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Making Sense of the Different Employment Visa-types Charter Morris International Programs Advisor University of Mississippi February, 22 2007.

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Presentation on theme: "Making Sense of the Different Employment Visa-types Charter Morris International Programs Advisor University of Mississippi February, 22 2007."— Presentation transcript:

1 Making Sense of the Different Employment Visa-types Charter Morris International Programs Advisor University of Mississippi February,

2 Two Main Categories of Visas Institution Sponsored Self-Petitioned

3 Institution Sponsored J-1 (Scholar/Professor; Short-term; and Specialist) H-1B TN – Trade NAFTA O-1 Permanent Residency

4 J-1 Scholar/Professor; Short-term; and Specialist

5 J-1 There are many J-1 Exchange Visitor Categories The three main Categories of institution sponsorship are: J-1 Research Scholar/Professor J-1 Short-Term Scholar J-1 Specialist Each category has special regulations and limitations

6 J-1 Basic Requirements Intent to pursue appropriate activity (such as research or teaching) Intent to return to home country (as determined by consular officer) Sufficient funding for program Appropriate background for program activity (i.e. the J-1 Visitor meets appropriate degree requirements) Adequate English proficiency (as determined by the host department or by the institution; suggested tests include the TOEFL or IELTS exams or at least a review of written and oral skills)

7 J-1 Research Scholar/Professor Cannot be a candidate for tenure Limited to 5-years of maximum stay Requires a minimum stay of 3 weeks Department pays no immigration filing fees University can sponsor Scholar/Professors who are self-funded or funded by outside agencies, funding can also be split between department and outside agency Perfect for temporary instructor positions or for research positions and for visiting professors on sabbatical

8 J-1 Scholar/ Professor 12-month bar 12-month bar- The 12-month bar prevents someone from becoming a J-1 Professor/ Research Scholar for 12 months following any previous J participation (including J-2 dependent status) No 12-month bar if the person is transferring from another J-1 sponsor, or if the person's presence in the US on a J program was less than six months, or if the person's presence was as a J-1 Short- Term Scholar.

9 J-1 Scholar/ Professor 24-month bar 24-month bar- The 24-month bar for repeat Professor/Research Scholar requires that there be a period of at least 24 months between each stay as a J-1 Professor or J-1 Research Scholar. The 24-month bar is not the same as the 212(e) Rule (2-year home residency requirement).

10 J-1 Short-Term Scholar Cannot hold a permanent position or be a candidate for tenure Limited to 6-months of maximum stay Department pays no immigration filing fees University can sponsor Scholar/Professors who are self-funded or funded by outside agencies, funding can also be split between department and outside agency Perfect for very short research projects or for visiting lecturers

11 Benefit of Short-Term Scholar There is no 12-month or 24-month bar for Short-Term Scholars to return as J-1 Research Scholars/Professor No minimum stay requirement

12 J-1 Specialist Cannot hold a permanent position or be a candidate for tenure Limited to 12-months of maximum stay Department pays no immigration filing fees Perfect for specialty occupations such as Coach or Athletic Trainer

13 J-1 Specialist Limitations Specialists are subject to the 12- month bar from beginning a J-1 Research Scholar/Professor program. Specialists are not subject to the 24-month bar.

14 How to sponsor a J-1 Institution must have SEVIS Authorization for J-1 Scholars/Professors, Short-Term Scholars, and/or Specialists RO/ARO will issue a DS-2019 to the incoming scholar Good to have a standard welcome letter and packet of information Incoming J-1 will pay SEVIS Fee and apply for J-1 Visa (changing status in the U.S. is possible)

15 DS-2019

16 J-1 Visa Stamp

17 H-1B Worker

18 H-1B Overview Can hold a permanent position and be a candidate for tenure Perfect for any permanent position or tenure-track position Limited to 6-years of maximum stay Job must require at least a bachelors degree

19 H-1B Overview Continued Has a minimum salary requirement (based on both the actual wages paid by the institution and the prevailing wage determined by the Department of Labor) Requires approval from US Citizenship and Immigration Services which can take several months unless Premium Processing is used

