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Chapter 13 Foundations of College Chemistry, 13e John Wiley & Sons, Inc Morris Hein and Susan Arena Properties of Liquids Liquid water provides the base.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 13 Foundations of College Chemistry, 13e John Wiley & Sons, Inc Morris Hein and Susan Arena Properties of Liquids Liquid water provides the base."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Chapter 13 Foundations of College Chemistry, 13e John Wiley & Sons, Inc Morris Hein and Susan Arena Properties of Liquids Liquid water provides the base for the recreation of windsurfing and also for our bodies., Water is a unique liquid on our blue planet.

3 Chapter Outline C Properties of Liquids Solutions Acids Bases Salts Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc What is a Liquid?What is a Liquid? 13.2 EvaporationEvaporation 13.3 Vapor PressureVapor Pressure 1/18/2014

4 What Is a Liquid? C Properties of Liquids Solutions Acids Bases Salts Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc 13-31/18/2014

5 Evaporation Evaporation or vaporization is the escape of molecules from the liquid state to the gas or vapor state. liquid vapor C Properties of Liquids Solutions Acids Bases Salts Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc 13-41/18/2014

6 Sublimation Sublimation is the phase change from the solid state to the gas or vapor state without going through the liquid state. solid vapor CO 2(s) CO 2(g) I 2(s) I 2(g) C Properties of Liquids Solutions Acids Bases Salts Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc 13-5 Iodine crystals 1/18/2014

7 Vapor Pressure In a closed container, an equilibrium develops where there are as many molecules evaporating as there are condensing. Vapor pressure is the pressure exerted by a vapor in equilibrium with its liquid. C Properties of Liquids Solutions Acids Bases Salts Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc 13-6 liquid vapor evaporation condensation 1/18/2014

8 Vapor Pressure Is independent of the quantity of the liquid or its surface area Increases with increasing temperature. Depends on the strength of the attraction between molecules in the liquid state. Volatile liquids have very weak attractive forces and so evaporate rapidly at room temperature. Volatile liquids have high vapor pressures at 25°C. C Properties of Liquids Solutions Acids Bases Salts Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc 13-71/18/2014

9 Vapor Pressure C Properties of Liquids Solutions Acids Bases Salts Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc 13-81/18/2014

10 Your Turn! The vapor pressure of diethyl ether was 318 mm Hg while the vapor pressure of ethyl alcohol was 44 mm Hg. Which substance has stronger attractive forces between molecules? a.diethyl ether b.ethyl alcohol C Properties of Liquids Solutions Acids Bases Salts Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc 13-91/18/2014

11 Your Turn! In a system at equilibrium between the liquid and gas phases a. Particles stop changing phase b.The rate at which particles change from liquid to gas exceeds the rate at which they change from gas to liquid. c.The rate at which particles change from gas to liquid equals the rate at which they change from liquid to gas. C Properties of Liquids Solutions Acids Bases Salts Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc /18/2014

12 Your Turn! Which has the lowest vapor pressure? a.100 mL of gasoline at 15°C b.25 mL of gasoline at 50°C c.50 mL of gasoline at 50°C d.25 mL of gasoline at 70°C C Properties of Liquids Solutions Acids Bases Salts Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc /18/2014

13 Chapter 14 Foundations of College Chemistry, 13e John Wiley & Sons, Inc Morris Hein and Susan Arena Solutions Brass, a solid solution of zinc and copper, is used to make musical instruments and many other objects.

