation. – Information retrieval.

10 Organizational Behavior: Chapter 510 What is the perceptual process?  Information attention and selection. – Selective screening. Lets in only a tiny proportion all the information that bombards a person. – Two types of selective screening. Controlled processing. Screening without perceiver’s conscious awareness.

11 Organizational Behavior: Chapter 511 What is the perceptual process?  Organization of information. – Schemas. Cognitive frameworks that represent organized knowledge about a given concept or stimulus developed through experience. – Types of schemas. Self schemas. Person schemas. Script schemas. Person-in-situation schemas.

12 Organizational Behavior: Chapter 512 What is the perceptual process?  Information interpretation. – Uncovering the reasons behind the ways stimuli are grouped. – People may interpret the same information differently or make different attributions about information.

13 Organizational Behavior: Chapter 513 What is the perceptual process?  Information retrieval. – Attention and selection, organization, and interpretation are part of memory. – Information stored in memory must be retrieved in order to be used.

14 Organizational Behavior: Chapter 514 What is the perceptual process?  Response to the perceptual process. – Thoughts. – Feelings. – Actions.

15 Organizational Behavior: Chapter 515 What are common perceptual distortions?  Common perceptual distortions include: – Stereotypes or prototypes. – Halo effects. – Selective perception. – Projection. – Contrast effects. – Self-fulfilling prophecy.

16 Organizational Behavior: Chapter 516 What are common perceptual distortions?  Stereotypes or prototypes. – Combines information based on the category or class to which a person, situation, or object belongs. – Strong impact at the organization stage. – Individual differences are obscured.

17 Organizational Behavior: Chapter 517 What are common perceptual distortions?  Halo effects. – Occur when one attribute of a person or situation is used to develop an overall impression of the individual or situation. – Likely to occur in the organization stage. – Individual differences are obscured. – Important in the performance appraisal process.

18 Organizational Behavior: Chapter 518 What are common perceptual distortions?  Selective perception. – The tendency to single out those aspects of a situation, person, or object that are consistent with one’s needs, values, or attitudes. – Strongest impact is at the attention stage. – Perception checking with other persons can help counter the adverse impact of selective perception.

19 Organizational Behavior: Chapter 519 What are common perceptual distortions?  Projection. – The assignment of one’s personal attributes to other individuals. – Especially likely to occur in interpretation stage. – Projection can be controlled through a high degree of self-awareness and empathy.

20 Organizational Behavior: Chapter 520 What are common perceptual distortions?  Contrast effects. – Occur when an individual is compared to other people on the same characteristics on which the others rank higher or lower.

21 Organizational Behavior: Chapter 521 What are common perceptual distortions?  Self-fulfilling prophecy. – The tendency to create or find in another situation or individual that which one expected to find. – Also called the “Pygmalion effect.” – Can have either positive or negative outcomes. – Managers should adopt positive and optimistic approaches to people at work.

22 Organizational Behavior: Chapter 522 How can the perceptual process be managed?  Impression management. – A person’s systematic attempt to behave in ways that create and maintain desired impressions in others’ eyes. – Successful managers: Use impression management to enhance their own images. Are sensitive to other people’s use of impression management.

23 Organizational Behavior: Chapter 523 How can the perceptual process be managed?  Distortion management. – Managers should: Balance automatic and controlled information processing at the attention and selection stage. Broaden their schemas at the organizing stage. Be attuned to attributions at the interpretation stage.

24 Organizational Behavior: Chapter 524 What is attribution theory?  Attribution theory aids in perceptual interpretation by focusing on how people attempt to: – Understand the causes of a certain event. – Assess responsibility for the outcomes of the event. – Evaluate the personal qualities of the people involved in the event.

25 Organizational Behavior: Chapter 525 What is attribution theory?  Internal versus external attributions of causes of behavior. – Internal causes are under the individual’s control. – External causes are within the person’s environment.

26 Organizational Behavior: Chapter 526 What is attribution theory?  Factors influencing internal and external attributions. – Distinctiveness — consistency of a person’s behavior across situations. – Consensus — likelihood of others responding in a similar way. – Consistency — whether an individual responds the same way across time.

27 Organizational Behavior: Chapter 527 What is attribution theory?  Fundamental attribution error. – Applies to the evaluation of someone’s else behavior. – Attributing success to the influence of situational factors. – Attributing failure to the influence of personal factors.

28 Organizational Behavior: Chapter 528 What is attribution theory?  Self-serving bias. – Applies to the evaluation of our own behavior. – Attributing success to the influence of personal factors. – Attributing failure to the influence of situational factors.

29 Organizational Behavior: Chapter 529 What is attribution theory?  Attributions across cultures. – The fundamental attribution error and self- serving bias operate differently in different cultures.


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