20 H-1B Filing Fees and Obligations Institution should pay filing fees: $190 I-129 Fee, $500 New Application Anti-Fraud Fee, and an optional $1000 Premium Processing Fee Department agrees to employ the international employee for the entire period requested on the H-1B application; early termination requires the department to pay the return flight costs for the employee

21 Filing and H-1B Main documents to file are the I-129 and an approved Labor Condition Application (ETA 9035) Must also submit all supporting documents from the intl employee Department must maintain a public inspection file, which includes the LCA, prevailing wage, actual wage, and proof of the posting of LCAs (even if done through an attorney)

22 H-1B Receipt Notice

23 H-1B I-797 Approval Notice

24 H-1B Approval Notice (I-94 Card)

25 TN – Trade NAFTA

26 TN Visa Cannot hold a permanent position or be a candidate for tenure No maximum for TN, but limited to 1-year increments of employment approval Only available to citizens of Canada and Mexico in certain areas of employment (Appendix 1603.D.1) Perfect for temporary and non- tenure instructor positions or for research positions

27 TN Applications Most TNs can be processed outside of the U.S. with a detailed letter of employment and proof that the job falls into the one of the areas of employment (Appendix 1603.D.1) For changes or extensions for TN within the U.S., institution pays filing fees for TN applicants within the United States: $190 I-129 Fee and an optional $1000 Premium Processing Fee

28 TN I-94

29 TN I-94 Back

30 O-1 Aliens of Extraordinary Ability

31 O-1 Can hold a permanent position and be a candidate for tenure Limited to 3-years of initial stay, with 1-year extensions possible Department pays filing fees: $190 I-129 Fee and an optional $1000 Premium Processing Fee Department agrees to employ the international employee for the entire period requested on the O-1 application; early termination requires the department to pay the return flight costs for the employee Requires a lot of paperwork and documentation from the department and applicant

32 Why Pursue O-1 H-1B is often much easier to file and to renew Primary use is for those who are ineligible for H-1B-status because of a 212(e) two year home residency requirement which cannot be waived or for those who have used the full six years of H-1B eligibility

33 What is involved in filing O-1 Uses the I-129 (like the H-1B), but does not require the prevailing wage and LCA form Documentation is much like the Permanent Residency – EB1 Outstanding Researcher/Professor Category According to 8 C.F.R. § (o)(5)(i), the institution must consult with an appropriate U.S. peer group and obtain a written advisory opinion regarding the nature of the work to be done and the O- 1 applicants qualifications for the position.

34 O-1 Approval Notice

35 O-1 Approval for Consular Processing

36 Permanent Residency: The Green Card

37 PR Basics Intl employee must hold a permanent position or be a candidate for tenure Requires a lot of paperwork and documentation from the department and applicant Perfect for any permanent position or tenure-track position; also perfect transition for H-1B employees who are nearing the end of their H-1B eligibility

38 Which PR Petitions Are Sponsored In most cases, Universities only sponsor PR Petitions that are based on employment EB-1 Outstanding Researcher/Professor EB-2 Advanced Degree Holders EB-2 Exceptional Ability in the Science, Arts, or Business EB-3 Professional or Skilled Worker

39 What it takes to file a PR For labor-based petitions such as the EB-2 and EB-3 categories, Institution must file through PERM with the Department of Labor (even if filing through and attorney) For the EB-1 Outstanding Researcher/ Professor category, PERM is not necessary

40 Filing PR – The I-140 After labor approval with PERM for EB-2 or EB-3 categories or when intl employee has submitted all evidence for an EB-1 Outstanding Researcher/ Professor case, institution can file an I-140 Petition for Alien Worker I-140 filing fee is $195

41 Other steps for PR For those employees who are getting their PR in the U.S., they must file the I-485 Application to Register Permanent Residence or Adjust Status and supporting documents UM does not process the I-485 or other forms for employees nor pay for the filing fees, though we will submit the forms (such as with concurrent filing)

42 I-140 Approval Notice

43 I-485 Approval Notice

44 Permanent Resident Card (Green Card)

45 Self-Petitioned Categories

46 Self-Petitioned Employment B-1/B-2 or Visa Waiver F-1 OPT F-1 CPT J-1 Student Academic Training EAD Employment Authorization Cards Permanent Residency (non labor- based)