14 Chapter Outline C14 Solutions Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc General Properties of SolutionsGeneral Properties of Solutions 14.2 SolubilitySolubility 14.3 Factors Related to SolubilityFactors Related to Solubility 14.4 Rate of Dissolving SolidsRate of Dissolving Solids 14.5 Solutions: A Reaction MediumSolutions: A Reaction Medium 14.6 Concentration of SolutionsConcentration of Solutions 1/18/2014

15 General Properties of Solutions A solution is a homogeneous mixture of one or more solutes and the solvent. The solute is the substance being dissolved. The solvent is the dissolving agent and is usually the most abundant substance in the mixture. Air is a solution of N 2(g), O 2(g), Ar (g), CO 2(g)... What substance is the solvent in air? N 2(g), since 78% of air is N 2. C14 Solutions Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc /18/2014

16 Common Types of Solutions C14 Solutions Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc What gas is the solute in soft drinks?carbon dioxide What is another solute in soft drinks?sugar and flavorings 1/18/2014

17 Properties of a True Solution 1.A homogeneous mixture of 2 or more components whose ratio can be varied. 2.The dissolved solute is molecular or ionic in size (less than 1 nm). 3.Liquid or gaseous solutions can be colored or colorless and are usually transparent. 4.The solute will not settle out of the solution. 5.The solute can be separated from the solvent by physical means. C14 Solutions Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc /18/2014

18 Your Turn! Sweet tea is prepared by dissolving an instant tea packet in water. Which substance is the solvent? a.sugar b.tea c.water C14 Solutions Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc /18/2014

19 Your Turn! A solution of alcohol and water is prepared by adding 25 mL of water to 75 mL methyl alcohol. Which substance is the solute? a.methyl alcohol b.water C14 Solutions Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc /18/2014

20 Solubility Solubility describes the amount of a substance that will dissolve in a specified amount of solvent at a particular temperature. For example: 36 g NaCl/100 g H 2 O at 20°C Miscible is the term used if 2 liquids will dissolve in each other. Immiscible is used if the liquids will not dissolve in each other. C14 Solutions Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc /18/2014

21 Ionic Compound Solubility Rules NaCl soluble AgNO 3 soluble AgCl insoluble AgOH insoluble C14 Solutions Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc /18/2014

22 Your Turn! Use the ionic compound solubility rules to predict the solubility of barium sulfate. a.soluble b.insoluble C14 Solutions Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc /18/2014

23 Your Turn! Use the ionic compound solubility rules to predict the solubility of ammonium carbonate. a.soluble b.insoluble C14 Solutions Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc /18/2014

24 Factors Related to Solubility Like dissolves like Polar compounds dissolve in polar solvents, like water and alcohol (CH 3 CH 2 OH) – Acetone [(CH 3 ) 2 CO] dissolves in water because it has a net dipole on the O to C bond, making it polar. Nonpolar compounds dissolve in nonpolar solvents, like petroleum ether and CCl 4 – Hexane [CH 3 (CH 2 ) 4 CH 3 ] dissolves in petroleum ether because they are both nonpolar. C14 Solutions Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc /18/2014

25 Ionic Solubility Many ionic compounds dissolve in water because they form ion to dipole forces with water (a strong intermolecular force). The ions become surrounded by water (become hydrated). The cation is attracted to the partially negative O in water The anion is attracted to the partially positive H in water. C14 Solutions Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc /18/2014

26 Temperature and Solubility Most solids solubility increases with increasing temperature. (See red lines.) All gases solubility decreases with increasing temperature. (See blue lines.) C14 Solutions Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc /18/2014

27 Pressure and Solubility Pressure does not affect the solubility of solids or liquids, but there is a large effect with gases. The solubility of gas in a liquid is proportional to the pressure of the gas over the liquid. Sodas are canned under high pressure. When you open a can, the pressure decreases and bubbles form, releasing the excess gases. C14 Solutions Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc /18/2014

28 Your Turn! Under what conditions are gases most soluble in liquids? a.high temperature, high pressure b.high temperature, low pressure c.low temperature, high pressure d.low temperature, low pressure C14 Solutions Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc /18/2014

29 Saturated and Unsaturated Solutions Saturated solutions contain as much dissolved solute as the solvent will hold at a given temperature. Saturated solutions are always in equilibrium with undissolved solute. undissolved solute dissolved solute Any point on the solubility curve represents a saturated solution of that solute. Unsaturated solutions contain less solute than the amount needed to saturate the solution. C14 Solutions Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc /18/2014

