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The University of Sheffield Department of Civil and Structural Engineering Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University,

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Presentation on theme: "The University of Sheffield Department of Civil and Structural Engineering Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University,"— Presentation transcript:

1 The University of Sheffield Department of Civil and Structural Engineering Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October Bridge Engineering Research at The University of Sheffield Dr Paul Reynolds Vibration Engineering Section

2 Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October The Department of Civil and Structural Engineering 27 academics – 11 in structures Particular research strengths in –structures (dynamics, NFR, fire, computational mechanics) –concrete materials (durability, sustainability) –groundwater protection and restoration Areas of interest specific to bridge engineering –use of FRP composites in bridges –masonry arch bridges and parapets –vibration serviceability of footbridges

3 Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October The Centre for Cement and Concrete (CCC) Established 1993 Director: Professor Peter Waldron Academic Members: 17 Researchers: 48 Manager: Dr Kypros Pilakoutas

4 Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October Vibration Engineering Section VES was established by Prof. Peter Waldron in 1993 Currently managed by Drs Paul Reynolds and Aleksandar Pavic Expertise in vibration serviceability of civil engineering structures, including: –floors –sports stadia –footbridges

5 Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October London Millennium Bridge

6 Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October Vibration Serviceability of Footbridges VES has been engaged in footbridge VS research since 1993 London Millennium Bridge raised awareness of the problems –SLE is a relatively uncommon particular problem that needs to be fully understood –there are much more common issues that require further research

7 Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October Areas of Current Uncertainty SourcePathReceiver Pedestrian Excitation individual pedestrians small groups large crowds Vandal Loading Non-Pedestrian Excitation Modelling inclusion of non- structural components boundary conditions simplified methods? Designing in Damping the future? Acceptable Levels of Vibration stationary vs. moving Levels of Vibration to cause “lock-in” horizontal vertical Synchronous Lateral Excitation (SLE)

8 Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October VES Approach to VS Analytical ModellingDynamic Testing Finite Element Analysis (usually ANSYS) MATLAB simulations time domain simulations using convolution methods Monte-Carlo simulations to examine statistical models of human excitation Modal Testing using shaker excitation using natural/ambient excitation Vibration Response Measurements controlled pedestrians vandal loading Remote Monitoring FE model correlation MAC/COMAC etc. FE model updating FEMtools software LEARNING HOW TO MODEL BETTER FOOTBRIDGE DYNAMICS

9 Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October Shaker Modal Testing Aberfeldy Footbridge – Scotland

10 Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October Shaker Modal Testing Input Linear System Output controlled shaker excitation acceleration response measurement natural frequencies mode shapes modal damping ratios modal masses

11 Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October Shaker Modal Testing Lateral Modes f = 0.98 Hz ζ = 1.0 % f = 5.72 Hz ζ = 1.7 % f = 2.73 Hz ζ = 1.2 % f = 8.50 Hz ζ = 2.7 %

12 Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October Shaker Modal Testing Vertical Modes f = 1.52 Hz ζ = 0.4 % f = 2.49 Hz ζ = 0.7 % f = 1.86 Hz ζ = 0.70 % f = 3.01 Hz ζ = 0.8 %

13 Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October Shaker Modal Testing Torsional Modes f = 3.48 Hz ζ = 5.5 % f = 5.10 Hz ζ = 4.2 % f = 4.29 Hz ζ = 3.2 % f = 6.05 Hz ζ = 3.3 %

14 Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October Shaker Modal Testing of London Millennium Bridge

15 Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October Ambient Vibration Testing Royal Victoria Dock Bridge – London

16 Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October Ambient Vibration Testing f = 0.39 Hz ζ = 1.7 % f = 1.27 Hz ζ = 0.8 % f = 2.58 Hz ζ = 0.4 %

17 Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October Pedestrian Response Tests

18 Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October Areas of Current Uncertainty SourcePathReceiver Pedestrian Excitation individual pedestrians small groups large crowds Vandal Loading Non-Pedestrian Excitation Modelling inclusion of non- structural components boundary conditions simplified methods? Designing in Damping the future? Acceptable Levels of Vibration stationary vs. moving Levels of Vibration to cause “lock-in” horizontal vertical Synchronous Lateral Excitation (SLE) Areas for Future Research

