Definition(s) of At Risk Several official definitions, often all different A problem – as this group’s number is expanding HISTORICALLY The term was coined in the early 1900s when students earned Carnegie units to graduate and in their junior year some were found “...at ‑ risk of dropping out of school prior to completion of the official number of Carnegie Units.”
Definition (cont) The National At-Risk Education Network defines "at-risk" youth as: At-risk of dropping out of school; At-risk of not succeeding in life due to being raised in unfavorable circumstances. According to figures from the Children's Defense Fund, 1 of every 8 school children will not graduate This means that the population currently at- risk of dropping out could be as many as 6,680,625 children. The financial future of high school dropouts is grim.
Is there really a condition or is it… Students are placed at-risk when they experience a significant mismatch between their circumstances and needs, and the capacity or willingness of the school to accept, accommodate, and respond to them in a manner that supports and enables their maximum social, emotional and intellectual growth and development.
Is this a student at risk? Wears clothes that are inappropriate for the weather Cries excessively Engages in vandalism Falls asleep in school Arrives early and leaves late from school Is wary of physical contact
Is this a student at risk? Poor, erratic attendance Frequent complaints and visit to the nurse Regression (thumb sucking…) Emotional outbursts Equating any drinking with being drunk or alcohol Friendlessness, isolation
What can we do? If schools are to achieve the desired goal of success for all students, they must: hold high expectations for all, especially this growing segment of learners view these students as having strengths, not "deficits,” create environments of trust and respect in our classrooms adopt programs and practices that help all students to achieve their true potential. (Mediator Mentors utilizing peers) collaborate with your peers regarding resources and strategies
All Children Can Learn All children can learn, at some level, and most children, as Ronald Edmonds stated, can learn the basic curriculum if sufficient resources are provided. The fallacy, however, is the belief that all children can learn the same curriculum, in the same amount of time, and at the same level. Thomas & Brainbridge, 2001
What can we do? Teachers believe all students can succeed. They communicate this belief to their students. Schools, teachers, and instruction foster resiliency in children by building on students' strengths. (Resiliency is the ability to adapt and succeed despite risk and adversity.)resiliency Administrators provide leadership in managing change to improve learning for all students. Administrators and teachers are committed to continued professional development to improve teaching and learning for all students.
Resiliency Resilience is important because it is the human capacity to face, overcome and be strengthened by or even transformed by the adversities of life. Everyone faces adversities; no one is exempt. With resilience, children can triumph over trauma; without it, trauma (adversity) triumphs. The crises children face both within their families and in their communities can overwhelm them.
Resiliency In your own life think of your: I HAVE I AM I CAN
Three Sources of Resiliency I HAVE People around me I trust and who love me, no matter what People who set limits for me so I know when to stop before there is danger or trouble People who show me how to do things right by the way they do things People who want me to learn to do things on my own People who help me when I am sick, in danger or need to learn I AM A person people can like and love Glad to do nice things for others and show my concern Respectful of myself and others Willing to be responsible for what I do Sure things will be all right
Three Sources of Resiliency I CAN Talk to others about things that frighten me or bother me Find ways to solve problems that I face Control myself when I feel like doing something not right or dangerous Figure out when it is a good time to talk to someone or to take action Find someone to help me when I need it ADULTS NEED TO PROMOTE RESILIENCE IN CHILDREN
BULLYING Both the Bully and the Victim are at risk http://takeastand.stopbullying.gov/kids /webisodes/default.aspx
What is bullying? "A person is bullied when he or she is exposed, repeatedly and over time, to negative actions on the part of one or more other persons, and he or she has difficulty defending himself or herself." This definition includes three important components: 1. Bullying is aggressive behavior that involves unwanted, negative actions. 2. Bullying involves a pattern of behavior repeated over time. 3. Bullying involves an imbalance of power or strength.
