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CAD and Models If 4-D is good then, 5-D must be better

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Presentation on theme: "CAD and Models If 4-D is good then, 5-D must be better"— Presentation transcript:

1 CAD and Models If 4-D is good then, 5-D must be better
Construction Superconference San Francisco, CA December 2005

2 Agenda Traditional Drafting and Design Two Dimensional CAD
Modeling and Three Dimensional CAD Visualization Models Four Dimensional CAD (Time) Five Dimensional CAD (Resources) New Issues Resulting from 3D+ Tools Resulting Contract Issues

3 New Issues Contract issues/roles and responsibilities
Owner, Designer & Constructor Perspectives Means and Methods Bid Packages and Schedules/Resources Safety Coordination Shop Drawing Integration Progress Input Record Drawings

4 Drafting and Design What’s an “ortho(graphic)”?
aka “floor plan”; “layout” End presentation over to Mitch on electronic data problems

5 Drafting and Design What’s a P&ID?
Process & Instrumentation Drawing (Diagram) End presentation over to Mitch on electronic data problems

6 Drafting and Design What’s an “iso(metric)”? “spool” drawing.
End presentation over to Mitch on electronic data problems

7 3D CAD – Project Benefits
Design Multi-discipline design environment Consistency of design data Automatic deliverable production Construction Clash detection during design Visualisation Construction status Operations and maintenance Effective data handover Online visualisation Maintain design integrity

8 3D, 4D, nD 3D facilitates Adding the 4th ‘D’ - time offers
Communication, Collaboration, Development of reusable data; Faster decision making for every stakeholder Adding the 4th ‘D’ - time offers build-ability checking, workflow planning, creates process change Planner talking to Designer Adding costs, risk, etc (5+D?) brings in more stakeholders, more ‘points of view’ but lessens the chance for future conflicts. Single building model

9 Benefits from Owner’s Perspective
Building Information Modeling (“BIM”) technology promotes efficiency and schedule compression Enables integrated planning, design, detailing, cost control Eliminates inaccurate as-built documentation and inconsistent design quality Ensure better communication, design delivery and coordination Improves cost predictability Shift in project delivery by eroding distinctions between planning, design, and construction. Post-construction efficiencies (maintenance)

10 Benefits from Owner’s Perspective
Considered the founder of the biotechnology industry, Genentech has been delivering on the promise of biotechnology for almost 30 years, using human genetic information to discover, develop, commercialize and manufacture biotherapeutics that address significant unmet medical needs. Today, Genentech is among the world's leading biotech companies, with multiple products on the market for serious or life-threatening medical conditions and over 30 projects in the pipeline.

11 Benefits from Owner’s Perspective
Genentech’s ~$600MM plant expansion incorporated 3D modeling of primarily two buildings: 390,000 SF manufacturing facility (3 floors and a fourth floor pop-up) 110,000 SF support building 220,000 feet of piping (~60% utility/dirty, 40% process/clean) 155,000 feet modeled, 50,000 feet field routed (small diameter), 15,000 feet in pre-built modules Hundreds of pieces of major equipment (modules, skids, tanks, pumps, etc.)

12 Benefits from Owner’s Perspective
Project also includes 48,000 SF Warehouse expansion 3,000 SF Utility Plant expansion Utility Yard expansion Many equipment/module vendors providing 3D models for input into project model



15 Benefits from Owner’s Perspective
GNE is using model as construction tool (3D only, not as scheduling tool) Model is not updated for changes post-isometric issue Owner concerns: Level of detail in model may necessitate “manual” changes to isometrics generated from model Not all equipment/module vendors use same 3D package; results are semi-compatible – no assembly details are available in model



18 Benefits from Owner’s Perspective
3D modeling is now standard on large projects and is a “proven” technology Genentech would like to see results of a 4D or 5D pilot prior to implementation on upcoming projects

19 Potential Pitfalls Owner Acceleration
Deficiencies in Current Standard Contracts Delay Claims New Default/Termination Issues Insurability

20 Owner Views Construction Users Round Table (CURT)
Owner-led collaborative project teams Integrated project structure Open, timely, and reliable information sharing Requirement for use of BIM Source: CURT WP 1202 – “Collaboration, Integrated Information, and the Project Lifecycle in Building Design, Construction and Operation” (August, 2004)

21 CURT’s VISION Owners fully engaged in the virtual design process
Owners empowered to make informed decisions early Virtual design, fabrication, and construction become the standard approach for building. Information flows quickly, effectively and freely amongst project participants Project participants share a stake in the outcome and shares in the resulting rewards Digital information flows throughout the life of project Building infrastructure systems designed concurrently with architecture

22 Architect’s View AIA Response to CURT
Need for full information sharing among design professionals and contractors Identify tools to facilitate transfer between disciplines Contracts need to redefine roles and responsibilities of owner, design disciplines and contractors Novel concept of complete and early integration to work impacts Design Professionals’ responsibilities Traditional contracts necessarily create compartmentalization Need for contractually specified “Integrated Project Delivery Team” with defined roles

