Stephen William Hawking (born 8 January 1942) is an English theoretical physicist and cosmologist, whose scientific books and public appearances have made him an academic celebrity.
He is an Honorary Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts, a lifetime member of the Pontifical Academy of Sciencesi In 2009 was awarded the Presidential Medal of freedom, the highest civilian award in the United States.
Hawking was the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge for thirty years, taking up the post in 1979 and retiring on 1 October 2009
He is also a Fellow of Gonville and Cais College Cambridge and a Distinguished Research Chair at the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics in Waterloo, Ontario
Early life and education Stephen Hawking was born on 8 January 1942 to Dr. Frank Hawking, a research biologist, and Isobel Hawking. He had two younger sisters, Philippa and Mary, and an adopted brother, Edward biologist
Though Hawking's parents were living in North London, they moved to Oxford while his mother was pregnant with Stephen, desiring a safer location for the birth of their first child North LondonOxford
Career in theoretical physics Almost as soon as he arrived at Cambridge, he started developing symptoms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis a type of motor neurone disease which would cost him almost all neuromuscular controlamyotrophic lateral sclerosismotor neurone disease
1975 Eddington MedalEddington Medal 1976 Hughes Medal of the Royal SocietyHughes MedalRoyal Society 1979 Albert Einstein MedalAlbert Einstein Medal 1981 Franklin MedalFranklin Medal
1982 Order of the British Empire (Commander)Order of the British Empire 1985 Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical SocietyGold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society 1986 Member of the Pontifical Academy of SciencesPontifical Academy of Sciences
1988 Wolf Prize in PhysicsWolf Prizein Physics 1989 Prince of Asturias Awards in ConcordPrince of Asturias Awards
1989 Companion of HonourCompanion of Honour 1999 Julius Edgar Lilienfeld Prize of the American Physical Society Julius Edgar Lilienfeld American Physical Society  2003 Michelson Morley Award of Case Western Reserve UniversityCase Western Reserve University
2006 Copley Medal of the Royal Society Copley MedalRoyal Society  2008 Fonseca Price of the University of Santiago de CompostelaFonseca PriceUniversity of Santiago de Compostela 2009 Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest civilian honour in the United StatesPresidential Medal of Freedom
A Brief History of Time (1991) A Brief History of Time Stephen Hawking's Universe (1997) Stephen Hawking's Universe Horizon: The Hawking Paradox (2005 Horizon
Masters of Science Fiction (2007) Masters of Science Fiction Stephen Hawking: Master of the Universe (2008) Stephen Hawking: Master of the Universe Into The Universe with Stephen Hawking(2010) Into The Universe with Stephen Hawking