19 Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October Durability High strength Low weight Driving Interests for FRP

20 Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October Chalgrove Footbridge (1995/96) Eurocrete – Case Studies

21 Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October Oslo Footbridge (1996/97) Eurocrete – Case Studies

22 Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October US Department of Transportation Sierrita de la Cruz Creek Bridge (2000)

23 Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October Flexure and Cracking Punching Shear Shear Bond Design Philosophy Plate Bonding Column Confinement RC EBR Shear Strengthening Research on FRP at Sheffield

24 Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October fib Task Group 9.3 Eurocrete Project (94-97) EU TMR ConFibreCrete Network (97-02) CurvedNFR CRAFT Eureka (03-05) Sheffield Involvement in FRP Research

25 Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October Required Bridge Research on FRP Demonstration/monitoring projects Design Guidelines Whole-life costing studies

26 Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October  Permanent Formwork Systems Steel decking Corrosion Fire protection Constant thickness One way spanning Need additional finishes Pre-cast concrete Heavy GRC Low stiffness (tensile stress↓) Small (1~2 m span) panels Omni-plank type Crack in tension zone during casting Permanent Formwork

27 Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October Drainage Tunnels Architectural Bridges Light self-weight Easy to create complicated shapes Good Durability of the cover Fast to install Corrosion protection to the steel reinforcement GRC Permanent Formwork

28 Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October Bridge Permanent Formwork Combination of new materials Development of integrated permanent formwork solutions Solve the problem of formwork connections Case studies Design guidelines

29 Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October Tyre Recycling Shredded Bending Tests Pyrolysed Research Work Bond Tests Cube Tests Design Rules Bridge Applications: Foundations Decks Steel Fibres Recycled from Waste Tyres

30 Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October Masonry parapet research EPSRC project (also involving Universities of Liverpool & Teesside) recently completed Concerned with: (i) fundamental behaviour; (ii) developing reinforcement strategies Key findings: –Typically failure via large-panel formation (resistance then due to inertia & base friction) –But very weakly mortared walls fail in loose block failure modes –Diagonal reinforcement effective (even when mortar bond v. weak) –Analysis tools now developed which can simulate behaviour in many cases

31 Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October Masonry parapet research: potential follow-on work Do bridge owners wish to support follow-on developments? 1.Transformation of mechanism analysis research software into usable tool for practitioners 2.Update CSS guidance note and BS to reflect our much improved understanding of how masonry parapet walls resist vehicle impacts

32 Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October Masonry parapet research: mechanism analysis software Method (published in Int. J. Impact Eng, 2002) identifies critical mechanism from a library of possible ones: Quick & easy to investigate the influence of different parameters

33 Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October Masonry parapet research: update to design codes Original numerical modelling work which underpinned CSS document and BS has now been significantly improved upon Also potential for inclusion of more guidance on reinforcement strategies

34 Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October Sophisticated masonry block modelling capabilitySophisticated masonry block modelling capability Simple uncoupled backfill interaction modelSimple uncoupled backfill interaction model 1 funded to date by Network Rail RING 1 : Masonry arch bridge analysis software

35 Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October Lateral earth pressures based on modified Rankine theory  h passive  h =K P  v Example modified distributions Current backfill interaction models

36 Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October Key Project Aims Development of RING to include fully coupled modelling of soil and masonry elements Develop optimised field investigation techniques for backfill characterisation Calibrate on field, model and laboratory tests: load and kinematic data Work sponsored by Essex County Council in collaboration with Mouchel Essex

37 Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October 2003.

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42 Image analysis provides soil displacement vectors

43 Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October Additional aims: Incorporate current geotechnical design code principles into assessment methodology Develop soil and masonry reinforcement modelling capability in RING with automatic optimisation (sponsored by EPSRC)

44 Presentation to the Joint Bridge Researchers’ and Owners’ Forum, Cambridge University, 27 October For more information … Dr Paul Reynolds –Tel: Web sites: –http://vibration.shef.ac.uk/http://vibration.shef.ac.uk/ –http://www.shef.ac.uk/civil/http://www.shef.ac.uk/civil/ This presentation will be posted at: –http://vibration.shef.ac.uk/presentations/bridgeforum/http://vibration.shef.ac.uk/presentations/bridgeforum/


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