23 Architect’s View AIA Response to CURT (cont’d)
Risk Management Insurability of risks attenuated with new delivery models Owner’s acceptance of greater risk of integrated project’s design Owner’s sharing of rewards of a project more broadly among contributors. Interoperability Current tools do not provide complete translations of the useful data Information lost in the exchange from one BIM program to another No one application can handle all tasks required by a building project

24 Issues in Implementation
Intra-team Platform Compatibility Platforms imposed by… Owner Designer Builder ‘Standards’ imposed by… ‘Platform’ Limitations – Software\Hardware Insulation, clearances, tolerances, ancillary services Speed, ‘viewer’ v. ‘interactive’ v. ‘collaborative’ tools Operating systems (WINTEL, Unix, Linux, Open Source)

25 Issues in Implementation If the approach is directed by the…
Owner Possible software, support and training investment ($$$) Possible interoperability issues with designers or builders (flexibility) On-going maintenance, upgrade and training (‘legacy’ issues) Designer\Builder Different ‘drivers’ than Owner (short view : long view) Possible interoperability issues Database management approach

26 Implementation Is there some standard?
Why develop standards? Don’t these already exist? Organization specific – quality and efficiency Project specific – communication and consistency Industry specific – common language What’s in a CAD Standard? As little or as much information as necessary to make CAD work more productive! Manipulating, editing and transferring drawings Layers or levels Symbols (Legend) Special customization Data Exchange Format File and Project Organization

27 Industry Efforts at Standardization The National CAD Standard
The National CAD Standard Version 3.1: comprised of… CAD Layer Guidelines by the American Institute of Architects (AIA) Uniform Drawing System by the Construction Specifications Institute (CSI) Tri-Service Plotting Guidelines by the US Department of Defense Drawing Set Organization: Module 01 Sheet Organization: Module 02 Schedules: Module 03 Drafting Conventions: Module 04 Terms & Abbreviations: Module 05 Symbols: Module 06 Notations: UDS Module 07 Code Conventions: Module 08 Identifies types of general regulatory information that should appear on drawings, locates code-related information in a set of drawings, and provides standard graphic conventions. Can be a tool to expedite code review by designers and plan review authorities.

28 So who’s on board with this?
Adopted the National CAD Standard A. Epstein & Sons International, Inc. AMEC, Inc. AMES A/E Architects & Engineers Architects Hawaii Ltd. Bhargava International, Inc. Burgess & Niple CBA Architects, PC CH2M Hill, Inc. Chicago Transit Authority Clark Nexsen Davis & Floyd, Inc. Dean and Dean/Associates Dietz & Company Architects, Inc. Duke Energy Corporation FedEx Ford Motor Company General Motors HDR (Hennington, Durham & Richardson) Helman Hurley Charvat Peacock/Architects, Inc. HOK (Hellmuth, Obata + Kassabaum) Intel Jacobs Engineering Group LEO A. DALY Company Little and Associates Architects Los Alamos National Laboratories MTA Bridges and Tunnels Murphy/Jahn Architects Nextel Communications National Institute of Health Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, Inc. Richard Meier and Partners RTKL Associates Sandia National Laboratories Skidmore, Owings & Merrill Simon Property Group Syska Hennessy Group, Inc. TSP, Inc. University at Buffalo University of Indiana UPS U.S. General Services Administration U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Wilson & Company, Inc., Engineers & Architects

29 GSA Requirements – 2006 PBS Buildings and Real Estate Services: specialized information technologies to design, document, manage and monitor facilities. Building Information Modeling (BIM) 3D parametric modeling software with an underlying database. Computer Integrated Facility Management (CIFM) Integrated technology and processes supporting facility management and real estate services. Computer Aided Facility Management (CAFM) calculation of building area and tracking of space classifications. Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS) Manages scheduled and on-request building maintenance. Electronic Document Management System (EDMS) manages the documents associated with facility design and management. Geographic Information System (GIS) Source: GSA Public Building Service CAD Standards (March 25, 2004);

30 GSA Requirements – 2006 Time is now Mandate: GSA pilot projects
GSA BIM requirement effective fiscal year 2006 (which began in October 2005) Mandate: Architects use IFC (Industry Foundation Classes)-based building models through final concept All schematic design submittals must be in BIM format GSA pilot projects 9 pilot projects through 2005 Indicated that discrete problems can be solved quickly in 3D BIM automates space measurement Not requiring complete BIM implementation Using model to check designs against program requirements and cost estimates Source: GSA Public Building Service CAD Standards (March 25, 2004);

31 Standard Contract Clauses - Caveat Emptor
Standardized forms protective of Owner and Engineer Data/Electronic information historically originates with Design Professional Risk of use is borne on the contractor unless otherwise specified Example – Engineers Joint Contract Documents Committee provision: “A. Copies of data furnished by Owner or Engineer to Contractor or Contractor to Owner or Engineer that may be relied upon are limited to the printed copies (also known as hard copies). Files in electronic media format of text, data, graphics, or other types are furnished only for the convenience of the receiving party. Any conclusion or information obtained or derived from such electronic files will be at the user’s sole risk. If there is a discrepancy between the electronic files and the hard copies, the hard copies govern. ” Source: EJCDC C-700 Standard General Conditions of the Construction Contract, 2002 Edition, Subparagraph 3.06 – Electronic Data