30 Supersaturated Solutions Supersaturated solutions contain more solute than the amount needed to saturate the solution at a particular temperature. Supersaturated solutions are unstable – stirring, adding a crystal of solute – will cause the excess solute to come out of solution. C14 Solutions Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc /18/2014

31 Your Turn! C14 Solutions Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc What mass of this compound will dissolve at 30°C? a.5.0 g b.5.4 g c.5.8 g d.6.0 g 1/18/2014

32 Your Turn! C14 Solutions Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc g of solute is dissolved in 100 g of water at 60°C. The solution is allowed to cool to 25°C. No crystals form. The solution is: a.saturated b.unsaturated c.supersaturated 1/18/2014

33 Your Turn! The addition of a crystal sodium acetate to a sodium acetate solution causes additional crystals of sodium acetate to precipitate. The original solution was a.Saturated b.Supersaturated c.Unsaturated C14 Solutions Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc /18/2014

34 Rate of Dissolving Solids Particle Size A solid can dissolve only at the surface that is in contact with the solvent. Smaller crystals have a larger surface to volume ratio than large crystals. Smaller crystals dissolve faster than larger crystals. C14 Solutions Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc /18/2014

35 Surface Area C14 Solutions Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc /18/2014

36 Rate of Dissolving Solids Temperature Increasing the temperature increases the rate at which most compounds dissolve. This occurs because solvent molecules strike the surface of the solid more frequently, causing the solid to dissolve more rapidly. The dissolved solute particles are also carried away from the solid by the higher kinetic energy solvent molecules, allowing more solvent to hit the surface. C14 Solutions Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc /18/2014

37 Rate of Dissolving Solids Concentration of solution C14 Solutions Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc /18/2014

38 Rate of Dissolving Solids Agitation or Stirring Stirring rapidly distributes the dissolved solute throughout the solution, eliminating the saturated solution that forms at the surface of the solid. Moving dissolved solute away from the surface increases the contact between water molecules and the solid and increases the rate of dissolving. C14 Solutions Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc /18/2014

39 Your Turn! Which would most likely increase the solubility of a solid in water? a.Stirring b.Grind the solid to increase its surface area c.Increase the pressure d.Increase the temperature e.All of the above C14 Solutions Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc /18/2014

40 Solutions: A Reaction Medium Dissolving reactants allows them to come into solution. Combining two solids usually will not result in any significant reaction: KCl (s) + AgNO 3 (s) no reaction But if you dissolve those same reactants in water, the silver ion can collide with the chloride ion, resulting in solid AgCl. KCl (aq) + AgNO 3(aq) AgCl (s) + KNO 3(aq) C14 Solutions Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc /18/2014

41 Concentration of Solutions Qualitative expressions of concentration: A dilute solution contains a relatively small amount of dissolved solute. A concentrated solution contains a relatively large amount of solute. Hydrochloric acid is sold as a concentrated 12 M (moles/ L) solution. A dilute 0.1 M solution is commonly found in labs. C14 Solutions Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc /18/2014

42 Concentration of Solutions C14 Solutions Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc Quantitative expressions of concentration: 1/18/2014

43 Mass Percent Calculate the mass % NaCl in a solution prepared by dissolving 50. g NaCl in 150. g H 2 O. C14 Solutions Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc = 25% NaCl Knowns Calculate Solving for 50. g NaCl (solute) 150. g H 2 O (solvent) 50. g NaCl g H 2 O = 200. g mass of solution 1/18/2014

44 Mass Percent Calculate the mass of Na 2 CO 3 and water needed to make 350. g of a 12.3% solution. C14 Solutions Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc = 43.1 g Na 2 CO 3 Knowns Calculate Solving for 350. g solution 12.3% solution mass of solute (Na 2 CO 3 ) and mass of H 2 O mass of H 2 O = 350. g – 43.1 g = 307 g H 2 O 1/18/2014