Bullying “Being bullied is not just an unpleasant rite of passage through childhood,” said Duane Alexander, M.D., director of the NICHD. “It’s a public health problem that merits attention. People who were bullied as children are more likely to suffer from depression and low self esteem, well into adulthood, and the bullies themselves are more likely to engage in criminal behavior later in life.”
Types of Bullying 1. Verbal bullying including derogatory comments and bad names 2. Bullying through social exclusion or isolation 3. Physical bullying such as hitting, kicking, shoving, and spitting 4. Bullying through lies and false rumors 5. Having money or other things taken or damaged by students who bully 6. Being threatened or being forced to do things by students who bully 7. Racial bullying 8. Sexual bullying 9. Cyber bullying (via cell phone or Internet)
Cyberbullying Being cruel to others by sending or posting harmful material using technological means; an individual or group that uses information and communication involving electronic technologies to facilitate deliberate and repeated harassment or threat to an individual or group.
Cyberbulllying E-mail Cell phones Pager text messages Instant messaging Defamatory personal web sites Defamatory online personal polling web sites Chat rooms “Categories” Inadvertent Vengeful Angel Mean Girls Power-Hungry Revenge of the Nerds Parry Aftab. Esq., Executive Director, WiredSafety.org
Differences Bullying DIRECT Occurs on school property Poor relationships with teachers Fear retribution Physical: Hitting, Punching & Shoving Verbal: Teasing, Name calling & Gossip Nonverbal: Use of gestures & Exclusion www.stopbullyingnow.hrsa.gov Cyberbullying ANONYMOUS Occurs off school property Good relationships with teachers Fear loss of technology privileges Further under the radar than bullying Emotional reactions cannot be determined
Information about bullying suggests that there are three interrelated reasons why students bully. 1. Students who bully have strong needs for power and (negative) dominance. 2. Students who bully find satisfaction in causing injury and suffering to other students. 3. Students who bully are often rewarded in some way for their behavior with material or psychological rewards.
Bullying Statistics 2007 stats - 77% of students say they were bullied 23% of elementary students California one of the worst 5 states Bullying statistics shows that those who bully and are bullied appear to be at greatest risk of experiencing the following: loneliness; trouble making friends; lack of success in school; and involvement in problem behaviors such as smoking and drinking.
When Bullying Has Happened For the Student Who Was Bullied Check in regularly with the student who was bullied Determine whether the bullying still continues Provide a supportive environment Review the school rules and policies with the student to ensure they are aware of their rights and protection Consider referring them for professional or other service For the Student Who Bullied Others Identify the behavior Review the school rules and policies with the student Ask for positive change in future behavior Consider referring them for professional or other services as appropriate Consider appropriate graduated consequences Encourage the student to channel their influence and behavior into positive leadership roles Monitor and check in frequently
When Bullying Has Happened For Bystanders Encourage them to talk with you Review the school rules and policies with the students Discuss with bystanders how they might intervene and/ or get help next time Acknowledge students who took action to stop the bullying For the Parents of the Students Involved Describe the incident Review the school rules and policies with the parents Describe the intervention measures taken as appropriate Develop a plan to follow up
Bullying Prevention Website http://www.stopbullyingnow.hrsa.gov/kids/http://www.stopbullyingnow.hrsa.gov/kids/ Website http://www.stopcyberbullying.org/index2.htmlhttp://www.stopcyberbullying.org/index2.html bullyBooklet www.jimwrightonline.com/pdfdocs/bully/bullyBooklet Agree as a school site how your school defines bully Confront the student about his/her behavior Compile a menu of appropriate consequences (teasing to harm) or positive reinforcement for appropriate behavior Establish a policy for contacting parents Teach skills to prevent “bully-targets”; assertiveness Train by-standers to be anti-bully agents
Case Studies: Take student and look through your Directory. Use form provided to document.
Reminder: CONFIDENTIALITY REMINDER!!! All students are protected: At risk Poor Homeless Bullies Bully Victims Abuse Victims Confer with your principal, peers, and principal. Refer when required. Students are involved as to be supported but not to confer regarding another student
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