32 New Contract Requirements
Express “Data Exchange” Addendum to general contract Clear definitions of ownership, management and security responsibilities of the information transfer Responsibilities for software & system compliance Promote, not impede collaboration One party tapped to manage the exchange process, responsible solely to coordinate notifications Define specific documents to be accepted electronically (drawings, models, shop drawings, change orders, RFIs, etc.) Methods of maintaining version control and a depository of all versions, during and after project Reciprocal indemnity obligations for failures and violations Determination of insurance and bonding requirements

33 The model in the context of the project
As a part of the contract… The model becomes a deliverable with a due date and a ‘completion’ date. Model’s ‘construction’ must meet the Standard of Care ‘normally practiced’ within the profession – perfection is not expected. As a source point for other drawings, the model’s quality ripple’s through other documents. When used in asset management, the impact of an error reaches further and lives beyond a single project. End presentation over to Mitch on electronic data problems

34 Industry Acceptance and Application of Technology
Industrial, Process and Infrastructure Projects with… Complex systems and components; Multiple participants; specialized, critical and sometimes hazardous uses have fostered the growth of 3D+ CAD applications. The cost of failure can be tremendous and potentially dangerous. Commercial, Residential and Retail Projects… Greater pressure on ‘cost of delivery’ and its impact on ROI; less complex systems; more ‘standardized’ construction and components. The value of the job is in the cost of the job and ‘typical’ built components make for easier execution.

35 Working in the Third Dimension
Time is Money – Money is Time The NIST report (USA) of August 2004 gave a figure of $15.8 Billion wasted by US construction industry through poor collaboration and coordination on project.

36 Impact on Traditional Roles
CMs and Contractors Migrate into Designing Opportunity to offer “constructability” services (CDs) to owners and designers Design Professionals used as “design intent” consultants during the constructability phase Narrows role of designer to aesthetic and programming piece Increased CM Responsibilities Contracted by Owners to collect information from all consultants & designers Construct Owner’s BIM to minimizing errors and omissions in the field Minimizing impact on traditional design firms who can submit 2D drawings as they always have Or Design Professionals Take control assume responsibility for being building information managers leveraging BIM as a way of consolidating the information into a comprehensive database Deliver database to Owner after project for building operation and maintenance

37 Cultural Changes for Widespread Implementation
Collaborative design process is novel Change in the traditional notion that control of design is in the hands of the design professional Information provided by design professionals was traditionally limited to design intent only BIM adds new electronic construction data provided by design professionals in their models New information involves architects in means & methods, quantities and construction execution Blurs traditional lines of responsibility

38 Consistency of Design Data
Data exchange with other systems IP&ID data transfer to 3D CAD model Pipe stress analysis Material management system Sub contractor interfaces Specification and parametric driven design Enforces standards & methodology Utilizes standard specs and catalogues

39 Automatic deliverable production
Orthographics (Plans & Sections) Isometric and Field Fabrication drawings Equipment Arrangements (Layouts) Bill of Materials (Material Take-Off’s) Reports (Clash Check, Line Lists, I/O, Valves, Devices, etc)

40 Operations and Maintenance
More effective data transfer (turnover packages) Interface to operation systems Electronic Data Management Systems - EDMS ERPs (SAP, Oracle), ‘Smart’ Drawings (PDS database, INTools)/EDMS Ongoing modifications See CA/IFM, CMMS, EAM On-line visualization Communicate Design Intent Maintain design integrity – consistency of approach thru life of the project.

41 New Issues on the horizon… Things grow curioser and curioser
Performance-based Delivery Modular construction Superskids New ‘ownership’ models Lease? Rent? Outsource? Sustainable Design (Green Buildings) LEED (USGBC); BREEAM (UK) Could it lead to DBOT/DBOM at the commercial scale? ‘brownfield’ development Carbon Trading ISO 14000 Integrated Delivery Process

42 Code Anxiety ENR, July 18th – Mysteries of Building Codes; “Designers fear future collapse from misinterpretation or miscalculation” ENR, July 11th – “Maturing Visualization Tools Make Ideas Look Real”

43 Thanks for Coming! Our Speakers: Gary A. Wilson, Esquire
John W. Dornberger, Esquire E. Mitchell Swann, P.E. Robert C. McCue, P.E. Kim Bullock Slides available for download at

44 Contact Us! MDCSystems® Robert C. McCue, P.E.
E. Mitchell Swann, P.E., LEED AP 300 Berwyn Park, Suite 115 Berwyn PA 19312 T

45 Contact Us! Post & Schell PC Gary Wilson, Esquire
John Dornberger, Esquire Four Penn Center 1600 John F. Kennedy Boulevard Philadelphia, PA 19103 T

46 Contact Us! Genentech, Inc. Kim Bullock Process Engineer 1 DNA Way
South San Francisco, CA 94080 T

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