47 Visitors Visa: B-1/B-2 or Visa Waiver

48 Cannot hold any kind of position of employment Institution pays no immigration filing fees Stay is limited Can receive honorarium and reimbursement for travel expenses in limited circumstances Perfect for a guest lecturer or contractor coming to a school for less than 9 total days

49 B-1/B-2 Visa Stamp

50 B-1 I-94 Card

51 B-1/B-2 Visa Card

52 Visa Waiver – WB/WT

53 F-1 Optional Practical Training

54 F-1 OPT Can hold a permanent position and be a candidate for tenure Limited to 1-year of authorization, work must be in a field related to the students major Primarily used by recent college graduates F-1 student must have the employment authorization card before beginning work Perfect as a transition work authorization, F-1 OPT holders can change status to J-1, O-1, or H-1B

55 Filing for OPT Benefits F-1 student must file for the OPT with his/her College or University F-1 student files an I-765 along with an I-20 requesting OPT authorization Institution pays no immigration filing fees

56 OPT Card

57 F-1 I-20 with OPT Authorization

58 F-1 Visa Stamp

59 F-1 I-94

60 F-1 Curricular Practical Training

61 Should NOT hold a permanent position or be a candidate for tenure No maximum for CPT, but limited to 1-year of authorization at a time CPT must be done during degree program Work must be in a field related to the students major Primarily used by students to fulfill practicum or internship requirements Perfect for internships and short-term research

62 Curricular Practical Training Authorization F-1 student must file for CPT Authorization with his/her College or University F-1 student must have the CPT Authorization on his/her I-20 before beginning work Institution pays no immigration filing fees

63 Page 1 of I-20 with CPT Authorization

64 Page 3 of I-20 with CPT Authorization

65 J-1 Academic Training

66 Can hold a permanent position and be a candidate for tenure Limited to 18-months of authorization (36- months for a postdoctoral researcher), work must be in a field related to the students major Primarily used by recent college graduates, can also be used by students to fulfill practicum or internship requirements Perfect as a transition work authorization, some J-1 Academic Training holders can change status to O-1 or H-1B

67 Filing for Academic Training J-1 student must file for the Academic Training with his/her College or University J-1 student must have Academic Training approval on institution that sponsored the DS-2019 before beginning work Academic training does not show on the DS The RO/ARO has to approve the training in the form of a letter Institution pays no immigration filing fees

68 EAD Employment Authorization Card

69 Employment Authorization Document EAD Cards can be issued for many different reasons. Common authorization areas are: F-1 OPT J-2 Employment Authorization Pending PR Adjustment Asylee Refugee

70 EAD Validity EAD Cards are only valid for work for the dates printed on a card. Work must stop when the card ends. Renewals and extensions of cards are only valid for work when the new card has been received (not with a receipt notice or notification)

71 EAD Card

72 Permanent Residency Not Based On Employment

73 PR Self-Petitioned In PR cases that are not based on employment, the international employee can self-petition Common areas for self-petitioned cases: National Interest Waiver (EB-1) Marriage Relation to a U.S. Citizen or Permanent Resident Diversity Visa Lottery

74 Important Web Resources USCIS (contains info on all visa types and petitions) – SEVIS - https://egov.ice.gov/sevis/https://egov.ice.gov/sevis/ J-1 Information - pes/types_1267.html pes/types_1267.html F-1 Information - pes/types_1268.html pes/types_1268.html

75 Important Web Resources Case Status Page - https://egov.immigration.gov/cris/js ps/index.jsp https://egov.immigration.gov/cris/js ps/index.jsp Visa Bulletin (for PR) - tin/bulletin_1360.html tin/bulletin_1360.html Foreign Labor Certification (For LCAs, PERM, Etc.) - ov/ ov/

76 Important Web Resources Online Wage Library (for determining prevailing wages) - WizardStart.aspx WizardStart.aspx Visa Policy - sapolicy/index.html sapolicy/index.html

77 Any questions?


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