45 Mass-Volume Percent Normal saline is a 0.90 m/v % NaCl solution. What mass of sodium chloride is needed to make 50. mL of normal saline? C14 Solutions Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc = 0.45 g NaCl Knowns Calculate Solving for 50. mL solution 0.90 m/v% solution mass of solute (NaCl) 1/18/2014

46 Volume Percent What volume of beer that is 6.0 % by volume alcohol contains 200. ml CH 3 CH 2 OH (ethyl alcohol)? C14 Solutions Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc mL EtOH Knowns Calculate Solving for 200. mL EtOH (solute) 6.0 volume % solution volume of solution volume of solution = 3.3 L beer 1/18/2014

47 Your Turn! A 20.0 % solution of KCl has a mass of 400. g. What mass of KCl is contained in this solution? a.20.0 g b.80.0 g c.320. g d.400. g C14 Solutions Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc /18/2014

48 Your Turn! A solution is prepared by mixing 20.0 mL of propanol with enough water to produce mL of solution. What is the volume percent of propanol in this solution? A % B % C % D % C14 Solutions Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc /18/2014

49 Molarity A 1.0 M KCl solution is prepared by dissolving 1.0 moles KCl in enough water to make 1.0 L of solution. C14 Solutions Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc /18/2014

50 Molarity Calculate the molarity of a solution prepared by dissolving 9.35 g KCl in enough H 2 O to make 250. mL solution. C14 Solutions Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc = M KCl Knowns Calculate Solving for 9.35 g KCl (solute) 250. mL solution 1/18/2014

51 Dilution Dilution: Adding solvent to a concentrated solution to make a more dilute solution. When you dilute a concentrated solution, only the volume of solution changes. The quantity of solute remains the same. Volume (V) × Molarity (M) = moles of solute C14 Solutions Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc V 1 × M 1 = V 2 × M 2 1/18/2014

52 Dilution How many milliliters of 12 M HCl are needed to make 500. mL of 0.10 M HCl? C14 Solutions Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc V 1 × M 1 = V 2 × M 2 Knowns Solving for 12 M HCl (concentrated solution) M M HCl (dilute solution) C mL (dilute solution) V 2 volume of 12 M HCl V mL of 12 M HCl Calculate 1/18/2014

53 Your Turn! What is the molarity of a solution in which 5.85 g of NaCl is dissolved in 200. mL of solution? a M b.1.00 M c.2.00 M d.4.00 M C14 Solutions Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc /18/2014

54 Your Turn! What is the molarity of the resulting solution when 300. mL of a M solution is diluted to 800. mL? a M b M c.1.07 M d.1.47 M C14 Solutions Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc /18/2014

55 Chapter 15 Foundations of College Chemistry, 13e John Wiley & Sons, Inc Morris Hein and Susan Arena Acids, Bases, and Salts Lemons and limes are examples of food which contains acidic solutions.

56 15.1 Acids and BasesAcids and Bases 15.2 Reactions of AcidsReactions of Acids 15.3 Reactions of BasesReactions of Bases 15.4 SaltsSalts 15.5 Electrolytes and NonelectrolytesElectrolytes and Nonelectrolytes 15.6 Dissociation and Ionization of ElectrolytesDissociation and Ionization of Electrolytes 15.7 Strong and Weak ElectrolytesStrong and Weak Electrolytes 15.8 Ionization of WaterIonization of Water 15.9 Introduction to pHIntroduction to pH Chapter Outline C15 Acids, Bases and Salts Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc /18/2014

57 Arrhenius Acids Metals to produce H 2 gas Bases to produce salt and water Carbonates to produce carbon dioxide C15 Acids, Bases and Salts Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc Definition: An acid solution contains an excess of H + ions. Properties 1.Sour taste 2.Turn blue litmus red 3.The ability to react with 1/18/2014

