3 Characteristics of the very early hominins Using pages 306 – 320 of your CB book, create “recipe cards” to help you learn the biological and cultural evolution of the following fossils.Remember: you need to know TRENDS in the biological and cultural evolution of humans, however learning the names and features of each of the important fossils will help you put the picture together.
4 Characteristics of the very early hominins Sahelanthropus tchadensisAustralopithcus genusA. ramidus, A.anamensis, A. afarensis, A. AfricanusParanthropus genusP. aethiopcus, P. robustus, P. boiseiHomo genusH. Habilis, H. erectus (asian), H. ergaster (african), H. Heidelbergensis, H. neanderthalis, H.sapiens idaltu, H.sapiens
5 Cultural Evolution trends Sahelanthropus tchadensisLived in wooded areasMost of cultural evolution is pure speculationAustralopithecus groupOnly debatable evidence that they made tools, and no evidence that they had home bases or shared food. Probably opportunist feeders.Paranthropus genusSome evidence they used bones or perhaps sticks to dig up roots (this would leave no fossil evidence though)Evidence suggests robustus ate course, tough food supplemented by small insects.
6 Cultural evolution trends Homo genusDevelopment of speechEnabled by Broca’s area of the brain. First seen in H.habilis.Development of tool-makingH. habilis was known as the Handy man and made Oldowan tools.H. erectus used Acheulian tools and was known as the Fire maker.H.Neanderthalis used Mousterian tools and began to attach stone tools to handles.H. sapiens used advanced tools of flint and bone. Used blades and points. Called Upper Palaeolithic tools.
7 Cultural evolution trends Homo genusDevelopment of group living and cultureH. habilis – successful hunters, made shelters and lived in bands of about 12 peopleH. erectus - built shelters (huts) supported by wooden poles, serious co-operative huntersH. heidelbergensis – able to hunt large prey (rich diet led to increased size), were cannibals, built shelters and used fireH. neanderthalis – intelligent, lived in caves, built stone walls, dressed in hides, buried their dead, had strong social bonds.H. sapiens – skilled hunters, lived in large groups, engraved and painted on walls, carved statues etc
8 Cultural Evolution in Humans Can be defined as;Tools, books, writing, art, language, music, ritual etcIs passed down by teaching (oral or written)Is fast
9 The home base theoryAt some sites, concentrations of tools, stones from other areas and bones are found.This suggests that early hominins were not just carrying things around, but were focusing on one site as a home base.Adults hunted and left young behind, and then brought all produce back to be sharedSharing of food lead to complex societiesClearly defined by the time of Homo erectus
10 Communication Facial expressions important Speech Culture requires intelligence and communicationAreas of the brain essential for structure and sense of speechBroca’s area – concerned with speechWernicke’s area – concerned with comprehension of languageThe lower the voice box, the more sounds can be articulated.
11 Communication Singing and chanting Essential for remembering kinship lines and tribal historyBetter hearing and listening skills as a result of speechArt – drawings of pictures and symbols on cave walls, bone carvings, clay statues
12 Development of Agriculture Learning to cultivate a food-producing plant; not just gathering a naturally occurring plant.Domestication of animals – dogs, sheep, goats, pigs, cattleWhy start agriculture?Population expansionShortage of foodClimate changeNeed to be near a constant water supply
13 Development of Agriculture Disadvantages;Living close together means chances of diseases spreading is increasedDiet not as varied so could have suffered from malnutritionStored food could spoil
15 The Multiregional Theory Extending from the populations of H.erectus there were populations of humans living around the world, and all of these contributed to successive generations – eventually leading to modern humans.In other words – Homo sapiens evolved independently in several places around the world.
16 Predictions of Multiregional Transitional forms found in many placesModern traits should appear around the world simultaneouslyThere should be a high degree of diversity in humans as Homo sapiens is a very old species
17 Evidence for Multiregional Asian fossils show a clear transition from older hominid to modern H.sapiensThe oldest H.sapiens fossils outside Africa were in Australia, and are yrs old.Northern china fossils show no evidence that African features ever replaced the ancient Chinese in this regionInstead there is a smooth transformation of ancient peoples into the present populations of East Asia and the Americas.
18 Evidence of Multiregional Post-Neanderthal people in Europe show mixtures of modern and archaic African featuresMitochondrial DNA analysis is flawed because;Present-day patterns cannot show links that become extinctWhenever no daughters are produced the mitochondrial line dies out
19 Replacement – “Out of Africa” model Intial migration of early Homo, such as H.erectus, H.heidelbergensis and H.neanderthalis, did not contribute to modern humans, but there was a second wave of new humans out of Africa approx years ago.It was a fully modern H.sapiens that then replaced whatever populations then occupied Asia and Europe
20 Predictions of “Out of Africa” Transitional forms found mainly in AfricaModern traits found first in Africa and then later elsewhere as they spreadSince the species is young there should be little diversity
21 Evidence for “Out of Africa” Mitochondrial DNA shows high degree of similarity between all modern human populations that most likely occurred with the past – years agoThe oldest H.sapiens fossils have only been found in Africa, – years oldHumans arrived in Europe late – about years ago
22 Evidence for “Out of Africa” Mitochondrial DNA of Neanderthals, Cro-Magnons and 21st century Europeans that was compared and showed:Modern humans showed similarity with Cro-MagnonsModern humans showed no similarity with NeanderthalsMitochondrial DNA all lead back to Africa, showing that Africa is the place of origin for modern humans.Large levels of gene flow between continents would be required for multiregionalism (unlikely)
23 Evidence for “Out of Africa” Fossil evidence shows that moderns humans appeared in Africa before the Neanderthals had disappeared in Europe so could not be descendants of the Neanderthals