58 Arrhenius Bases C15 Acids, Bases and Salts Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc Definition: A base solution contains an excess of OH - ions. Properties 1.Bitter or caustic taste 2.Turn red litmus blue 3.Slippery, soapy feeling 4.Neutralize acids 1/18/2014

59 Your Turn! Which type of solution would have a sour taste and turn blue litmus red? a.Acid b.Base c.Salt C15 Acids, Bases and Salts Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc /18/2014

60 Reactions of Acids Acids react with metals that lie above H in the activity series: acid + metal salt + hydrogen 2HCl (aq) + Mg (s) MgCl 2(aq) + H 2(g) Acids react with bases (neutralization) acid + base salt + water 2HCl (aq) + Ca(OH) 2(aq) CaCl 2(aq) + 2H 2 O (l) C15 Acids, Bases and Salts Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc /18/2014

61 Reactions of Acids Acids react with metal oxides acid + base salt + water 2HCl (aq) + Na 2 O (s) 2NaCl (aq) + H 2 O (l) Acids react with metal carbonate acid + base salt + water + carbon dioxide 2HCl (aq) + Na 2 CO 3(aq) 2NaCl (aq) + H 2 O (l) + CO 2(g) C15 Acids, Bases and Salts Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc /18/2014

62 Reactions of Bases Bases can be amphoteric as base: Zn(OH) 2(aq) + 2HBr (aq) ZnBr 2(aq) + 2H 2 O (l) as acid: Zn(OH) 2(aq) + 2NaOH (aq) Na 2 Zn(OH) 4(aq) NaOH and KOH react with metals base + metal + water salt + hydrogen 2NaOH (aq) + 2Al(s) + 6H 2 O (l) 2NaAl(OH) 4(aq) + 3H 2 O (g) C15 Acids, Bases and Salts Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc /18/2014

63 Your Turn! What gas is produced by the reaction of sodium bicarbonate with acetic acid? a.Hydrogen b.Carbon dioxide c.Nitrogen d.Oxygen C15 Acids, Bases and Salts Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc /18/2014

64 Salts Salts are the result of acid-base neutralization reactions. HCl (aq) + NaOH (aq) NaCl (aq) + H 2 O (l) Salts are ionic compounds composed of a cation (usually a metal or the ammonium ion) and an anion (not oxide or hydroxide). Salts are usually crystals with high melting and boiling points. C15 Acids, Bases and Salts Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc /18/2014

65 Your Turn! What salt forms from the reaction of magnesium hydroxide and sulfuric acid? a.MgS b.Mg 2 S c.MgSO 4 d.Mg 2 SO 4 C15 Acids, Bases and Salts Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc /18/2014

66 Your Turn! What salt forms from the reaction of aluminum oxide and hydrobromic acid? a.AlBr b.AlBr 3 c.Al 2 Br d.Al 2 Br 3 C15 Acids, Bases and Salts Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc /18/2014

67 Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes Electrolytes are compounds whose aqueous solutions conduct electricity. Nonelectrolytes are substances whose aqueous solutions are nonconductors. C15 Acids, Bases and Salts Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc /18/2014

68 Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes It is the movement of ions that conduct electricity in water. Acids, bases and salts are electrolytes because they produce ions in water when they dissolve. C15 Acids, Bases and Salts Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc /18/2014

69 Dissociation of Electrolytes Salts dissociate into cations and anions when they dissolve in water. NaCl (s) Na + (aq) + Cl - (aq) C15 Acids, Bases and Salts Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc /18/2014

70 Ionization of Electrolytes Ionization is the formation of ions; it is the result of the chemical reaction with water. Acids ionize in water, producing hydronium ions and anions. HCl (g) + H 2 O (l) H 3 O + (aq) + Cl - (aq) H 3 PO 4(aq) + H 2 O (l) H 3 O + (aq) + H 2 PO 4 - (aq) Weak bases ionize in water, producing hydroxide ions and cations. NH 3(aq) + H 2 O (l) OH - (aq) + NH 4 + (aq) C15 Acids, Bases and Salts Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc /18/2014

71 Your Turn! Which will not dissociate when placed in water? a.KBr b.HCl c.CH 3 OH d.HClO 4 C15 Acids, Bases and Salts Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc /18/2014

72 Your Turn! A solution is tested with the conductivity apparatus and the light bulb did not light. Which of the following is not likely? a.The beaker contained only water. b.The beaker contained water and C 6 H 12 O 6. c.The beaker contained water and CaCl 2. d.All of the above are likely possibilities. C15 Acids, Bases and Salts Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc /18/2014

73 Strong and Weak Electrolytes Strong electrolytes are essentially 100% ionized in water (HCl). Weak electrolytes are much less ionized (HC 2 H 3 O 2 ). C15 Acids, Bases and Salts Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc /18/2014

74 Strong and Weak Electrolytes Use double arrowsto indicate weak ionization. HC 2 H 3 O 2(aq) + H 2 O (l) H 3 O + (aq) + C 2 H 3 O 2 - (aq) HF (aq) + H 2 O (l) H 3 O + (aq) + F - (aq) C15 Acids, Bases and Salts Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc /18/2014

75 Salts Salts dissociate into at least 2 ions. A 1M solution of NaCl produces a 2M solution of ions. NaCl (s) Na + (aq) + Cl - (aq) 1 mole1 mole + 1 mole A 1M solution of CaCl 2 produces a 3M solution of ions. CaCl 2(s) Ca 2+ (aq) + 2Cl - (aq) 1 mole1 mole + 2 mole C15 Acids, Bases and Salts Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc /18/2014

76 Your Turn! What is the concentration of chloride ion in a 2.0 M solution of calcium chloride? a.1.0 M b.2.0 M c.3.0 M d.4.0 M C15 Acids, Bases and Salts Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc /18/2014

77 Ionization of Water Pure water auto-ionizes H 2 O (l) + H 2 O (l) H 3 O + (aq) + OH - (aq) Concentration H 3 O + = Concentration OH - = 1×10 -7 M [H 3 O + ]×[OH - ] = In acid solutions, [H 3 O + ]>[OH - ] In basic solution, [H 3 O + ]<[OH - ] C15 Acids, Bases and Salts Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc /18/2014

78 Introduction to pH pH = -log[H + ] In pure water, [H + ] = 1×10 -7 M so pH = -log(10 -7 ) = 7 C15 Acids, Bases and Salts Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc high H + low OH - low H + high OH - 1/18/2014

79 pH C15 Acids, Bases and Salts Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc /18/2014

80 Your Turn! How many times more acidic is a solution with a pH of 3 than a solution with a pH of 5? a.2 b.20 c.200 d.100 C15 Acids, Bases and Salts Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc /18/2014

81 Introduction to pH pH = -log[H + ] C15 Acids, Bases and Salts Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc /18/2014

82 Introduction to pH Calculate the pH of a 0.015M H + solution. pH = - log (0.015) = 1.82 Note: The digits to the left of the decimal place in the pH (the characteristic of the log) reflect the power of ten in the [H + ]. In this case, the 1. The characteristic is NOT one of the significant figures in the pH. The number of decimal places for the mantissa of a log must equal the number of significant figures in the original number. C15 Acids, Bases and Salts Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc /18/2014

83 Your Turn! What is the pH of a M hydrochloric acid solution? a b.-2.0 c.1.70 d.1.7 e.-1.7 C15 Acids, Bases and Salts Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc /18/2014

84 Your Turn! What is the pH of a solution of sodium hydroxide that has a hydronium ion concentration of 2.5× ? a.11 b.10.6 c d C15 Acids, Bases and Salts Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc /18/2014


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